The first and last president of the USSR M.S. Gorbachev wrote a long article, in which he explains one or another of his decisions and even admits mistakes. Although not all. more precisely, all, Besides, as is commonly believed, the main, which led to the collapse of the country.
Unlike many (maybe even, from the overwhelming majority) my fellow citizens, I am pretty even about Gorbachev. I do not consider him to be an agent of Western intelligence services, not an enemy of the people. To me he seems to be a frivolous person to the point of carelessness and a liberal to the bone.. At the same time, neither his frivolity, nor an amazing belief in the goodwill of the West towards Russia, preserved to this day (it can be seen from the article) I, of course, in no way am I making excuses. Human, at the head of a superpower with a population of 300 million (and if we include here the sphere of influence of the USSR, then the number can be safely doubled), can't afford to be careless, nor gullible. He writes: “People demanded change. Everyone - and leaders, and ordinary citizens - with their skin they felt, that something is wrong with the country. The country was sinking deeper and deeper into stagnation. Economic growth has actually stopped. Ideological dogmas kept the intellectual, cultural life. The bureaucratic machine claimed total control over the life of society, but could not provide the satisfaction of the basic needs of people. Suffice it to recall, what was going on in stores then. The social situation escalated rapidly, discontent was universal. The vast majority believed, that "you can't live like this any longer". These words were not born in my head - they were on everyone's lips ". And it's hard to disagree with him. These are the ones today, who or did not live at that time, or tried to completely forget it, tell us about free housing, medicine and sausage 2-20. In the 1980s, they simply would not have been understood.. Otherwise, they would have changed the sides, thinking, that people are bullied. But was the situation explosive, as the former secretary general says? By the end of the 1980s - certainly. But at the beginning of his reign - also certainly not. The people for the most part expected from a new relatively young, especially against the background of predecessors, the head is not public, not restructuring, but an elementary increase in salaries. Rubles for forty. We were not particularly demanding and not at all revolutionary.. And about such radical changes, to which the Gorbachev reforms led, at 1985 we didn’t even dream of it. It all happened too quickly. And this is Gorbachev's main mistake., scrolling the tape back, I understand, that the members of the Politburo are Yegor Ligachev, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Anatoly Lukyanov, Defense Minister Dmitry Yazov, KGB chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov and others, whom the first president of the USSR accuses of conservatism and even betrayal, were not so wrong. It was healthy conservatism that Mikhail Gorbachev lacked. And the arguments of his close friends and associates of the Secretary General, looks like, did not hear. And the most amazing thing, still does not repent of it. “I warned, what are the consequences of radicalism and irresponsibility, reigning in Russia in the 1990s. And these warnings were confirmed. The damage was not only done to the economy, but also to democratic institutions ", - writes the ex-president of the Soviet Union. But I think, that he should have used his own advice - in the previous decade. After all, it is his actions (and in some cases, conversely, inaction) in the end, and gave rise to the dashing 90s. Gorbachev "radically and irresponsibly" rushed forward, as a Formula 1 driver, and pulled the whole country with its clumsy (he can't be different) mechanism of public administration and planning, difficult to customize interethnic relations and relations between the center and the capitals of other republics. But he was not sitting in a racing car, and in the driver's cab of a long train, which is gaining momentum very slowly. Unable to withstand sudden movements, the cars unhooked - the republics of the USSR went on a free voyage. Of course, we are not chinese, whose planning horizon is centuries. But for a couple of decades ahead, Gorbachev simply had to look. Moreover, he had time - our general secretaries were never re-elected, but they left their post with death. If he were a wise leader, concerned about preserving the state and improving the well-being of citizens (in that order), I would still be in the Kremlin. I would run the Soviet Union and the entire socialist camp. “We should have started reforming the party earlier, towards decentralization of the Union, boldly reform the economy ", - Gorbachev regrets the missed opportunities. How view, he never made a conclusion - if he had started reforms earlier, then the USSR would have collapsed before. Who drove him? The article contains an answer to this fundamental question. “When meeting with representatives of the West in the fall 1990 g. I constantly emphasized: overcoming our economic crisis, economic reform is our task, and no one will solve it for us. We understand this. But the West should also be interested in its success.. After all, the creation of a healthy economy in our huge country is in its interests. This means, at the sharpest, at the turning point of reforms, we have the right to count on reciprocal steps from our partners. In response to this, in the statements of our Western interlocutors, directly or indirectly, the motive sounded: reform in the USSR is not going fast enough, our economy is still not sufficiently "market", and this narrows the possibilities of oncoming traffic from the West ", Gorbachev explains the reasons for his impatience., what a naive person was then at the head of state. Somehow his sincere confession reminded of the mriyas of modern Ukrainians, you do not find? Not about tough, even fierce global competition, nor about tightly closed sales markets, no gentlemen, changing the rules as the game progresses, he still has not heard. A wise leader in 1990 would have rejected the offer with indignation (eg, friend Lukyanov) become the president of the USSR. After a couple of five-year plans, at some congress or plenum of the party, I would promise to think, by 2005 slowly, in a few years, would prepare a new Union Treaty and a new Constitution, would endure these important (and, of course, balanced) documents for referendum. And between 2010 and 2015 (depending on the internal and external environment) would run for office and win the first general election. But he wanted to quickly. Although there was enough authority, it was not at all necessary to become the president of a huge superpower, to give up power to crooks in a year and a half, which he himself raised. The USSR was not destroyed by Gorbachev, it's true. However, it was he who led to the collapse - with his radicalism, haste and blind faith in liberal ideas, which it still retains. In fact, the first and last president of the USSR - the main liberal, raised an entire generation of his followers, who are now aiming at the largest shard of the Soviet iceberg - the Russian Federation., undoubtedly, were needed, who argues. But not at the cost of destroying a huge country. However, what to remember now.