say, what's unique, hunter project for submarines, released a series of good and do not represent anything special? Ship ship.
And here and there. In order not to "keep the affair", I should say, something unique in the ship.
1. LMC project 194 It was designed by a woman.
2. Ships built in besieged Leningrad under her guidance.
3. The project was more than good, as evidenced by the fighting.
Now let's go in order.
To begin, probably, It stands with the destruction of an old sea postulate, which states, the woman on the ship unfortunately. Can, it is so, but in any case, even in the sea, there are exceptions.
Meet, Alexander Nykolaevna Donchenko (1910—1983).
Engineer Captain 1 rank, head of the group of designers of military ships and submarines. Candidate of Technical Sciences. The only woman in the USSR, He graduated from the Naval Academy.
Probably, it means a lot: born in a family shipbuilder, and even in Nikolaev. having a grandfather, father and older brother of Civil Engineers ships, another way to think hard. And so it happened. Alexandra Nikolaevna graduated from Nikolaev Shipbuilding Institute and began work on the construction of submarines.
The academy came after Donchenko, as, received a commendation from the People's Commissar Kliment Voroshilov, I approached him with a personal request for admission to the Naval Academy.
Well-known hangman and Stalinist toady Voroshilov, which the, the assurances of many "historians", nothing for the country did, This time was a blunder. And instead of, as it is necessary to, rot in the dungeons of talented korablestroitelnitsu, not only helped with a resolution, but also drew the attention of intelligent people for young professionals.
Smart people - it And. n. Krylov, YU. A. Szymanski and P. F. Papkovich. At all, enough Aleksei Nikolaevich Krylov, torch shipbuilding. But Papkovich and Szymanski - names with a capital letter. It owes it to those Donchenko, that her undoubted talent has played all the colors.
but came 1941 year. The Great Patriotic War. And then the saddest page in the history of Leningrad - blockade.
In summer 1942 the command of the Baltic Fleet poses challenge to shipbuilders of the city - in the shortest possible time to create a high-speed, heavily armed armored boat, able to operate against enemy submarines, to participate in the landings and in escorting ships.
this ship, basically, It was. Chaser MO-4. However, experience has shown, that the boats do not have enough security, Wooden hunters became easy prey aircraft, armed with machine guns.
Considering, position in which was locked in the Gulf Fleet, such ships should have a lot of. Not a secret, that large ships out to sea was blocked by huge minefields, who put all, who could: Finns, Kriegsmarine, Luftwaffe.
meanwhile, repeat, outside 1942 year. Design and the more, to build a ship in a lack of all - it is a risky task. Not enough metal, do not have enough equipment, not enough people, not enough energy. AND, Nevertheless, task was accomplished. The project of an armored sea hunter (BMO) It was developed in just 15 days by a team of designers led by Donchenko.
Then heroism not only in the hearts, but also in the minds of.
Not enough skilled workers and electricity? Nothing, ship designed with simplified contours straight, simplify the entire structure. At the same time eliminating the hot metal bending, that in the besieged city was impossible to implement.
There were not enough machines? Representatives of the City Party Committee went to the factories, collecting the necessary equipment.
Hunter's hull was divided into three blocks, and performs welding. On average it (armored) conning tower portion and armor plates went, designed for light tanks. That is, the armor thickness is from 8 to 12 mm, but it was better, than nothing.
lead ship Launching held 5 November 1942 year when 95% readiness.
Sea trials of the LMC took place in the Gulf of Finland in late November 1942 of the year. However, since the Gulf raised the ice, that the state testing program before the end of 1942 the year could not be completed, finished next spring.
So battle your way ships series began in the LMC 1943 year.
Hunter was a very versatile and useful boat. Ships chasing enemy submarines, They met and accompanied his submarine, We lay mines, trawled enemy mines, planted and maintained landings.
Generally, virtually the entire war on the water in the Baltic were boats, small ships and submarines.
For me, it will forever remain a secret, how to 1943-45 years under blockade, Leningrad built (Attention!) 66 (SIXTY SIX) ships. Yes, part was launched in 1945, after the blockade. Nevertheless, This is another feat of the people, which is difficult to comprehend, not imagine that.
I, honestly, somehow I can not. Unheated and poorly lit shop, in which people are falling from hunger collect ships. warships, which then go to sea and fight with the enemy.
But with ships, as with aircraft, there are nuances. They, Unlike tanks and other surface equipment, We must act in a different environment. Mistakes are often fatal.
Nevertheless, the ship was. Of the 66 hunters (Yes, We took part in the war, not all) during the war killed 9. And the lion's share of BMO we lost when trawling minefields and wiring through the minefields.
Mines have been lost 6 ships. Two were killed by artillery fire of the enemy when landing 14.02.1944 g. near Merekyula.
one ship (BMO-524 "Baltiec") provided trawling in the Gulf of Narva 4 August 1944 of the year, He was attacked 24 S-87 and 8 FV-190. Crew was shot down (reliably confirmed) 1 S-87 aircraft, but the ship of bomb explosions was considerable damage and sank.
Now go through the ship.
TTX LMC project 194:
displacement - 55,2 t.
Length - 24,8 m.
width - 4,2 m.
Draft - 1,6 m.
engines: two petrol "Packard" engine, power 2400 hp, gasoline engine "ZIS-5", power 68 HP.
full speed - 26 knots.
Cruising range - 1330 miles.
crew - 22 people.
— 45-21km mm gun - pc;
— 37-mm anti-aircraft gun 70-K - 1 PC;
— 12,7-mm coaxial machine gun DSK- 2 PC;
— two release gear, 16 depth charges "BB-1" or 10 minefields type "CB".
Hydrophones types "Cepheus" or "Tamir", sonar "Dragon".
— the board in the area of the engine compartment - 10 mm;
— deck over the engine compartment - 8 mm; cabin wall - 12 mm;
— cabin roof - 8 mm.
inside the deckhouse:
Not much happened, but this connection tube with the engine room. orally, so to speak.
interesting design, Yes? Actually (I do not know, as it is called in the slang of the sea) it is for the signal flags. That rises to the mast.
Sunroof felling. There compass repeater and the second machine gun mount.
The hatch in the engine room. Lantern was not, because not climbed.
For the creation and construction of ships of the project 194 Alexandra Nikolaevna Donchenko was awarded the Order of the Red Star. Military orders for warship - think, rightly. While considering, conditions in which all happened, and the Order of the Red Banner would be perfectly approached.
Well, the medal "For the Defense of Leningrad". Negusto, of course, but the engineer-captain 1 rank Donchenko, I do not think, that was in the claims. While not for the awards people worked. After the war, she was involved in many projects. The peak of her work was the participation in the creation of a nuclear submarine K-27 as the primary supervising specialist.
He left us Aleksandra Nikolaevna still 1983 year.
But in the UMMC military equipment museum in Upper Pyshma well worth a full-size mock-up of the project created by LMC 194. Perfectly, that he is, because even if the layout, let the Urals, but it is primarily a magnificent monument and remarkable woman, Alexandra Nikolaevna shipbuilder Donchenko, and shipbuilders blockade Leningrad.
Here's how, tell, not love then going to the museum? Often, for each exhibit - History. and difficult.