7,62-mm Kalashnikov machine gun (PK) - Soviet machine gun, designed by Mikhail Kalashnikov as a single machine gun for the Armed Forces of the USSR. PC was adopted for the Armed Forces 1961 year. It has been used in many wars and armed conflicts of the second half of the XX century and the beginning of the XXI.
Machine gun Kalashnikov PKM – video
Under the influence of the experience of the Second World War, in which the Wehrmacht successfully used general-purpose machine gun MG 34 and MG 42, already in 1946 (when it was adopted by the gun RP-46) SAU approved the tactical and technical requirements for general-purpose machine gun to replace the heavy machine guns of Maxim and SG-43. In the USSR, the idea of a single machine gun, suitable for mounting on bipod and field machines, offered more small arms designer Vladimir Fedorov in the early 1920s.
In connection with this unfolded active designing new class gun under rifle cartridge 7,62 × 54 mm R for Soviet army. The earliest projects were gun George Garanina 1947 year and machine gun Basil Degtyaryova the same year. The first option was rejected, and the second was no one to refine because of the death of the creator.
In the late 1950s a process involved Izhevskie designers headed by Michael Kalashnikov. In addition to his, as part of future development were in the gun. AT. Krupin, AT. n. Leo, A. D. Kryakushin etc.. As a basis they took a well-established pattern of Kalashnikov assault rifles, distinguished by reliability and simplicity.
Kalashnikov machine guns PC
PK machine gun (factory index E-2) It was the most recent project from the competition, only in 1959 he passed evaluation tests, Unlike, eg, its main competitor - the Tula gun Nikitin and Sokolova design, which is already in 1956 year had working prototypes. This forced the team of workers and designers to work in emergency mode, navorstyvaya lost time. Final competition tests 1960 year revealed the benefits of machine-gun Nikitin-Sokolov:
– using a standard tape SGM / Maxim / RP-46;
– It is less sensitive to the gap between the piston and the gas tube;
– much less sensitive to soak, that is critically needed for use in armored vehicles, where it is imperative to boost water obstacles;
– has adjustable locking mechanism, which facilitates the interchangeability of barrels;
– much easier to partial dismantling;
– less pollution and soot more simplicity in cleaning nozzle;
– more durable parts;
– on 300 grams less weight.
20 October 1961 year by the Council of Ministers of the USSR № 953-405 Kalashnikov machine gun was adopted by the Army. PC and PKS (Grau index: 6P6 and 6P3) the order of the Ministry of Defense number 0287 put into service 28 December 1961, and FCT (GRAU index - 6P7) the order of the Ministry of Defense number 269 2 December 1962.
Production of machine guns placed at the Kovrov Mechanical Plant.
And in 1969 It appeared upgraded your PC to the machine design Stepanova. weight was reduced in a machine gun 9 to 7,5 kg, It simplifies the production and ease of use. Stepanova machine on 3,2 kg legche stanka Samozhenkova, the ratio of machine weight to the weight of the gun with decreased 0,86 to 0,6, and the weight of the machine gun (without tape) - to 12,0 kg, but the accuracy of fire is not deteriorated. Accordingly, the new version of the machine guns were designated PKM, PKMS, PKTM and PKMB. The new contest the main competitor at PKM machine gun Nikitina was again design, but structurally different.
Variants and modifications
PK - Kalashnikov machine gun with bipod.
Variants of the PCB and the PCB are different from PC only original equipment, defining their purpose:
– If the PC is installed on the tripod machine, something called PKS (easel).
– If the PC is installed on an armored personnel carrier (with the help of the swing arm), something called PKB (bronetransportorny). The swing arm is officially called the "Install". The machine gun was placed only on APCs, without tower (in armored personnel carriers with a tower used FCT).
Tripod machine to PKS and PKB had to install a serial number and is fixed in a certain unit of a machine gun in the logbook entry. All three machine guns (more precisely - one in three titles, whichever, where installed) put into service in 1961 year instead of RP-46, SGM and SGMB respectively.
Tripod machine for PCB facilitates aimed fire from a machine gun bunker or trench, fire on air targets and firing in the highlands.
Installation for FCB consists of a swivel (providing traverse), sector (providing Elevation), holder (holding the cartridge box with increased capacity to 200/250 rounds), a return spring suspension emollient, frame (connecting with the installation of a machine gun) and gilzoulavlivatelya (avoids cluttering up the interior space APCs). The PCB design were not removable bipod and applied as an ordinary PC, allowing, if necessary, use it outside of combat vehicle.
PCB was used in armored personnel carriers, had the structure with an open top without turning tower (BTR-40, BTR-152, BRDM-1, BTR-50) as well as the crazy early versions of the BTR-60 - BTR-60P and BTR-60PA. Since these types of armored personnel carriers were almost completely taken out of service the USSR Armed Forces, This modification is a rare.
PTP - Kalashnikov modernized machine gun. Adopted in 1969 year to replace the PC. It is less weight.
– Embodiments had in the original equipment tripod machine or installation are called the PKMS and PKMB.
For use in the embodiment PKMS at the same time a new tripod machine 6T5 Stepanova design was adopted. While retaining all the positive qualities of the previous machine he 3 kg lighter, and in addition it has:
- special straps for securing in the stowed position the boxes with ribbons; thus in the stowed position with the machine is transferred to 2 boxes with ribbons on 200 rounds;
- mounting on machine legs for boxes with ribbon in firing position; thus combat soldier can carry a gun, together with the machine and the cartridge box, without pulling the tape from the machine gun.
Besides, as well as in the machine Samozhenkova, the new machine can be mounted machine gun for anti-aircraft fire.
FCT - Kalashnikov machine gun tank, with a heavier barrel and equipped with electric trigger. It is installed in the towers of tanks and other armored vehicles (BMP, BMD, BTR-60PB / 70/80/90, MT-LB, BMPT, BRDM-2, BRM-1K). Adopted in 1962 year to replace the gun SGMT.
Kalashnikov PKM machine guns
PKTM - tank gun Kalashnikov modernized. Adopted in 1998 year.
AEK-999 "Badger" - PKM machine gun with a new barrel manufacturing Kovrov Mechanical Plant. The biggest change in the weapon design as compared to the one PKM machine gun is a new non-replaceable barrel, wherein the materials used for aviation. The removable device low noise shooting, can significantly reduce the acoustic load on the machine-gun crew members and reduce visibility by reducing noise and muzzle flash exceptions. there is evidence, that the sound of a shot, depending on the type and terrain, no more be heard at a distance of 400-600 m. Above the gun barrel is heat diffuser, which reduces the distorting effect of warm air to the line of sight and the barrel structure gives stiffness. trunk resource 33-40 thousand shots.
Pechenegishes - PKM with the barrel due to the forced cooling energy propellant gases. Developed in TSNIITOCHMASH.
A type 80 - Chinese RMB. Gun entered service with the PLA in the 1980s in 1983 year. first it was assumed, that type 80 will replace the previously developed in China Type 67, well-established at the site in Chengdu Military Region. But then the development has been phased out, and remained in service only Type 67. Several samples Type 80 They were tested in the Chinese Navy, then they were modernized, and the Army received a modification type 86, which was placed on the arms of the PLA.
Flag M84 - Serbian RMB. Of differences - the butt of solid wood.
Kalashnikov machine gun using the vapor-automatic, Locking barrel by turning the bolt. Fire is conducted only bursts, with an open shutter. In infantry and bronetransportornom embodiments gun equipped with a foldable bipod, skeletal stock and pistol grip fire control. The easel embodiment gun is mounted on a universal folding machine tripod. For firing at air targets machine has a special post-adapter. Sights are open, adjustable. The machine gun can also be equipped with optical or night sights.
RMB Hungarian army
The trigger mechanism of a reciprocating mainspring, It provides only automatic fire. Vapor node has three-position gas regulator. Cooling air trunk, quick change barrel, for easy replacement has a carrying handle. Stock is - nerassypnoy of the metal strip, feed belts - just right.
Partial disassembly of PKM machine guns
Cartridge feeding from tape - two stage, during the withdrawal of the bolt is pulled back from the tape cartridge extractor grips and reduced by feeding line. Then, After pressing the trigger, slide group moves forward, cartridge shall be sent to the trunk. Is cocked on the bolt carrier, c connected her drummer. When, after the shutter locking bolt carrier continues to move forward, under its action the firing pin moves through the channel in the seal cap splits skeleton and. In the embodiment, tank gun (FCT) instead trigger mounted electromagnetic trigger (electric trigger), includes a button located on the unit pointing guns on a tank or BMP or located on the handle to turn the tower BTR. Electric trigger is connected to the onboard power cable protected armored flexible pipe of a length of twisted wire 50 centimeters. In the event of failure or absence of electric trigger voltage on-board network of armored vehicles, embodiment in a tank gun (FCT) It provides mechanical opening fire system. Mechanical descent located above electric trigger unit on the back plate of the receiver and presented to a horizontal trigger, retained vertical securing strap. Machine guns Series PC / PCM with extremely high reliability and are very popular among the troops.
Tank machine gun PKT
Tank variant has a heavy and long barrel, as well as the modified vent assembly to reduce the gas content of the crew compartment. Heavy barrel with thicker walls allows for a more intense fire without replacing the barrel. On tank variant no iron sights, example, pistol grip and bipod. In order to open fire used electric trigger, connectable to the onboard network.
In the absence of voltage on-board network, in the back of the receiver box FCT, over electric trigger unit, there is a mechanical trigger, configured in the form of vertically extending trigger, held by a spring-loaded fuse, located in a horizontal plane. projections fuse is included with the grooves trigger, than it fixes. In this case, works necessary for firing the fuse to press down and press the trigger towards the shot. At the end of the firing trigger and fuse under the influence of spring back to its original position when the trigger guard locks.
The only full-time dedicated device for PBC is the so-called tube boresight (HCI), serving to reconcile the tank and machine gun sight, is fixed individually for each machine gun.
Remaking PKT machine gun in the infantry version
In numerous local conflicts in the early '90s, on the territory of the former USSR, representatives of illegal armed groups emerged an acute demand for hand guns as the main means of supporting the infantry. At the same time, the warring parties, a large number of guns PKT, abducted in military units, taken from a damaged in the fighting or incapacitated armor. A natural step to overcome such a deficit should be regarded as small-lot production of the alteration in the conditions of civil Profile tank guns PKT machine shops in the infantry version.
alteration scheme, most widely, It was as follows:
- C shot gun electric trigger unit.
- To make room on the back plate receiver, overlaid steel plates for the side walls of the receiver klopochnym compound was attached to the butt of a pistol grip-piece plastic piece or multiple layers of glued plywood.
- Safety bar removed, and partially trimmed trigger hook was connected with a homemade, under which to cut a slit in the bottom of the receiver.
- At node barrel vent fastened by bolting a bracket tin bipod of thick steel rod with pointed ends.
- With the barrel in front of the welding projection fastened to front sight.
- On the cover of the receiver klopochnym connection joined steel angle with a radial cut, played the role of sight leaf.
In view of the maximum simplification of the process of remaking, machine guns on received no such elements infantry gun PKM, as: fire fuse, bracket for mounting box with cartridges, the safety bar on the trigger, holder on the bipod for precast ramrod, nest in the butt for grease nipples and foam cleaning accessories. Due to such simplifications converted PKT machine gun inferior to RMB on the dimensional and weight parameters, for easy carrying in a battle, security and accuracy of aimed fire. The only advantage of FCT converted to PCM was the ability to conduct a more intense and long-lasting thanks to the fire weighted barrel.
Guns of similar design used extensively during the Karabakh war, during the first and second Chechen wars, in the civil war in Tajikistan, in the South Ossetian war (1991—1992), in the Georgian-Abkhazian war (1992—1993).
In the course of military operations in the Donbass converted FCT used militias from Gorlovka and Ukrainian troops.
Azerbaijan: produced two versions of the PTP (chambered 7,62 × 54 mm R): общевойсковой UP-7.62 (the weight 7,5 kg) and a special HP-7.62 (the weight 7 kg).
Bangladesh: manufactured by Bangladesh Ordnance Factories under BD-14 index.
Bulgaria: in 1971-1973 years it was mastered and started mass production of machine guns PC, and in 1976-1978 years - a tank machine gun PKT, PCM now produced by "Arsenal"; further, have been developed modified variants gun PKM chambered 7,62 × 51 mm NATO;
Iran: manufactured by Defense Industries Organization;
China: PCT discharged called Type 59T; PCM type manufactured under the name 80. The export version chambered 7,62 NATO made under the symbol CF06 or CS / LM4;
North Korea: manufactured under the designation Type 73 in a variant with a combined power: 30-round magazine or cartridge tape.
Poland: guns PC (PKM), FCT (POINT) and modifications are made 1968 of the year, after the transition to NATO standards in the years 1997-2000 Tarnów mechanical plant was developed embodiment UKM-2000 under the cartridge 7,62 × 51 mm.
Russia: PTP, PKTM, PKMS, PKMB manufactured by "Degtyarev plant";
Romania: PKM machine gun manufactured by Romarm (division "Kudzhirskaya arms factory") under the name Mitraliera md. 66 and FCT under the name MMB;
Serbia: PC machine gun manufactured by "Zastava Arms" under the name Zastava M84, FCT - under the name Zastava M86;
Sudan: manufactured by Military Industry Corporation under the name Mokhtar;
Ukraine: plant "Mayak" made PKM (under the name KM 7.62) and FCT (under the name CT 7.62
The performance characteristics of the PC machine gun
– Adopted: 1961
– Total production: more 1000000
– options: PK, PKS, PKB, FCT, PTP, PKMS, PKMB, PKTM
Weight PC machine gun
– 9.0 kg PC on bipod
– 16.5 kg PKC the machine Samozhenkova
– 7.5 kg RMB on bipod
– 10.5 kg PKTM
– 12.0 kg PKMS the machine Stepanova
– 3.9 kg box with a ribbon on the curb 100 rounds
– 3.4 kg lightweight box with a ribbon on the curb 100 rounds
– 8.0 kg box with a ribbon on the curb 200 rounds
– 6.2 kg lightweight box with a ribbon on the curb 200 rounds
The dimensions of the PC machine gun
– Length, mm: 1173 with a conical flash hider; 1192 long slotted flash hider; 1160 short slot flame arrestor
– barrel length, mm: 605 without plamegasitelya; 658 with a conical flash hider; 677 long slotted flash hider; 645 short slot flame arrestor
PC cartridge gun
– 7,62× 54 mm R
PC Caliber machine gun
– 7,62 mm
Rate PC machine gun
– 650 (PK, PTP); 750 (FCT) rounds / min
PC speed bullet gun
– 825 m / s (PK, PTP); 855 m / s (FCT) - all the data for LPS bullet with steel core
Sighting range PC machine gun
– 1500 m
Maximum range, m: 3800 (LPS bullet from a steel core)
Work principles: removal of powder gases, Butterfly valve
type boepitaniya: tape on 100/200/250 rounds
Aim: mechanical (male and steel)
Kalashnikov machine gun on the machine 6T5 PKMS Stepanova design
Butt plate PKM (case) equipped with soft shoulder pads, intended for more rigid fixation gun when firing
Shyelyevyye plamyegasityeli pulyemyotov (down up): PK, PKM early releases, RMB of current
Shotgun PCF (PK Stanka 6T2 Samozhenkova) with a cartridge box with a ribbon on 250 rounds