Author: Victor Korablin
According to the existing classification of barrel-attached grenade launcher - a kind of rifle grenade, is located under the barrel of the main weapons. rifle grenade, as a means of increasing autonomy and tactical firepower of small units of infantry, They were created as early as during the First World War. The first rifle grenades were fixed on the muzzle of the barrel and got the name - muzzle grenade. For firing a grenade used special blank cartridges.
In the USSR, 1928 year has been adopted grenade Dyakonova, is attached to the muzzle of the barrel 7.62-mm rifle arr. 1891/30 g. However, the disadvantage of its use, low efficiency of fragmentation grenades remote actions, and the need to remove the grenade from a rifle before firing live ammunition, limited its use in combat.
AT 1944-45 gg. in the Soviet Union on arms were taken grenade VG-44 to 7.62 mm carbine arr. 1944 r and UH-45 7.62mm SKS carbine. For firing a grenade launcher used 40-mm cumulative (VPG-1) and fragmentation (VOG-1) grenades. This grenade is also attached to the muzzle of rifles, a special blank cartridges are used for firing a grenade. In view of the low efficiency, and especially small power of pomegranate, the grenade launcher not widely used.
Before World War II in the USSR and rifle grenades were created. AT 1941 It was entered into service rifle antitank grenade system Serdyukov intracavity OPO-41 type shompolnye. However, due to the unreliability and insecurity grenades, and the low accuracy of fire, she was in 1942 g was removed from service.
Assessing listed development, It should be noted, that one of the main problems, not solved in the time, It was to create a reliable and effective grenades in the small caliber, determined by the weight and size requirements of wearable weapons.
The first experiments on the creation of a new multi-purpose combined arms free of the shortcomings muzzle grenades and rifle grenades, It began in the USSR in the early 1960s. Similar work was carried out at the time and in the US.
An employee of the Central Design Bureau of Sporting and Hunting Weapons (TsKIB COO, g. Tula) K.V.Demidov proposed a new two-stage ballistic scheme grenade. The essence of the proposal was, that at the bottom of the grenade had a shank with a smaller diameter propelling charge, than the actual pomegranate. Shank, piston, It was introduced into a high pressure the bolt grenade. The pressure in this breech is several times greater than the pressure in the caliber of the barrel, thus increasing the density of loading, It provided early propellant combustion and stable characteristics of the shot.
Work on the creation of the first domestic grenade was launched on its own initiative in TsKIB RBT 1965 K.V.Demidovym year together with V.V.Rebrikovym. Made model samples were shown to representatives of Ministry of Defense of the USSR, and from April 1967 year started OCD "Iskra" on the development of "shooting device and shot with high-cumulative grenade to AKM". Also TsKIB COO were performed sketched-design studies 40mm cumulatively fragmentation-shot.
However, the required characteristics of the power of grenades and shooting accuracy was not achieved, and on the "Spark" R & D work was stopped. The reasons for the failure of steel incorrectly specified requirements grenade launcher and not entirely successful design itself grenades.
Nevertheless, positive experience with this type of weapon by the US Army in Vietnam forced to resume work. Ministry of Defense before the designers were tasked with creating weapons, surpassing the US for a number of indicators attached grenade launcher M203.
As a result, 1971 year started development work "Fire" to create a grenade complex with the fragmentation grenade. The head developer of the complex and the grenade was determined TsKIB COO, lead developer of shots - NPO "Pribor", developer of fuses for grenades - Research Institute of Technology, developer throwing and lifting charge - Kazan NIIHP.
The transfer of ammunition to develop a new grenade launcher specialist company and determined the ultimate success of future development.
As a result of the ROC "Bonfire" was created and 1978 It was adopted by the Soviet Army grenade launcher, consisting of a 40 mm grenade launcher GP-25 (chief designer VN. calf) and shots thereto with fragmentation grenade FOG-25 and with fragmentation "bouncing" grenade FOG-25P. Grenade launcher attached under the barrel AKM, AKMS, AK74 and AKS74.
The grenade launcher is rifled barrel. Self-cocking trigger mechanism grenade provides high combat readiness and security of the complex carrying in a charged state. Fuse lever type, turned on the trigger block. For the convenience of dealing with a grenade launcher on the body trigger mechanism fixed pistol grip. Loading the grenade produced a muzzle, Unloading and - by clicking on the extractor. Grenade is held in a spring-loaded barrel lock, who is also a fuse with incomplete chambering grenades in the trunk.
Muzzle loading grenade launcher, as well as the absence of the sleeve to allow 6 aimed shots per minute. Sights open type is placed on the left side of the grenade launcher and provides the shooting line and the half-blank (Mounted on the trajectory). When shooting at hinged trajectories of unobservable goals (in the trenches, in ravines or on the reverse slopes of heights) the desired angle of elevation arms attached plumb sight. Derivation grenades taken into account in the sight automatically when you install the sight.
On the butts of their guns mounted rubber recoil pad to attenuate the effects of recoil grenade launcher on his shoulder arrow, as well as reducing the effort, perceived butt when shooting with the focus in the hard ground.
Unlike the American prototype, the development of the Soviet grenade launcher designers, without being linked with the old ammunition, We decided to set up a shot of a fundamentally new design based on the proposals K.V.Demidova.
Double chamber ballistic engine, which form the grenades and shank breech grenade, provided, with virtually equal to the initial firing velocity from American counterpart, reduction of the impact and the possibility of increasing the mass fragmentation grenade. Besides, placing propellant in the shank grenades excluded such operation, as extraction of spent cartridges. After another arrow shot to just get another grenade from his bag, insert it into the muzzle of the launcher and hand in these pressing it all the way into the barrel.
grenade launcher production was mastered Tula Arms Plant. Marines, armed with small arms and grenade launcher, We were able to hit the manpower and firepower, not only openly located, but also are in the field shelters open and the various obstacles. Creating later, in addition to fragmentation, and other types of grenades of different purposes, and the harmful effect of significantly expanded its ability to engage enemy infantry.
40-mm round with a fragmentation grenade FOG-25 has a grenade with projections on the drive collar of. This helped to stabilize the flight grenades rotation, without creating an excessive pressure in the barrel grenade launcher and make it relatively easy. Head percussion fuze with long-cocked (10-40 meters from the muzzle) and samolikvidatsiey. It ensures the safety of a grenade during transportation and instant subverting it in contact with an obstacle. The radius of the solid splinter, formed by crushing an organized body, is 6 m.
In addition to the VOG-25, to improve the efficiency engage manpower in open facilities and zalegshey behind cover areas, It was developed and adopted by a shot from "bouncing" grenade - VOG-25P. When injected into the ground and triggered fuse undermined by a special charge. He throws a grenade at a height of 0.5-1.5 m, and where there is undermining of the base charge. When you break the grenades in the air density of the fragmentation of the field and significantly increases the probability of hitting the target.
In the early 2000s modernized shots VOG-25M were developed in the NGO "instrument" to replace the VOG-25 rounds and VOG-25P, VOG-25PM. They have a new unified body with crushing organized at undermining. The number of fragments and their energy to provide 1,5 times more likely to defeat live targets, than the grenades VOG-25. Grenade VOG-25PM, how and grenade VOG-25P, It has a special charge, providing tossing grenades over the ground before explosion.
new fuse grenades mechanism provides its arming in 10-40 meters from the muzzle grenade launcher and reliable undermining when meeting with various obstacles, including, snow and water surface. In case of failure of the fuse during the self-destruction occurs with 14-19 grenades. Fuse ensures safe handling of a grenade, charged in grenade.
To enhance the independence of the small tactical units and infantry to perform specific tasks in various security agencies, armed with grenade launchers are, in the first decade of the 2000s in the FSUE "FSPC" Pribor "and the Research Institute of Applied Chemistry (NIIPH, g. Sergiev Posad) It was created gamma ammunition of various special purpose - Shots with high-explosive, thermobaric, incendiary, light and sound, lighting and signaling grenades.
WFH-25 shots with high-explosive and VG-40TB with a thermobaric warhead provide defeat the enemy, located in an open area, in field type shelters, in different areas, in fortifications and natural obstacles. Besides, they are guaranteed to destroy objects soft-skinned vehicles. The peculiarity of the action of these grenades is, that they have a multifactorial defeat: explosive, fragmentation and incendiary. Due to this and to ensure their high efficiency at destroying enemy personnel and unarmored targets.
To create smoke screens in an open area, to both natural and artificial shelters, as well as to create fires on the ground, indoor and soft-skinned vehicles, containing flammable and flammable materials were developed 40-mm-25 shots VZG incendiary, VG-40DZ with smoke and incendiary grenades and smoke producing HD-40 action. One grenade VZG-25 can provide at least 3 fires, with the temperature of combustion to the composition 2 000°C. SH-garnet 40DZ formulation provides a continuous length of smokescreen 5 m and height and 2,5 m. Besides, shot a grenade to create 10 fires. The firing range is from these grenades 50 to 400 m.
For the instant creation of a smokescreen to hide if necessary maneuver their units shot GDM-40 with a smoke grenade instant action was created. This provides garnet for 1 ... 2 seconds after the shot formation at a range of 40 ... 50 m-solid aerosol smoke cloud size up 10 m in length and up to 3 m in height. Time existence of the cloud is 20 ... 30, that is sufficient to carry out from under enemy fire and maneuver exit.
Temporary neutralization of the enemy is provided by the explosion of light and sound grenades VG-40SZ and SG-40. The defeat of the live purpose made a bright blinding flash and a high level of sound. On distance 10 m from grenades discontinuity places the sound level is not less than 135 dB. The simultaneous effect of these two factors provides a temporary loss of orientation and suppression of psycho-volitional stability of human.
To apply light and sound signals and lighting areas when shooting from grenade launchers shots combined with signal cartridges have been developed, special signal cartridges, lighting besparashyutnym and parachute ammunition.
Combined signal cartridge to the grenade launcher intended for simultaneous supply of fire color and the reflected radar signals. After firing of such a cartridge at a height 300 m illuminates bright red zvezdki, combustion time which is not less than 6 seconds. Besides, cloud when the cartridge is triggered radiootrazhayuschih dipoles formed area not less than 10-12 m2. This cloud allows you to receive the reflected radio signal at a distance of not less than 10-12 km. Burning zvezdki can be seen with the naked eye in daylight at a distance of up to 3 km, and at night - almost 10 km.
Signal cartridge supplies the red or green signal. Height zvezdki rise to 200 m, Combustion time at least 10 from. Such a signal is visible during the day at a distance of 3 km, and the night before 10 km.
To ensure coverage area and target illumination at night developed special parachute flares and besparashyutnye. The main difference in the length of time terrain lighting, flame height range and staging. Both types of lighting ammunition, provide a range of illumination to the area 250 m the light level is not less than 1 LCS. Range staging flame for lighting and lighting besparashyutnogo parachute cartridge is 200 and 400 m, respectively,, and for parachute flares extended range 500, 800 and 1200 m. While covering the area for at least cartridge besparashyutnogo 9 from, a parachute - at least 20 from.
with inert grenade or a practical shot VSL-25 shots VOG-25 is used for training. Practical shot can also be used for targeting. For this, he has a smoke charge, which within 10-15 seconds ensures the formation of a cloud of smoke red-orange color. Their ballistics matches grenade.
Grenade launchers GP-25, start with a clean anti-tasks, It becomes an indispensable firepower infantry branch. Their main purpose in tactical combined arms combat, at the firing range of up to 400 m, It is the overlapping zone, inaccessible to throw a hand grenade, to turn a safe distance from the gaps of their artillery shells. The recent establishment of the entire Gama special ammunition of different purposes, We have greatly expanded their capabilities, We have made them popular in the special law enforcement units.
Today replaced GP-25 grenade adopt various power structures come grenade GP-30M and SE-34. For shooting of them used all of these types of grenades.