Su-25 - Soviet / Russian armored subsonic attack, intended for direct support of ground troops on the battlefield day and night visibility in direct targets, as well as the destruction of objects with the specified coordinates of the clock in any weather. During the tests, the DRA in the Soviet Air Force was nicknamed "Grach".
Su-25 Rook in Syria – video
Su-25 first flew 22 February 1975 of the year. Planes of this type are operated with 1981 of the year, participated in numerous military conflicts and remain in the ranks of the Russian Air Force until at least 2020 of the year. 8 October 2009 , the Russian Ministry of Defense announced the resumption of stormtroopers of this type of procurement for the Russian Air Force.
History of creation
Work on the Su-25 began in EDO P. ABOUT. Dry in the mid 70s on its own initiative, when it became clear, that the decision in 1956 , the decision to abolish the attack aircraft and the transfer of its functions fighter-bomber is wrong. Chief designer of the group founders of Su-25 was the former commander of the tank T-34, one of the most brilliant aircraft designers of the XX century, Oleg S. Samoylovich (1926—1999)
In developing the stormtrooper were made research and development work by 40 themes, manufactured and tested about 600 samples and mock-ups. In February 1975 year stormtrooper prototype, which had a working designation T-8, He was raised in the air, and in March 1981 g. attack was adopted by the Soviet Air Force under the designation Su-25.
From April to June 1980 , the two machines Su-25 took place in Afghanistan, the test in combat conditions (operation «Rhombus»). Under the cover of the Su-17 were working on targets and concrete-explosive bombs, and Nursi, making of 3-4 Departure day. A total of two vehicles was carried out 100 test flight, including - 44 martial.
Since July 1981 October 1982 year operation in Afghanistan "exam" was held (sometimes found the name "Diamond 2"): 80-m-Sital Chayskom Assault Regiment was formed at the end of the 200-th separate air squadron assault (A commander. M. Afanasiev). Over the entire period the squadron completed over 2000 sorties, due to pilot error, one machine was lost.
Engines Su-25 are placed on both sides of the fuselage in special nacelles in place of the wing with the fuselage conjugation. Motors have non-adjustable air inlet and nozzle. TBO is 500 hours.
Early versions of the Su-25 is equipped with two single-circuit besforsazhny turbojet engines R-95SH thrust of 4100 kg each. Engines have a mean specific fuel consumption in 1,28 kg / hr kg and autonomous electric starting.
Later in the ground attack began installing more advanced P-195 increased to 4300 kgf thrust. P-195 engines were for a long time secret, in particular, as presented at the air show in France 1989 year T-8-15 aircraft engines P-195 have been replaced by R-95SH. The construction was strengthened as compared with the prior art F-13. The engine maintains a direct hit by a 23-mm projectile and maintains operation at least serious fighting numerous lesions. Just infrared radiation has been reduced, which makes the aircraft less vulnerable to missiles with infrared homing heads.
Engines P-95 and P-195 have been recognized as the most reliable in its class. Particular attention is given to the survivability of the design and screening systems with the calculation, to hit one means of destruction could not incapacitate both engines. In deriving aircraft flight can continue at the other of the failure of one engine.
The main fuel for the engine is a jet fuel. Engines provided with fuel from 4 built-in fuel tanks (2 in the fuselage, one in each of the half-wings) with the total volume to 3660 liters, Suspension is also possible to 2 external fuel tanks (PTB-800) capacity of 840 liters each. In this way, the total volume of the fuel tanks may be up to 5300 liters.
The security, Living facilities and rescue system
Su-25 is a high-security in the whole plane, to ensure the survivability of the system is necessary 7,2 % normal take-off weight or 1050 kg. Vital ground attack systems are duplicated and are screened less important. Particular attention is paid to the protection of critical nodes and elements - the cockpit and fuel system.
Cockpit performed welded from the titanium armor ABVT aviation-20. The thickness of the armor plate are from 10 to 24 mm. A head-protection glazing provides bulletproof glass block and is thick 55 mm. Behind pilot protected steel thickness bronespinkoy 6 mm. The pilot is almost completely protected from shelling out any barreled weapon calibres 12,7 mm, and in the most dangerous areas - caliber up 30 mm.
Rescue pilots at critical aircraft ejection seat provided lesion K-36L, providing rescue pilot in all modes, speeds and flight altitudes. Before ejection canopy reset. bailout is operated manually with the control knobs, for which you need to pull with both hands.
Su-25 is equipped with a powerful complex of weapons - cannons, bombs of various caliber and destination, guided and unguided missiles "air-ground", guided missiles "air-to-air". A total of attack can be adjusted 32 these weapons. Plane 2 has a built-barrel 30 mm aircraft gun GSH-30-2, else arms located on a plane depending on the type of tasks. The aircraft has 10 point suspension of additional weapons and goods (by 5 under each half-wings). Suspension "air-surface" of the arms are used CDD-25 pylons, while for suspension SD "air-to-air" - air launchers AAP-60.
Assault armed integrated gun installation VPU-17A with double-barreled 30 mm cannons GSH-30-2 (Grau 9A623 index), performed according to the scheme Gast. Cannons designed to destroy armored vehicles, unsheltered enemy forces, as well as aerial targets at medium and close range. The gun is relatively compact for tools such caliber and rate of: stem length is 1,5 m, and its weight without ammunition 105 kg. GS-30-2 are fixed with respect to the airframe, maneuvering aircraft guidance is performed. Power gun - tape. fire control - using elektrovosplameneniya, using the DC voltage 27 volt. Full ammunition is 250 shells, And aerogun may expend ammunition one continuous burst. Trunk allows you to 4000 shots without derating. The initial velocity of the projectile 900 m / s. The rate of fire of cannons 3000 rounds per minute.
The gun can fire the following types of ammunition:
– OFZ-30 high-explosive incendiary projectile,
– High-explosive incendiary tracer OFZT-30,
– BR-30 armor-piercing explosive shells,
– Multielement shell ME-30.
It is also possible to install additional artillery weapons attack in the form of suspended containers SPPU cannon-22-1, each of which is equipped with 23-mm twin-barrel gun GS-23, performed according to the scheme Gast. Ammunition container each gun is 260 shells. A plane can be set to 4 such containers.
In the basic embodiment of the Su-25 can use the following unguided bombs:
– FAB-100, one or four bombs (using MBD2-67U) pilots
– FAB-250 bomb on the removal pylons
– FAB-500 bomb on the removal pylons
Ungovernability raketnoe oruzhie
SU-25 is capable of using HAP units with the following missiles with different warhead:
– NAR one for suspension: C-24B, C-25
High-precision bombs and missiles
For the application of the Su-25 guided weapons class "air-surface" (as well as Su-17M4) It is equipped with a laser rangefinder-designator (Affected) "Maple-PS». After the capture of the target and missile launch pilot should aim to highlight its defeat. Due to the arrangement of the LD in the bow plane viewing angle is directed in the forward hemisphere, and not to the bottom, so the basic version of the Su-25 does not use smart bombs.
– X 25ML
Self-defense and struggle against attack helicopters equipped with two guided missiles R-60 short range infrared homing. Rockets are attached to aircraft triggering devices AAP-60, located under the wing.
Because R-60 removed from the production, and their retention periods come to an end, is the modernization of the Su-25 Russian Air Force aircraft in the version of the Su-25SM and Su-25SM(3) pilony, intended for launchers AAP-60, demountable. In modernized Su-25SM applied missile P-73, which is suspended on the trigger extreme CDD-25 holders.
Navigation and accessories
– BKO "Talisman" - airborne defense system for personal protective combat aircraft from the guided missile weapons.
Laser illumination station: "Klen-PS"
– Weight: 82 kg
– Accuracy Ranging: ± 5 m
– Angle Laser height deviation -30 ° / + 6 °; azimuth: ± 12°
Satellite navigation system: GLONASS receiver (for Su-25cm)
Start missiles Su-25
Su-25 – Fighting single attack.
Su-25UB – Combat training double attack.
Assault Su-25K VVS Bohemia
Su-25K – Commercial - export version of the Su-25. In the period 1984-1989 built 180 Flight. Also known as the Su-25K naval variant of the project.
Su-25T – anti-tank version
Su-25T – created in 1984 the base Su-25UB protivotankovyj Sturmovik. Reinforced central section, in the fairing in place of the second cabin placed avionics, changed the nose portion, Added sighting system I-251 "Squall", ILS is installed, It added the ability to use modern precision-guided munitions, sealed cabin.
Su-28 – Trainer aircraft. Not commercially produced.
Su-25UTG – Double sea-based aircraft
Su-25UTG – Trainer aircraft to train takeoff and landing on the deck of aircraft carriers.
Su-39 – Protivotankovyj Sturmovik, further development of the Su-25T. It equipped with radar "Lance-25" in a hanging container.
Su-25KM – Upgraded Israel Air Force attack Georgia. updated Avionics, added to the possibility of ammunition NATO.
Assault Su-25SM of international aviakosmičeskom salon MAKS-2011
Su-25SM – Upgrading production Su-25. Updated avionics, SA and AV system, Added HUD and IFIs.
Su-25UBM in Kubinka
Su-25UBM – Upgraded double attack, generated as a combat training variant Su-25SM and Su-39. Airplane implemented all the achievements of previous versions. The basis for the new aircraft was the double of the Su-25UB. Avionics replenished complex avionics "Leopard-2", and planned to complement radar, "Spear" (the prototypes available RLS). It is assumed, that the aircraft can be used both as training for single modifications, as well as an independent fighting unit. And in the latter case, the Su-25UBM be able to conduct exploration, guidance and coordination of their single counterparts, turning into airborne command post. The first flight of a new aircraft made 6 December 2008 year in Moscow Kubinka. AT 2011 year completed the first phase of the ICG. For the first time the aircraft will be equipped with a powerful system of RTR and EW, and BKO.
Su-25M1 – Ukrainian embodiment Su-25 modernization, which performs Zaporozhye Aircraft Repair Plant "MiGremont". Established modernized equipment Ukrainian producers - Satellite navigation, New SHS system, an upgraded radio, modern sight counter. Analog sight replaced by digital. This improves targeting accuracy by approximately 30 %. The aircraft can now use standard weapons against ground targets by day and night, in poor visibility conditions and without leaving behind the clouds. significantly, almost 3 fold, increased altitude using weapons. Module installed onboard air data register and digital parameters BRTSP. Upgraded single Su-25M1 get a new "digital" camouflage.
Su-25UBM1 – Ukrainian modernization of Su-25UB similar to the Su-25M1.
Su-25SM2 – Upgrade option serial stormtroopers.
Su-25SM3 – Updated single attack. Added satellite navigation system GLONASS (GPS) with the possibility of programming the end point of up to ten meters, It allows the pilot to operate autonomously with a "zero" visibility. Equipped with NCP SVP-24-25 (SVP-24 variant "Gefest" for the Su-25), improves the accuracy of unguided weapons up to the level of guided weapons.
Armed with the Russian Air Force
The Russian Air Force Su-25 of all modifications armed shelves:
– 368-th Attack Aviation Regiment - Budennovsk;
– 960-th Attack Aviation Regiment - Primorsko-Akhtarsk;
– Aviation Group third command - Chernigovka;
– 266-th Attack Aviation Regiment - Steppe;
– 279-nd Independent Fighter Aviation Regiment - Severomorsk-3;
– 37-th Composite Air Regiment - airport Guards), a squadron of Su-25SM;
– 4-d Center of combat employment and retraining of flying personnel (Lipetsk) - Assault Squadron.
Combat application of Su-25
Afghan war (1979—1989). spring 1980 , four Su-25 took place in Afghanistan, combat assessment, showing superiority over his rival Yak-38. Since the mid 1981 year one squadron of Su-25 took part in the Afghan war, at 1984 year increased to a regiment. Fighting revealed high survivability and maneuverability stormtrooper. The relatively low airspeed allowed him to apply very precise punches, which they had been deprived of fighter-bombers. In Afghanistan, the Su-25 got its nickname of "Rook", It became the most famous aircraft of the war. After the appearance of the Mujahideen of MANPADS "Stinger" in 1987 , the attack undergone modernization in order to increase survivability.
One of the pilots, "Rooks" in Afghanistan was Alexander Rutskoi, future vice-president of the Russian Federation. During his participation in the fighting, he was knocked down twice - in April 1986 , the fire from the ground and in August 1988 , the Pakistani F-16s.
The Su-25 has shown high survivability in Afghanistan. On average, for every downed Su-25 accounted for 80-90 battle damage, cases have been described, when returning to the base planes with 150 bullet holes. Several sources said the loss in Afghanistan 23 šturmovikov Su-25 and 8 pilots, while noting, there was not a single case of loss of the aircraft due to the explosion of the fuel tank or the death of the pilot (although there is speculation, that the aircraft Article. Shumikhina lieutenant was lost as a result of the defeat of the pilot to land the fire). Researcher Viktor Markowski believes this data to be incomplete and, referring to the Air Force documents of the 40th Army and the Air Force manual TurkVO, reports loss 33 stormtroopers and 12 pilots, pointing, that in the assessment it does not take into account the number of airplanes, retired due to combat and non-combat injuries. In the books of Markov and Ildar Bedretdinova, as well as some other sources you can find a description of the circumstances of the loss in Afghanistan for at least 34 stormtroopers (including 24 in the air and 10 on the ground) and names 12 dead Su-25 pilots.
Iran-Iraq War (1980—1988). Stormtroopers entered the Iraqi air force armament in the second half of the 1980s. According to some data, they were used in the war is very intense, on the other - completed just a few sorties. On the effectiveness of their use and potential losses is not known.
The Gulf War (1991). Iraqi Su-25 did not make sorties during the war, but suffered casualties. Seven planes flew to Iran, which it was incorporated into the local Air Force, two more were shot down by US F-15 fighters during an attempted flight and a certain number of aircraft destroyed the international coalition on the ground. Total lost Iraq 31.
The civil war in Tajikistan (1992—1997). During the conflict, act of Su-25, the Air Force of Russia and Uzbekistan.
Abkhazian war (1992—1993). Georgia has applied in his war Su-25. Several planes were shot down by the Abkhaz air defense. Known at least one case of participation in the war of the Su-25 Russian Air Force.
Karabakh war (1991—1994). The Su-25 was the first combat aircraft, who participated in the Karabakh war. In April 1992 year pilot of the Air Force Russian Azerbaijani origin Vagif Kurbanov hijacked his attack in Azerbaijan and commit to it sorties, until he was shot down. Later, Azerbaijan has received a few more planes. By the end of the war his Su-25 had and the Armenian side. In general, during the war lost Azeyrbaydzhan 7 Su-25, Armenia – 1.
The first Chechen war (1994—1996). SU-25 was the major combat aircraft, to use Russia's Air Force in the fighting in Chechnya. At the beginning of combat operations attack aircraft of this type on the ground destroyed the entire Chechen aviation. The most intensive Su-25 operated in winter and spring 1995 of the year; later aircraft used sporadically due to the nature of the war after the June truce. Stormtroopers reaffirmed their high efficiency. Battle casualties 5 Flight (four shot down and one written off due to battle damage). Despite the high Su-25 combat survivability, one of the stormtroopers had been lost as a result of the death of the pilot from enemy fire from large-caliber machine gun DSK - bullet struck unarmoured side window canopy.
The war in Congo (1997—2002). 8 Stormtroopers were purchased in the Democratic Republic of the Congo 1999 year. Due to the absence in the national Air Force pilots trained all combat sorties were made by pilots hired from Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.
Eritrean-Ethiopian War (1998—2000). Both sides had the Su-25 to the beginning of the third round of fighting (May June 2000 of the year). Application noted Ethiopian attack aircraft missiles X-25 and X-29.
The second Chechen war (1999—2000). As in the first war, Su-25 is actively used to provide close air support for ground units of the federal forces and made sorties to "free hunt". The intensity of air operations fell sharply after the completion of the main phase of fighting in the spring 2000 of the year. By the middle 2001 year was lost 6 stormtroopers.
The conflict in Macedonia (2001). Directly in the fighting Macedonian Air Force received from Ukraine several Su-25 and used them for strikes on the positions of the Albanian militants.
French-Ivorian conflict (2004). in the afternoon 6 November airplane Su-25, belonging to the Ivorian Air Force, He attacked the position of the French peacekeeping force, as a result 9 peacekeepers were killed, 31 early. also killed 1 an American citizen. After a few hours of the French aircraft flew back to Yamoussoukro airport raid and destroyed on the ground, both available to the Côte d'Ivoire, the Su-25.
Armed conflict in South Ossetia (2008). Stormtroopers actively used the Air Force of Russia and Georgia. During the conflict officially confirmed by the Russian Air Force losses in operations amounted to three Su-25, another four were seriously damaged, which significantly exceeded the loss and damage to other types of aircraft Applied on. South Ossetian and Russian sides has been declared the destruction of a number of Georgian aircraft at different times (cm. more).
In the war were used Su-25SM, but since these aircraft lacked EW system, they often came under enemy fire. Outdated sighting system does not allow the aircraft to operate in bad weather, and apply the Kh-25/29 night, mainly attack using bombs and NAR.
Darfur conflict (from 2003). According to the international organization Amnesty International, Sudan has repeatedly used the Su-25 to attack military and civilian targets in Darfur. The aircraft were delivered from Belarus in 2008-2010; according to the conditions embargo, imposed on Sudan by the United Nations, supplied to the weapon should not be used in the fighting in Darfur.
War in Donbass (from 2014). AT 2014 , the Su-25 restrictions apply to the Air Force of Ukraine in the course of the armed conflict in eastern Ukraine. As of 1 November 2015 of the year, the Ukrainian side confirmed the loss of the aircraft of this type amounted to: destroyed in the fighting - 5 units, damaged - 1 unit.
Armed conflict in northern Iraq (2014). Iraq purchased from Russia and delivered in late June 2014 Su-25 years, We made the first combat sorties 25 December sky over the surrounding area of the Iraqi city of Tikrit in Salah al-Din, to flight militants "Islamic State" extremist organization.
Russia's military operation in Syria (2015). from 30 September 2015 Year Su-25SM aircraft used in the composition of the mixed air group videoconferencing Russia in Syria in order to assist in operations against the terrorist organization LIH.
other conflicts. 18 July 2000 Year Peruvian Su-25 aircraft shot down, transporting drugs.
The performance characteristics of the Su-25K
The crew of the Su-25
– 1 propulsion
– Length: 15,36 m (with LDPE)
– Wingspan: 14,36 m
– Height: 4,8 m
– wing area: 30,1 m²
– Ratio Wing elongation: 6
– Ratio Wing constriction: 3,38
– Sweep angle of the leading edge: 20°
– The cross-wing V: −2,5°
– The base chassis: 3,57 m
– track chassis: 2,51 m
– empty weight: 9315 kg
– Curb weight: 11 600 kg
– Normal takeoff weight: 14 600 kg
– Maximum takeoff weight: 17 600 kg
– Mass fuel in internal tanks: 3000 kg
Weight of armor: 595 kg
– lamp: 48,5 kg windshield (bronesteklo)
– the pilot's cabin: 424,9 kg
– fuel and oil system: 121,6 kg
– tread Weight: 160 kg
– Power point: 2 NCOs × R-95Ş
– pull: 2 × 4100 kgf (40,2 kN)
– full speed: 950 kmh (with norms. combat load)
– Cruising speed: 750 kmh
– landing speed: 210 kmh
practical range Su-25
(with norms. combat load)
– on high: without PTB: 640 km
– on high: 2 × PTB-800: 950 km
– on high: with 4 × PTB-800: 1250 km
– near the ground: without PTB: 495 km
– near the ground: 2 × PTB-800: 620 km
– near the ground: with 4 × PTB-800: 750 km
Su-25 Ferry range
– 1950 km
Practical ceiling Su-25
– 7000 m
– Height combat use with maximum combat load: 5000 m
– Radius viraža: 680 m (with norms. Battle load 1500 m at 555 kmh)
– Skoropodъёmnost: 60 m / s (at the ground with the load 1000 kg)
– Wing loading: 485 kg / m (with norms. takeoff weight)
– thrust-to-weight ratio: 0,56 / 0,466 (with norms. / max. takeoff weight)
The length of the Su-25 takeoff
– on a concrete runway 550 m; on a dirt runway 600 m
Length PROBE Su-25
– (without braking parachute) on a concrete runway 600 m; on a dirt runway: 700 m
Maximum overload of Su-25
– with normal combat load + 6,5g; maximum combat load: + 5,2g
– Small-pushechnoe: dvuhstvolny 30mm GSH-gun with ammunition 30-2 250 shells
– point of suspension: 10
– normal: 1400 kg (4FAB-250 × + 2× R-60 + gun ammo)
– maximum: 4400 kg
– missiles "air-to-air": 2 × R-60 (AA-8)
– missiles "air-to-surface": 4 25ML × X or X-25MLP or C-25L or 2 × X-29L
– 256 (8 × 32) × 57 mm-5 PB-32 blocks or
– 160 (8 × 20) × 80 mm C-8 B-8 blocks or
– 40 (8 × 5) × 122 mm C-13 B-13 units, or
– 8 × 240 mm C-24 or 266 mm C-25
– svobodnopadayuschie and responsive for different purposes, cluster bombs
– 8 × 500 kg (FAB-500, RBC and 500 m. d.) or
– 8 × 250 kg (FAB-250, RBC and 250 m. d.) or
– 8 or 32 × 100 kg or
– 8 Container 2 × KMGU
Shooting gun pods
– 4 × 22-1 SPPU-deflectable in a vertical plane 23-mm twin-barrel gun GS-23 260 shells, SPPU SPPU-30 and-687 with a 30 mm cannon GSH-30, and others.
Damaged Su-25 missiles of MANPADS in the Georgian-Ossetian conflict 2008 year
Su-25 Czech Air Force