NATO cartridges in the cartridge clip.
The process of improving small arms 60s was aimed at weight reduction, increase nosimogo boekomplekta, increase the probability that within sighting range by reducing the recoil momentum and increase the initial speed of the bullet.
The first Americans began, take in the 1963-1964 gg. on arms cartridge 5,56 mm M193 rifle M16A1, wherein the lead bullet has a core and tompakovskuyu (copper + zinc) shell. AT 1980 g. on arms joined to the cartridge bullet M855 high breakdown action composite core - tip thermostrengthened of steel and the tail portion of the lead. Later, the United States followed suit and the other member countries of the North Atlantic Alliance.
The Soviet Union did not remain on the sidelines with a delay, but I took in 1974 was adopted cartridge with a bullet caliber 7N6 5,45 mm. bullet steel shell, plakyrovannaya tombac, a steel core with a thin lead jacket. In bullet partially hollow spout, for optimum aerodynamic shape. The thing is, what, the official version, the bullet had done long enough in a weight saving of ammunition, which led to a vacuum in the head. A common feature of all is the speed of bullets 900-990 m / s, and it puts them in the category of high-speed.
To mitigate and reduce the caliber, respectively, reduce the harmful effect of the bullets learned to "tumble" in dense media, which dramatically increased the possibility of a bullet. Did this not absurd to shift the center of gravity, as many, a special selection step rifling of the weapon barrel. Eloquent result of the introduction of high-speed small-caliber bullets began to gunshot wounds, who applied 5.56-mm bullets during the Vietnam War. They were much more severe, than similar damage to the caliber bullets 7,62 mm. Extensive output gaping hole, the fragmentation of the long bones, as well as frequent cases of bullet fragmentation became the basis for the prosecution of Americans to use unique "dum-dum".
International medical and legal community even said a possible violation of the provisions of the Hague Declaration 1899 of the year. International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) took measures for detailed study of the damaging effect of new bullets, and this issue was raised at the Diplomatic Conference in Geneva 1973-77 gg. An international symposium on wound ballistics, which took place in Gothenburg, Sweden with 1975 by 1985 year Among the main topics were just like behavioral problems of small-caliber bullets in the human body. During these meetings and conferences have been nominated direct accusations caliber bullets 5,56 mm rifle M16A1.
NATO cartridge 5,56h45 sample. At the pool visible characteristic band, responsible for fragmentation.
The same claims by the ICRC have been put forward to the Soviet Union after adopting bullet 5,45 mm. However, a consensus parties to the dispute failed to come to any of the workshops because of the radically different views of a number of member states. So, Sweden, Egypt, Yugoslavia and Switzerland generally offered prohibit irrevocably such bullets at a high initial rate and the effect of, similar to the expansive weapon. The delegations of these countries drew attention to the fact, that the effect of the caliber 5,56 mm of flesh violates the basic criterion of the International Humanitarian Law, which clearly states the inadmissibility of causing unnecessary suffering. Also on hand were playing prosecution results of the Diplomatic Conference 1977 of the year, in which the term "unnecessary suffering" specified to "excessive damage". At these terminological nuances and charges built line of the US Armed Forces.
At the Diplomatic Conference at the third session 1976 suggested by the Swedish prohibit caliber bullets with a muzzle velocity 1000 m / s, capable of tumbling and fragmented in the human body is more likely than 0,1. But power in the case of small-caliber already invested a lot of money, and nobody wanted at the request of some of Sweden to turn back. opponents Swedes, in particular, We began to talk about the lack of theoretical and practical validity of the charges. Besides, pointed out, M193 bullet cartridges that have a continuous shell (in contrast to the "dum-dum"), and fragmentation in the victim's body is structurally provided (they are dissembled).
Swedes also pointed to the legal norms, condemning the infliction of unnecessary suffering without specifying the parameters of this suffering. And spoke about, that the course and outcome of a gunshot wound to largely depend on the quality and timeliness of the provision of medical care. Nail in the coffin of the Swedish prosecution hammered experimental calculations, which indicated, that 7,62 mm under certain conditions is able to "tumble" in the flesh.
Wound caliber bullets channel 5,45 mm. The length of the neck (portion of stable motion bullet in block) about 5 cm.
Wound caliber bullets channel 5,56 mm. Neck length minimum, is 2-3 cm - the bullet almost immediately begins to rotate in the body.
Wound caliber bullets channel 7,62 mm. The length of the neck (portion of stable motion bullet in block) 6-7 cm.
Such arguments have cooled the ardor of prosecutors, and they started on the 3rd and the 4th International Symposium on wound ballistics develop methodology for assessing the harmful effect of firearms. The objects proposed the use of animals - pigs weighing 25-50 kg and simulators - blocks 20% gelatin and glycerin soap transparent Swedish recipe. Block sizes were selected 100h100h140 mm and 200h200h270 mm. Very comfortable with their help was to investigate the amount of residual cavity in the blocks - it required her simply to fill with water from a graduated vessel. All this will eventually allow researchers to speak the same language - the conditions of the experiments were unified. On one of the assemblies were invited to leave alone the high-speed bullets and taken as the international limit the damaging effect of conventional bullets of 7.62 mm NATO cartridge M21 and 7.62mm Soviet sample holder 1943 of the year.
Comparative tests of bullets 5,56 mm 5,45 mm, carried out in the Soviet Union, show, Both ammunition surpass the damaging effect of "the classics" 7,62 mm (it already knew), but there are nuances. Domestic bullet more humane in relation to the victim, since almost fragmented in the body, that does not allow 5,45 mm classified as prohibited weapons. Our bullet is not destroyed due to strong steel shell, plakyrovannoy tombac. But an American bullet covered with pure red brass, which is less durable, and even spiced groove on the leading side, for which she breaks down in the body.
Foreigners also investigated Soviet bullet and mention it in 1989 year Swiss International Defense Review magazine: «Design features 5.45mm bullets to AK-74 are available in the cavity of the bullet head, however, the assumption, that the cavity will cause deformation of the bullet and the "explosive" effect in the wound, not confirmed».
The result of a multi-year campaign around the high-speed small-caliber bullet was the International Conference of the United Nations 1980 , on "Prohibitions or Restrictions on Certain Conventional Weapons, which may be deemed excessively damaged or have indiscriminate effect ". In the final Protocol to the Convention was not a word about the bullets of caliber 5,45 mm 5,56 mm, but it undetectable banned Shard, "Booby traps" and incendiary weapons. Bullets went only recommendatory resolution, which it expressed concern over "brutal" caliber 5,45 mm 5,56 mm. countries, within the UN, It was also recommended more active in wound ballistics, and report the results publicly.
1 - gunshot fracture of the middle third of the leg by a bullet caliber 7,62 mm. There is a deviation from the initial direction of motion bullets.
2 - gunshot fracture of the middle third of the leg by a bullet caliber 5,56 mm. There is a complete fragmentation (destruction) bullet.
3 - gunshot fracture of the middle third of the leg by a bullet caliber 5,45 mm. There is a bullet broke off nozzle.
Later studies bullet kinetic energy loss of values in living tissue showed, that 9mm pistol bullet «Para» cartridges loses up 15 Joules per centimeter of wound channel (15 J / cm), 7.62mm bullet from the cartridge has been to M21 30 J / cm, a small-caliber bullet 5,56 mm may save in living tissue under various conditions to 100 J / cm! This is perhaps the most lethal weapon of the small! Swiss experts in ballistics after such experiments offered to ban the munitions, fabrics that transmit the kinetic energy of an average of more 25 J / cm.
Studies of domestic small arms gelatin blocks shown, that the average values of the loss of kinetic energy in tissues for bullets 5,45 mm cartridge 7N6 equal 38,4 J / cm, and NATO on M193, on average lost 49,1 J / cm. Once again we proved, that domestic bullet is much more "humane" overseas counterpart, which is literally crumbling in the body at the giant overload. In experiments on shelled gelatin bullet blocks 5,56 mm, Hit the target with 10 m, almost guaranteed fragmented, and 100 meters of probability of failure was already 62%.
American engineers have calculated very thin fracture parameters bullet - it is for short distances in combat is very important stopping power of weapons. Otherwise, the bullet will simply pass right through, causing the enemy to the horse a dose of adrenaline minimal damage. Russian bullets under no firing ranges on the simulator are not scattered, but only moved in the thickness of gelatin. By the way, bullet 7,62 mm sample 1943 g. showed the most modest option kinetic energy loss - just 13,2 J / cm.