DP (Degtyarev infantry, Index GAU - 56-R-321) - machine gun, designed in. A. Degtyaryova. The first ten serial DP machine guns were manufactured at the factory Kovrov 12 November 1927 of the year, then a party of 100 guns was transferred to the military tests, the results of which 21 December 1927 , the machine gun was adopted by the Red Army.
Machinegun DP-27 – video
One of the most pressing problems of infantry weapons, arose in the First World, was the presence of LMG, capable in all types of combat in all conditions to operate in infantry combat formations, providing direct fire support to the infantry. Russia during the war acquired machine guns ("Guns guns") other states. However, the French chauchat, as well as the English Lewis, which had a successful design, by the mid-1920s were worn out, Information systems are obsolete machine guns, In addition there was a catastrophic shortage of spare parts. to plan for 1918 g. putting into production of machine guns "Madsen" (Denmark) under Russian cartridge on formed in g. Kovrov plant did not take place.
In the early 20's the development of a machine gun set as a priority in the Red Army weapons system - according to conventional wisdom, namely the gun made it possible to solve the problem of combining movement and fire at the small unit level under the new conditions. Machine gun became the basis for a new "group tactics" Infantry. AT 22 year formed a "model" ("Pokaznыe") Company's main task was to the cultivation of group tactics, as well as the saturation of infantry automatic weapons, which are sorely lacking. When in 1924 year for new states in all rifle platoons introduced machine-gun compartment, due to lack of light machine guns had to equip a heavy machine and one machine gun. Work on the machine gun had been deployed to the "first Tula Arms Plant", Kovrov machine-gun factory and range of courses "The Shot".
In Tula FV. Tokarev and courses "The Shot" I.N. Kolesnikov creating machine gun with air cooling as a temporary solution of the problem - the type of MG.08/18 (Germany) – the basis was taken commercially available heavy machine "Maxim". KB Kovrov plant to carry out work for the long term. This Design Bureau under the supervision of Fedorov and his disciple Degtyareva conducted experimental work on the unified family of 6.5-millimeter automatic weapon. The basis was taken automaton Fyodorov (it should be noted, that he "automatic" originally was called "hand gun gun", that is not considered as an individual weapon, as well as a lightweight machine gun for infantry weapons of small groups). As part of this family developed several variants of manual, easel, "Universal", Aircraft and tank guns having various cooling circuits and trunk power. However, none of the generic or light machine guns Fedorov and Fedorova-Degtyareva to mass production was not adopted.
Vasily Degtyarev (1880-1949 gg.) Head shop PKB Kovrov plant to develop its own sample machine gun began in the late 1923 of the year. Degtyarev took as a basis for its own scheme of automatic rifle, which suggested that even in 1915 year. Then the inventor, combining scheme known gas operated (lateral gas escape hole, barrel placed below), The barrel is locked by means of two lugs, bred drummer and custom solutions, The compact system, which has earned an approving official review Fedorova. 22 July 1924 g. Degtyaryov was presented the first prototype of the gun having a disc magazine. A commission headed by NV. Kuibyshev, "The Shot" Head of School, Chairman of the Shooting Committee of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army.
Commission were marked "outstanding originality, rate, uptime and considerable ease of handling system companion Degtyareva ". It should be noted, that at the same time the Commission recommended for adoption by the weapons of the Air Force of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army Aviation coaxial 6.5-mm machine gun Degtyarev, Fedorova. The prototype machine guns and machine guns Degtyarev Kolesnikova and Tokarev, 6 October 1924 year were tested at a firing range in Kuskovo, but dropped out of the competition, because faulty firing pin. Commission on the selection of the sample machine gun (SM Chairman. Budennıy) It was soon recommended for adopting Red Army machine gun Maxim-Tokarev. He was accepted under the symbol MT 1925 year.
The next prototype was presented in the autumn of Degtyarev 1926 of the year. 27-29 September of the two copies were made about five thousand. shots, at the same time it was found and the ejector firing pin has a weak force, and the weapon itself is sensitive to dusting. In December we tested the next two machine guns firing in adverse conditions, whether 40000 all shots 0,6% delays, but they also returned for revision. At the same time experienced improved sample Tokarev and German "light machine gun" Dreise. sample Degtyareva, according to test results, surpassed peredelochnuyu system and Tokarev gun Dreise, which then caused a great interest among the leadership of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army and, by the way, which had an option to store large capacity disk.
Despite this Degtyarev had in its design to make some changes: by changing the shape and the use of chrome-nickel steel reinforcing bolt carrier, of the same steel were produced and the ejector piston rod, for hardening the striker gave him the form close to the form of drummer Lewis Gun. It should be noted, some constructive solutions in machine guns Degtyarev were carried out under the obvious influence of a thorough study of machine guns, "Madsen", "Lewis" and "Hotchkiss" (Kovrovsky plant had complete sets of drawings, as well as ready-made samples of "Madsen", during the Civil War is repaired guns "Lewis"). Overall, however, the weapon was a new and original design.
Two copies of the machine gun Degtyarev revised tested Commission Artkoma Artillery Directorate of the Red Army at the Kovrov plant 17-21 January 1927 of the year. Machine guns were considered "stand the test of". 20 February is also the Commission recognized "possible to produce machine guns as models for all subsequent studies and considerations for installing them on production". Without waiting for the results of improvements, it was decided to issue an order for a hundred guns. 26 March Artkomom were approved designed PCB Kovrov plant "Provisional Specification for hand-gun Degtyarev acceptance".
First batch of 10 machine guns provided military acceptance 12 November 1927 of the year, party in 100 guns military inspector been fully accepted 3 January 1928 of the year. 11 January Revolutionary Military Council ordered the transfer 60 machine guns for military trials. Besides, machine guns were sent to military schools of various military districts, so as, to simultaneously test command structure could get acquainted with the new weapon at the camp fees. Troop and field testing continued throughout the year. According to the results of tests carried out in February on Scientific Testing weapons-machine-gun range and courses "Shot" it was recommended to add to the construction of flame arrester designed to reduce unmasks and blinding muzzle flash at dusk and night. Also it was made and a number of other comments.
In August 1928 , the tested sample having improved flame arrester and several modified nozzle chamber gas regulator. On 27-28 year issued an order for 2,5 thousand. guns. In this case, at a special meeting 15 June 1928 of the year, which was attended by the heads of the Main Military-Industrial Management and the People's Commissariat of Defense, Recognizing the difficulty of setting up large-scale production of a new gun, established 29-30 years as a deadline for its establishment with fully interchangeable parts. At the end 28 it was decided to stop the production of machine guns MT (Maxim-Tokarev). As a result, RPD machine gun was in the Red Army before its formal adoption. The machine gun was adopted under the designation "7.62mm machine gun mod. 1927 g "or DP ("Degtyareva, infantry "), also meets the designation DP-27. Machine gun Degtyarev was the first mass machinegun national development and brought its author one of the most important and influential country gunsmiths.
The main part of the gun: a removable barrel with a flame arrester and the gas chamber; receiver with a sighting device; a cylindrical barrel casing with a front sight and a guide tube; Constipation with drummer; gate frame and piston rod; back-action spring; shutter frame with butt and a trigger; cartridge drum; removable folding bipod.
The barrel in the receiver was attached Slight screw projections, used for commit flag contactor. On the middle of the barrel there 26 transverse ribs designed to improve the cooling. However, in practice it proved to be, that the efficiency of the heat sink was very low and, beginning with 1938 , the fins removed, making it easier for production. On the muzzle of the barrel by means of a threaded joint was fixed conical flame arrester. During the march, the flame arrester to reduce the length of the DP mounted upside-down.
A gun was implemented automation scheme works by withdrawing through a side opening of propellant gases. The hole was made in the wall of the barrel at a distance 185 millimeters from the muzzle. The gas piston has a longer stroke. Gas chamber - open, with pipe. piston rod rigidly connected to the slide frame and back-action spring, Mount the rod, placed under the barrel in a guide tube. The gas piston is screwed onto the front end of the rod, thus he recorded back-mainspring. With patrubkovogo regulator having two gas outlet opening diameter 3 and 4 millimeter carried adjustment amount allocated propellant gases. The barrel is locked by the pair of lugs, reinforced by a hinged shutter sides and back of the extended bred impactor.
The trigger mechanism is composed of a trigger, the trigger with the sear, Breaker. Fuse propped up behind the trigger. To turn it off you must hand over completely cover the neck butt. USM was designed only to conduct continuous fire.
Score, is attached on top of the receiver, It consisted of a pair of disks and springs. The cartridges in the store were located radially towards the center of the toe of the bullet. Ulitkoobraznoy force of the coil spring, which twists the gear at the store, upper disc rotates relative to the lower, while bullets were fed to the receiver window. Store this construct developed earlier for aviapulemeta Fedorova. Initially, the requirements for hand-held machine gun supposed, that the power system will have 50 rounds, but the disc "Fedorov shop" for up to fifty 6.5-millimeter ammunition was ready for production, it was decided to maintain its basic dimensions, reducing the capacity of the drum to 49 7,62-millimeter rounds.
must be answered, the store design with radial placement of cartridges could solve the problem of power system reliability by using domestic rifle cartridge with protruding lip liner. but, Soon magazine capacity has been reduced to 47 patrons because of the spring force is not enough to supply the last rounds. Radial vyshtampovki discs and annular ribs were designed to reduce them died during the shocks and bumps, as well as reduce the likelihood of "jamming" store. The block was mounted sight spring loaded magazine catch. On the march receiver box receiver was covered by a special shield, which before the installation of the store moves forward. To equip shop using a special device PSM. It should be noted, the store having a diameter 265 millimeters created when carrying machine gun during a fight some inconvenience. After using up the remaining part of the ammunition cartridges make a rattling noise when moving. Furthermore springs attenuation resulted in, that the store remained last rounds - because of this, calculations chose not to fully equip a store.
As with many machine guns, calculated on a significant heating of the barrel, and intense bursts of gunfire, adjustable shot produced with sears. The gate frame with the shutter in front of the first shot was in the rear position, refraining sear, wherein the reciprocating action spring was compressed (compression force is 11 kgf). Trigger the trigger is lowered, bolt carrier frustrated with whispering and moving forward, pushing the bolt and firing pin its vertical stand. Shutter captured from the receiver cartridge, it shall be sent into the chamber, resting on the trunk of a tree stump. During the further movement of the bolt drummer moved apart lugs broadened its part, reference planes stops included in the lugs of the receiver. This locking scheme is very similar to the Swedish automatic rifle Chelman, which tests 1910 They were carried out in Russia (although the combined rifle lock on "scheme Friberg-Chelman" and automation based on recoil barrel in the short course). Drummer and bolt carrier after locking has continued to move forward 8 millimeters, nipple reached the capsule holder, breaking it, came the shot.
After the bullet passes vent holes propellant gases enter the gas chamber, struck the piston, which covered his camera flare, discarded and back bolt carrier. After passing the hammer frame about 8 he released millimeters lugs, then stops were reduced bevels figure the eject frame, on a way 12 millimeters occurred unlocking bore, gate picks up the bolt carrier and retracted. In this case, the ejector was recovered cartridge cases, she hitting the firing pin, ejected through the window of the receiver at the bottom of. Stroke bolt equaled 149 millimeters (prison - 136 millimeters). Thereafter bolt carrier strikes the shutter frame go forward and by the action of reciprocating mainspring. If at this time the trigger was pressed, Automated cycle was repeated. If the hook is released, bolt carrier rose to sear cocked his dwelling in the rear position. In this gun he was ready for the next shot - the presence of just one self-timer fuse create dangerous accidental firing while moving a loaded gun. In this regard, the teachings were written, that the loading of the machine gun should be done only after taking a position.
Machine gun was equipped with a sector sight with high block, which was attached to the receiver, and bar, having notches to 1500 m (step 100 m.), and having a front sight protective "ears". Fly inserted into the groove on the barrel casing speech, which resembled machine gun cover "Madsen". Protective "ears" to the sight also served as a magazine catch. Wooden butt carried by the type of gun, "Madsen", I had a semi-pistol protrusion neck and upper comb, improving the formulation of the machine gunner's head. The length of the butt from the trigger to the occiput equaled 360 millimeters, width equaled butt 42 millimeters. As examples razmeschalas Oiler. In the wider lower part of the butt gun DP-27 had a vertical channel, intended for the rear sliding bearings, but serial machine guns were made without such support, and subsequently perform channel in the butt stopped. On the barrel casing and left on the butt was attached sling attachment. Bipod krepylys otkydnыm buckles, having thumbscrews, on the barrel casing, their feet were fitted with openers.
Machine gun when firing showed good accuracy: core dispersion at the time of shooting "normal" queues (from 4 to 6 shots) at a distance 100 m amounted to 170 mm (height and width), on 200 meters - 350 mm, on 500 meters - 850 mm, on 800 meters - 1600 mm (height) and 1250 mm (width), on 1 thousand. m - 2100 mm (height) and 1850 mm (width). During shooting in short bursts (to 3 shots) patterning increased - as e.g., at a distance 500 meters dissipating core have equal 650 mm, and on 1 thousand. m - 1650×1400 mm.
Machinegun DP consisted of 68 parts (without magazine), of which 4 coil springs, and 10 screws (For comparison - the number of German machine gun parts Dreise equal 96, amerikanskogo "Browning» BAR Countdown. 1922 of the year - 125, Czech ZB-26 - 143). Using the bolt as the bottom cover of the receiver, and the application of the principle of versatility with other parts given the opportunity to significantly reduce the weight and dimensions of the structure. The advantages of this gun also include ease of disassembly. The machine gun could be disassembled into large pieces, and on removing the bolt to separate the important details. The affiliation to the machine gun Degtyarev included collapsible ramrod, erşik, two vыkolotki, key-screwdriver, for gas cleaning device tract, protyrka, retriever for detached sleeves dulets (situation with a break in the chamber liner machine gun Degtyarev system observed long enough). Spare barrels - two on the gun - delivered in special. boxes. For carrying and storing guns used awning. In order to fire blank ammunition used the muzzle bushing diameter outlet 4 millimeter and having a special shop window for blank cartridges.
DP series production of machine guns was delivered and was conducted by the Kovrov (State Union Plant. KO. Kirkizha, №2 Commissariat weapons factory, from 1949 of the year – they plant. VA. Degtyareva). Degtyarev infantry distinguished by ease of manufacture - for its production required twice less straight-measurement and transitions, than for a revolver, and three times less, than for rifles. The number of process steps were four times less, than "Maxim" machine gun and three times less, than for MT. Said here many years of experience as a gunsmith Degtyarev-practice and cooperation with outstanding gunsmith VG. Fedorov. In the process of setting production changes were made in the heat treatment of the most critical parts, introduce new normal processing, select varieties of steel. It can be assumed, that a major role in ensuring the required accuracy during volume production at full automatic weapons interchangeability of parts played cooperation 20s with German specialists, machine tool and weapon companies. A lot of work and energy in setting production machine gun Degtyarev and standardization of the production of weapons on this basis put Fedorov - during these activities implemented in the production of so-called "normal Fedorov", ie the system of planting and tolerances, designed to increase the production of precision weapons. A great contribution to the organization of production of the machine gun was introduced and engineer GA. Aparin, has put the factory and straight-tool production.
DP order for 1928 and 1929 years was already 6,5 thousand. pcs (of them 500 armored, 2000 aviation and 4000 infantry). After the tests in March-April 30 , the Special Commission 13 serial machine guns Degtyarev on survivability Fedorov stated, that "the vitality of the machine gun was raised to 75 – 100 thousand. shots ", and the "vitality of the least stable parts (strikers and ejector) to 25 – 30 thousand. shots ".
In the 1920s in various countries created a range of light machine guns with magazine-fed - the French "Hotchkiss" arr. 1922 year and Mle 1924 "Chatellerault", Czech ZB-26, English "Vickers-Berthier", Swiss "Solothurn" M29 and "Furrer" M25, Italian "Breda", Finnish M1926 "Lahti-Zaloranta", Japanese "Type 11". Machine gun Degtyareva from most favorably distinguished by high reliability and relatively larger capacity store. note, that simultaneously with the DP into service took another important means of support for the infantry - 76-mm regimental cannon sample 1927 of the year.
YES, DT and other
Since the need for unification of machine guns was recognized in the Soviet Union at the time of the adoption of PD on arms, based Degtyaryov machine gun was under development of other types - primarily aircraft and tank. Here again was useful experience in developing a unified weapons Fedorova.
Yet 17 May 1926 Artkomom year was approved by the. the task of designing a unified high-velocity gun, which would be used as a manual in the cavalry and infantry, and simultaneous and turret in aviation. But more real was the creation of aircraft gun on the basis of infantry. The practice of "converting" machine gun in a moving aircraft (on pivot, single turret, twin turrets) It was used as far back as the First World War. Between December 27 to February 28 years were tested aircraft machine gun variant Degtyareva ("Degtyareva, aviation", YES). Scientific and Technical Committee of the Office of the Air Force of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army found "to approve for consideration in terms of serial order submitted sample" Degtyaryov machine gun. AT 1928 year, simultaneously with the fixed gun AV PV-1 structure. Nadashkevicha created on the basis of machine gun "Maxim", adopted the Air Force aircraft machine gun turret was accepted YES, having triplex (three-storied) shop 65 rounds, pistol grip, new sights with weathervane beauty spot.
To the front of the receiver aircraft gun is screwed faceplate Degtyareva. In its lower part was attached pin, having a curved swivel for attachment to install. Instead of the stock were installed grooved wooden pistol grip control and rear handle. Front sleeve top with a ring sight was fixed, in the muzzle of the barrel sleeve threadably fastened to the rack having vane-flies. Since the removed casing and set the faceplate, changes occurred fastening directing gas piston tube. Top shop belt equipped with a handle for speed and convenience of change. To provide fire to a limited extent, as well as to prevent ingress of aircraft mechanisms spent cartridges from below by the receiver installed canvas bag-gilzoulavlivatel having a wire frame and a lower clasp. note, that in order to find the best frame configuration, which will ensure safe disposal of cartridges without jamming, in domestic practice, perhaps for the first time used time-lapse photography work. YES Massa gun was 7,1 kg (without magazine), Length from the back of the handle edge to the muzzle - 940 millimeters, Store weight - 1,73 kg (unloaded). As of 30 Martha 1930 year in parts of the Air Force of the Red Army had 1,2 thousand. YES machine guns and a thousand guns had been prepared to surrender.
AT 1930 was adopted and entered twin turret YES-2 - its development on the basis of machine-gun Degtyarev Aviation Scientific and Technical Committee of the Office of the Air Force ordered in 1927 Armory year-machinegun trust. swashplate, located in front of the receiver, on each machine gun was replaced by a clutch of the front attachment. For fastening on the installation side were hot flushes couplings, for retaining the gas piston tube - lower. Rear mounted machine guns at the facility were tightening bolts, passes through an opening made in the rear of the receiver tides. In the development of the installation took part NV. Rukavishnikov and I.I. Bezrukov. A hook mounted on a common descent pistol grip right gun in additional trigger guard. Shutter rod fastened to the holes of the trigger guard.
Link consisted of an adjusting rod and a connection shaft. Machine gun on the left fuse box and bolt handle is not moved left, on its trunk mounting bracket for vane-fly. Since the return coaxial machine gun was very sensitive to installation and arrow, machine guns installed on the muzzle brake active type. Muzzle Brake had a form peculiar parachutes. Behind the muzzle brake was placed a special drive, protecting the needle from the muzzle blast - within such brake circuit mounted on a heavy DShK. Machine guns from the turret are connected via pin. Installation supplied chin rest and shoulder rest (to 1932 , the gun had breast rail). Weight DA-2 and with equipment store-front sight vane was 25 kilogram, length - 1140 millimeters, width - 300 millimeters, the distance between the axes of bores - 193 ± 1 mm. curious, that the DA and DA-2 have adopted the Office of the Air Force without official registration of the order of People's Commissariat of Defense. These guns were placed on the turret 5 and Tur-Tur-6, as well as aircraft retractable machine gun turret. YES-2 has another sight tried to install a light tank BT-2. later YES, DA-2 and PV-1 was replaced by a special rapid-aircraft gun ShKAS.
Weapons-machine gun Trust, in charge of the Kovrov plant was among others, 17 August 1928 of the year. said Artillery Directorate of the Red Army on the readiness of a tank gun through Degtyaryov machine gun. 12 June 1929 of the year, after the appropriate tests as armament armored vehicles and tanks was adopted tank machine gun DT ("Degtyareva, tank", also named "sample tank gun 1929 of the year") ball mount, which I was engaged in the development of GS. Shpagin. The adoption of this gun has coincided with the deployment of mass production of tanks - Tank Degtyarev replaced coaxial 6.5-mm tank gun Fedorov already puts on the armor, I began to be mounted on the T-24 tanks, MS-1, TO-27 ʙroneavtomoʙili, all armored targets.
In a tank gun Degtyarev was no barrel shroud. Himself bore different extra-edged ribs. DP equipped with a retractable metal stock, having a folding shoulder support, pistol grip control, compact disc shop in the two-lane 63 chuck, gilzoulavlivatelem. Fuse and pistol grip was like yes. safety lever, placed right above the trigger guard, checks carried out in the form having tapered axis. Rear position flag, Appropriate for the "fire", anterior – "fuse". Sight - diopter rack. Diopter was carried out in a special engine and vertically by means of spring-loaded latches are installed at several fixed positions, which corresponded to distances 400, 600, 800 and 1000 m. The sight is equipped with a set screw for zeroing. Fly on the gun is not established - it was fixed in the front drive the ball installation. In some cases, the gun was removed from the plant and used outside the car, so DT were attached to the bracket with front sight and detachable bipod fastened to the faceplate. Weight gun with the store was 10,25 kilogram, length - 1138 millimeters, combat rate – 100 rounds per minute.
Tank gun Degtyareva used as paired with a heavy machine gun or cannon of a tank as well as the installation of special anti-aircraft armored. Degtyarev tank during World War II is often used as a hand - combat rate of the machine gun was provided twice, than the infantry model.
It should be noted, that at the beginning of World War II was developed for replacing the diesel fuel "tank" submachine gun with a large ammunition (It developed on the basis of the PCA). At the end of the Second World War, the Finns attempted to do the same in the captured tanks using its own "Suomi". However, in both cases, the armored vehicles and tanks were machine guns DT. Soviet tanks to replace the tank gun Degtyarev could only SGMT. An interesting fact, that after the forced "decorative" alteration of armored vehicles and tanks at the Military History Museum of armored vehicles in Kubinka Degtyareva tank was "international" machine gun - a large number of foreign vehicles using diesel fuel trunks simulated "native" machine gun.
note, what in 31, 34 and 38 Degtyarev's vulgar century represented the modernized versions of DP. AT 1936 , he proposed lightweight Airborne embodiment having no housing, with power ribbing and one locking lugs, addition was completed compact gun box magazine having a sector shape. Then, the designer presented a gun, having the same store, with the transfer in the butt reciprocating mainspring. Both guns were experienced. At the dispatch center in the experimental procedure was mounted sight with the introduction of side corrections, DP is equipped with a telescopic sight was tested in 1935 year - the idea of supplying machine guns telescopic sight has been popular for a long time, despite the bad practices.
Tank machine gun Degtyarev machine-gun with a telescopic sight PPU-8T and mantle result
After fighting on the island in Hassan 1938 year from the command staff received a proposal to adopt a machine gun having a power supply system according to the type of Japanese machine gun "Type 11" - with equipment permanent store ammunition from rifle clips. This proposal is strongly supported GI. Kulik, Chief GAU. Kovrovtsy represented embodiment RPD machine gun with a receiver and Razorenova Kupinovo under the sample holder rifles 1891/1930 city, but very soon the issue of such a receiver has been rightly removed - the practice of forced to abandon oboymennogo or burst power light machine guns, leaving military experts and gunsmiths before selecting "tape or store".
Degtyarev long time worked on the creation of a universal (single) and machine gun. In June-August 28 Artkom year on the instructions of the Staff of the Red Army has developed tactical and technical requirements for the new machine gun - the basis for gun, to unify, He had taken an infantry machine gun Degtyarev under the same cartridge, but having a belt power. Already in 30 , the designer presented a prototype machine gun with a universal machine Kolesnikova, receiver ribbon supply (system Shpagina) and enhanced trunk radiator. Lapping machine gun Degtyarev ("Degtyarev, easel ", DS) It was delayed until the end of 1930 and has not given positive results. AT 1936 year Degtyarev was introduced universal modification DP has neotemny lightweight folding tripod machine and mount convertible zenith ring sight. This sample was also not moved beyond pilot. The weakness of standard bipod was the cause of limited use with a machine gun Degtyarev infantry units with additional rods, a bipod which form a triangular structure. canal lock system trunk and automation, embodied in a machine gun Degtyarev, also used heavy machine guns and automatic rifles developed by experienced Degtyarev. Even the first submachine gun Degtyarev, developed in the 1929 year has delayed blowback, carrying structural features of the DP machine gun. The designer wanted to implement the idea Fedorov, his teacher, on the unified family of weapons based on its own system.
At the beginning of the Second World War in Degtyarevskaya KB-2 Kovrov plant in the experimental procedure set up so-called "installation of heavy fire" - Quad unit DP (DT) for infantry weapons, cavalry, armored vehicles, light tanks, as well as the needs of defense. Machine guns were installed in two rows or in a horizontal plane, and supplied with regular box-shaped disc magazine or in 20 rounds. In "zenithal" and "infantry" embodiments installation mounted on universal machine Kolesnikov developed for large-DShK. Rate of fire - 2000 rounds per minute. However, the path of "the struggle for the rate of" not proved, a recoil action to install and dispersion were too large.
Disc magazine DP machine gun, bottom view.
DP machine gun Service
Machine gun Degtyarev was the most massive machine gun Armed Forces of the USSR two decades - and these years were the most "military". DP machine gun passed its baptism of fire during the conflict on the CER in the boundary parts of the OGPU - so in April 1929 Kovrov year the plant received an additional order for these guns release. DP machine gun in the United State Political Administration of troops fighting in Central Asia with gangs Basmachi. Later DP was used by the Red Army in the fighting on the island of Hassan and Khalkhin Goal. Together with other Soviet weapons "participated" in the Spanish Civil War (DP had here "to fight side by side" with his longtime rival – MG13 «Dreise"), in the war in China, at 39-40 years of fighting on the Karelian Isthmus. Almost the same path have been modified DT and DA-2 (on P-planes 5 and TB-3), so you could say, By the beginning of World War II machine gun Degtyarev was battle-tested in a variety of settings.
The infantry divisions of infantry machine gun Degtyarev was introduced in the infantry platoon and separation, cavalry - in saber department. In both cases, a light machine gun with grenade launcher rifle were the main support arms. SE at nasechke to prytsela 1,5 thousand. meters intended for the destruction of important single and open group targets at ranges up to 1,2 thousand. m, small living single targets – to 800 m, defeat low-flying aircraft - to 500 m, as well as to support the shelling by tanks PTS calculations. Shelling observation slits armored vehicles and tanks sat with 100-200 m. The fire was short bursts of 2-3 shots or bursts of 6 shots, maintaining a continuous long the fire was allowed only in extreme cases. The machine-gunners, have extensive experience, could conduct aimed fire single shots. gun Calculation - 2 man - machine gunner ("Gunner") and assistant ("The second number"). Assistant endured stores in a special box, a three-disc. To bring ammunition calculation gave two more fighters. For transportation DP cavalry used saddlebag VD.
To destroy airborne targets could be used antiaircraft sample tripod 1928 year designed for "Maxim" machine gun. Also developed special motorcycle installation: motorcycle M-72 had a single rotation frame, pivotally is mounted on a carriage, boxes with spare parts and disks placed between a motorcycle and a sidecar, and on the trunk. gun mount is permitted to conduct anti-aircraft fire from the knee without removing it. A motorcycle-TIZ AM DT-600 was mounted on the steering wheel on a special bracket. To reduce the cost of training and the use of small shooting ranges on the machine gun Degtyarev could be fixed 5.6 mm machine gun training Blum, wherein rimfire cartridge is used and the original disc magazine.
Disc magazine DP machine gun, view from above.
DP machine gun pretty quickly gained popularity, because it successfully combined fire power and maneuverability. However, along with the advantages of a machine gun and he had some drawbacks, which were shown during operation. Firstly, it concerned the operation inconveniences and features of disk store equipment. Quick change barrel overheated complicated by the absence of handles on it, and the need to separate the tube and bipod. Replacing even under favorable conditions have trained the calculation took about 30 seconds. Located under the barrel opening of the gas chamber prevent the accumulation of deposits in the gas operated unit, but with an open bolt carrier increases the likelihood of blockage on sandy soils. Clogging flare gas piston and its fastening head caused nedohod movable portion in the front end position. However, Automatic gun as a whole showed a fairly high reliability. Antabok mount and bipod was undependable and created additional catchy details, which reduced the carrying convenience. Working with the gas regulator was also uncomfortable - for its transposition was taken out pin, nut wrench, regulator upsets ago, He turned again and was fixed. Firing at moving it was only possible using the belt, and the absence of fore-end and tail shop did such a difficult shooting. Gunner put on the neck strap in the form of a loop, Shoring store at its front swivel casing cutout, and to hold the gun for a casing was needed mitten.
The armed infantry divisions share of guns has increased steadily in the first place due to light machine guns - if 1925 Infantry Division in the year 15,3 thousand. people. personnel had 74 heavy machine gun, then in 1929 year 12,8 thousand. people. there 81 manual and 189 heavy machine guns. AT 1935 year data on indicators 13 thousand. people have already made up 354 manual and 180 heavy machine guns. In the Red Army, as in some other armies, machine gun was the main means of saturation troops with automatic weapons.
State April 1941 of the year (last pre-war) provided the following relations:
– Infantry Division wartime - to 14483 people. personnel there 174 easel and 392 light machine guns;
– Division truncated – on 5864 people. personnel there 163 easel and 324 light machine guns;
– Mountain Division – on 8829 people. personnel there 110 easel and 314 light machine guns.
A type 53 - Chinese version of DPM.
DP has been in service in the cavalry, Marines, NKVD troops. The Second World War, which began in Europe, clear percent increase in the German Wehrmacht, the number of automatic weapons, The ongoing reorganization of the Red Army demanded increase output tank and machine guns, as well as changes in the organization of production. AT 1940 year have begun to increase production capacity are used in the production of machine guns. By this time it worked out the manufacturing technology channels dornirovaniem trunks, which made it possible to speed up several times and significantly reduce the cost of production of barrels - along with the transition to the use of a cylindrical barrel with a smooth outer surface played an important role in increasing output and reducing the cost of infantry machine guns Degtyarev. an order for 1941 year, approved 7 February, included 39 thousand. infantry and tank guns Degtyarev. On Kovrov plant №2 with 17 April 1941 OGC has been working production machine guns DT and DP. FROM 30 April production of DP machine guns were deployed in the new building "L". People's Commissariat of arms gave the new production of the right branch of the enterprise (later - a separate Kovrov Mechanical Plant).
FROM 1939 till the middle 1941 the number of troops in machine guns increased by 44%, on 22 June 41 there were years in the Red Army 170,4 thousand. light machine guns. This type of weapon was one of those, which the compounds of the western districts were provided even beyond the state. for example, Fifth Army in the Kiev Special Military District manning machine guns was about 114,5%. During this period, an interesting application received tank guns Degtyarev - Directive of the General Staff of 16 May 1941 of the year 50 newly formed tank regiments to mechanized corps manning tanks to fight with armored vehicles of the enemy got guns, as well as 80 DT machine guns per regiment - for self-defense. Degtyarev tank during the war and was put on combat snowmobile.
With the onset of World War II legacy YES-2 have found a new use - as an anti-aircraft guns to fight with planes, low-flying. 16 July 1941 year Osipov, Chief of the Air Defense, I wrote Yakovlev, Chief GAU: "Shortage of anti-aircraft guns can be largely eliminated, if for a short time to adapt to conduct anti-aircraft fire to 1,5 thousand. coaxial machine gun DA-2, and the same shot with aircraft guns PV-1 ". For this purpose machine guns YES and YES-2 installed on anti-aircraft tripod sample 1928 year through pin - in particular, such installations used at Leningrad in 1941 year. Vane-fly replaced ring sight of the machine gun zenith. Besides, YES-2 installed on a light night bomber U-2 (In 2).
Red Army at Stalingrad in the dugout busy cleaning weapons, submachine guns PCA-41 and DP-27 machinegun
During WWII the main producer of infantry machine guns and tank guns Degtyarev plant was a workshop №1 №2, their production was also placed in the Urals, DP and institutions "Arsenal" (Leningrad). In terms of military production was reduced requirements for finishing of small arms - for example,, Finishing external parts it has been canceled, parts and not involved in the work of automation. Also reduce the rate of spare parts - instead 22 drives for each machine gun position until the beginning of the war was given only 12. Despite this, all technical documentation was done "for liter B", that is demanded strict compliance with all standards and can not be changed in the form of, materials of parts and sizes at all plants involved in the production. Release of machine guns, despite difficult conditions, It remained relatively stable. VN. Novikov, Deputy People's Commissar of arms, He wrote in his memoirs: "This gun does not cause any stress in the People's Commissariat of weapons". During the second half of the 41-year troops were 45300 light machine guns, at 42 year - 172800, 43 th - 250200, in 44th - 179700. In the army on 9 May 1945 , there were 390 thousand. light machine guns. For all the losses amounted to a war machine guns 427,5 thousand. pcs, i.e 51,3% share (based on the set during the war and pre-war stocks).
The extent of use of machine can be judged on the following figures. SAU in the period from July to November 1942 was transferred 5 302 guns of all types of fronts south-westerly direction. In March and July 1943 at the Battle of Kursk, the preparation of the troops of the Steppe, Voronezh, Central fronts and Eleventh Army received 31,6 thousand. light and heavy machine guns. Troops, that the Kursk went on the offensive, had 60,7 thousand. machine guns of all types. In April 1944 of the year, to top Crimean operation, Independent Coastal Army troops, Fourth Ukrainian Front and side defense had 10622 easel and light machine guns (about 1 gun on 43 human personnel). The infantry weapons also changed the proportion of machine guns. If the rifle company in July 1941 till States has 6 machine guns, a year later - 12 hand, at 1943 year - 1 easel and 18 machine guns, and in December 44 of the year - 2 easel and 12 hand. That is, during the war, the number of guns in the rifle company, basic tactical unit, has more than doubled. If in July 41 year armed Infantry Division there 270 various types of guns, in December of the same year - 359, a year later this figure already stood at - 605, and in June '45 - 561. Reduction of the share by the end of the war machine guns due to the increase in the number of submachine guns. Applications for machine guns decreased, so with 1 January 10 May 1945 the year it was commissioned only 14500 (In addition at this time we delivered the modernized DP). By the end of the war infantry regiment had 108 manual and 54 heavy machine guns on 2 398 human.
As the war progressed and revised rules of gun, though in the case of hand it is required to a lesser degree. "Combat Infantry charter" from 1942 , the range of opening fire from the machine gun was mounted with a distance 800 m, but also it was recommended by a sudden fire from a distance of 600 meters as the most effective. Also abolished the division of the order of battle on the "holds down" and "shock" of the group. Now, machine gun in various conditions acted in a chain platoons and divisions. Now the main for it was considered a fire in short bursts, Combat rate equal 80 rounds per minute.
Ski units in winter conditions was transferred to the machine guns "Maxim" and DP boat-scraper in a state of readiness to open fire. To dump guns partisans airborne troops and parachute landing bag used MMAP-42. Marines-gunners at the beginning of the war have already mastered jumping with regular infantry machine gun on his belt Degtyareva, instead often used the "manual" option is more compact tank gun, with larger capacity magazine that was less prone to perish. Overall Degtyaryov machine gun proved to be very reliable weapon. It is recognized and opponents – let us say, DP captured willingly used by Finnish machine gunners.
However, experience with infantry gun Degtyareva pointed to the need for more compact and lightweight sample retaining ballistic characteristics. AT 1942 year announced a competition to develop a new machine gun system, the weight of which does not exceed 7,5 kilogram. FROM 6 by 21 July 1942 year field tests have been experienced guns, developed in KB Degtyareva (with shops and belt feed), as well as the development Vladimirova, Simonov, Goryunova, and novice designers, among them was a Kalashnikov. All samples, represented at these tests, We received a list of revision notes, However, the competition has not given an acceptable sample.
DPM – modernized machine gun Degtyarev
Machine gun DPM
More successful were the modernization of an infantry machine gun Degtyarev, especially since the production of the upgraded version can be done much faster. At this time, the factory №2 worked several design teams solving a range of problems. And if CB-2, under the direction of VA. Degtyareva, mainly worked on new designs, the task of modernization produced samples were solved in the Department of Chief Designer. Work on modernization of machine guns led AI. Shilin, but he Degtyarev and did not let them out of sight. Under the control of a group of designers, which included PP. Poles, AA. Grenada, A.I. Skvortsov AG. Belyaev, conducted in 1944 JP year modernization work. With the main aim of this work was to improve the manageability and reliability of the machine gun. N.D. Yakovlev, Chief GAU, and D .F. Ustinov, People's Commissar of arms, in August 1944 We had submitted for approval to the State. Defense Committee changes, made to the structure, while pointing: "In connection with the structural changes in the modernized machine guns:
– survivability reciprocating mainspring increased, there was a possibility to replace without removing the gun from firing position;
– It excludes the possibility of the loss of the bipod;
– improving accuracy and accuracy of fire;
– improved ease of use on the battlefield ".
GKO decision of 14 October 1944 year changes were approved. The machine gun had adopted under the designation PD ("Degtyareva, infantry, modernized ").
Differences DPM gun:
– reciprocating the mainspring of a barrel, where it is heated and gave draft, moved to the back of the receiver (spring tried to move more 1931 year, This can be seen by an experienced machine gun Degtyarev, presented while). To install the spring tail striker worn tubular shaft, but zatыlnyk tube inserted napravlyayuschuyu, which appeared on the neck butt. In connection with this coupling was excluded, and stem are manufactured as a single piece with the piston. Moreover changed disassembly procedure - it is now started with the guide tube and reciprocating mainspring. Those changes made to the tank gun Degtyarev (DTM). This made it possible to disassemble the gun and to eliminate minor faults without its removal from the installation of ball;
– We set the pistol control lever in the form of a slope, which was welded to the trigger guard, and two wooden cheeks, fixed to it by screws;
– simplified form butt;
– instead on manual machine gun you have entered a non-automatic circuit breaker safety lever type tank gun Degtyareva - beveled fuse checks axis at the trigger lever. Lock occurred at the front position flag. This fuse was safer, since I acted on the sear, making safer portability charged gun;
– a leaf spring in the ejection mechanism has been replaced by a cylindrical helical. The ejector installed in the valve seat, and used for its retention pin, also served its axis;
– folding bipod were performed neotemny, and several fastening hinges moved back and above relative to the bore axis. On top of the housing collar set of two welded plates, which formed eyelets, for mounting a bipod legs with screws. Bipod stronger than steel. To replace their trunk was not required to separate;
– gun weight decreased.
Soviet machine gunner with DP. Leningrad front, Nevsky Spot, September 1941 year.
Upgraded tank gun Degtyarev have adopted at the same time - 14 oktyabrya1944 year, release DT stopped 1 January 1945 of the year. Part of lightly loaded parts, such as, sliding butt gun DT to reduce the cost of cold forging performed. During the work of the proposed version of the PDM with a retractable butt in DT, but we stopped on a wooden fixed buttstock, as a more reliable and convenient. Also asked to provide a modernized tank gun Degtyarev weighted barrel with longitudinal dales (in experimental DC-42), but on this option declined. Total for the period from 1941 by 1945 years at the Kovrov plant №2 was released 809 823 DP machine gun, DT, PDM and DTM.
In addition to the Soviet Union, DP guns (DPM) It consisted in the armies of the GDR, China, Vietnam, Cuba, North Korea, Poland, MPR, Somalia, Syeishyell. DP machine gun produced in China under the designation "Type 53", This option was used in Vietnam, was armed Albanian Army.
"Degtyarev Infantry" on the Soviet Army was replaced by a new RPD machine gun raps under the intermediate 7.62 mm sample holder 1943 of the year. DP and DP reserves remaining in warehouses "floated" in the 80 – 90-ies during the post-perestroika military conflicts. These guns and fought in Yugoslavia.
Sample gun company commander 1946 of the year (RP-46)
Large dead weight and bulkiness of disk store Degtyarev machine guns caused numerous attempts to replace it with a tape food as before the Second World War, so while it is. Besides food tape made it possible in short periods of time to increase the fire power and thus fill the gap between the capabilities of machine-guns and hand. The war revealed the desire to increase the density of anti-personnel fire in the most important ways - if 42 year defensive density of small-arms fire on a meter from the front was 3 to 5 bullets, the summer 1943 , this figure during the Battle of Kursk was already 13-14 bullets.
Total for the machine gun infantry machine guns Degtyarev (including modernized) It has been developed 7 receiver embodiment under the tape. Locksmiths debuggers PP. Poles and AA. Dubinin in 1942 year to a manual machine gun DP developed another version of the receiver under the metal or canvas belt. In June of the same year with the machine guns receiver (Details performed by stamping) We tested at the site GAU but they returned for revision. Two receivers under the tape in the embodiment 1943 he presented Degtyarev (in one embodiment used reel receiver circuit Shpagina). But a lot of weight machine gun, having reached 11 kilogram, inconvenience to use the power system, as well as the workload of Kovrov plant №2 more urgent orders caused the interruption of this work.
However, all the work in this direction has not stopped. The successful development of food belt in the machine gun RPD was the basis for the resumption of work on the introduction of a similar power to a PD rifle cartridges. In May 1944 year tested DP standard and not yet put into service the upgraded PDM, receiver equipped with PP development. Polyakov, and AA. Dubinin - regular participants work on the modernization of the "Degtyarev Infantry" – under the direction of designer Shilina, involving locksmith debugger Lobanov. Eventually, the receiver's version was adopted.
The feed mechanism of the link arms metal tape drive movement of the bolt during its movement - similar to the principle used in the 12.7-millimeter DShK, Now, however, the movement of the receiver to handle transmitted through a special sliding bracket, rather than through the rocker arm. Tape – team leader metal, closed link. Innings – case. Special tray serves to guide the belt. Receiver Cover Latch housed similarly to latch stores DP (DPM).
Soviet machine-gun crew at the firing position in the ruins of Stalingrad
The trunk is weighted to allow firing long bursts. new barrel, need feed drive belt and a force for feeding cartridges from the tape required to modify the gas outlet assembly structure. Design, controls and layout of the rest of the gun were the same, as well as at the base DP. rate reached 250 rounds per minute, that three times the rate of DPM and was comparable with machine gun. On the effectiveness of fire at ranges up to 1000 meters, he approached and one machine gun, although the absence of the machine did not give the same manageability and accuracy.
24 May 1946 thus, the upgraded machine gun adopted a resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers, under the designation "7.62-mm machine gun company commander of the sample 1946 of the year (RP-46)». RP-46 was the last scion of a unified "family of DP" (DUR, although it was a development of the same scheme, It has become a fundamentally new weapon). The name "gun company commander" indicates the desire to fill a niche of automatic weapons support company commander level - machine guns were the battalion commander means, Hand - were platoons and divisions. According to its characteristics machine guns did not match the increasing mobility of infantry, could act only on the flanks or in the second line, rarely provide timely and sufficient support advanced lines of infantry in the face of increased rapidity and agility fight - especially on rough terrain, villages and mountains. At the same time, a light machine gun of the same caliber fire did not develop the necessary power. In fact, it was carried out on a temporary replacement of a "single" machine gun, which is still absent in weapon system, or - on the next step to the creation of a single national gun. RP-46 machine gun, who was in 3 times lighter SGM, significantly superior to the regular gun maneuverability. In addition the RP-46 was included in the set of weapons to light armored vehicles (Airborne ASU-57) as an auxiliary weapon of self-defense.
Marines, the attached artillery tractor T-20 “Komsomol”, In the photo you can see DT. Sevastopol, September 1941 of the year.
The combination of waste in the production system and a receiver, Parts harvested from cold forming, allowing you to quickly set up production of a new gun. Belt fed ammunition reduced the weight of portable calculation - if the RP-46 unloaded weighed more on DP 2,5 kg, then the total weight of the RP-46 with ammunition on 500 ammunition was 10 kilogram less, than the DP who had the same ammo. Machine gun was equipped with a shoulder support and a folding carrying handle. But a separate cartridge box is straightforward in battle, since the change of the RP-46 positions in most cases required to remove the tape and charge it to the new position.
RP-46 for 15 years was in service. His easel and replaced by general-purpose machine gun SGM PC. In addition to the USSR, RP-46 was in service in Algeria, Albania, Angola, Bulgaria, Benin, Kampuchii, Congo, China, in Cuba, in Libya, Nigeria, Togo, Tanzania. In China, a copy of the RP-46 produced under the designation "Type 58", and in North Korea – "Type 64". Although the volume of the release of RP-46 considerably conceded to the "parent", today he has encountered in some countries.
Turret TUR-5 under the two machine guns Degtyarev. Clearly visible bags for collecting shells shoot
The performance characteristics of the DP-27 machine gun
– Adopted: 1928
– Constructor: Degtyarev, Vasily
– designed: 1927 year
– Total production: 795 000
Weight DP-27 machine gun
– 9.12 kg (with bipod); 1.6 kg (empty magazine); 2.7 kg (Curb shop)
The dimensions of the DP-27 machine gun
– Length, mm: 1270
– barrel length, mm: 604.5 (without plamegasitelya)
Cartridge DP-27 machine gun
– 7,62× 54 mm R
DP-27 caliber machine gun
– 7,62 mm
Rate of DP-27 machine gun
– 500-600 rounds / min; 80 (military)
bullet speed DP-27 machine gun
– 840 m / s (with a light bullet cartridge)
Effective range of DP-27 machine gun
– 800 m
Magazine capacity DP-27 machine gun
– flat disc magazine on 47 rounds
– to 2500 m
Work principles: removal of powder gases, locking the sliding lugs
Photos DP-27 machine gun
Machine gunner with the DP-27 A. Kushnir and the soldier with the rifle Mosin In. Orlik otrazhayut enemy attack. Southwestern Front, Kharkov sector
Soviet assault steel compartment in bibs CH-42 and DP-27 guns. Guards Stormoviks after combat missions. 1-and ShYSBr. 1-First Byelorussian Front, summer 1944 g.
RPD machine gun system (DPM) Countdown. 1944 g
Mongolian soldiers with a machine gun DP-27
Gun served two people: shooter and his assistant, who was suffering from a box 3 discs.