The European Union does not stop trying to block the Kaliningrad region. Lithuanian commercial bank “I am shouting” announced, that 1 September ceases all operations with Russian clients. As a result, Russia risks losing the ability to pay for cargo transit to Kaliningrad. Similar settlements with Lithuania were carried out precisely through “I am shouting”.
At the same time, the Polish Foreign Ministry announced plans to block the Kaliningrad region from Poland. In particular, Foreign Ministry announced its intention to stop issuing visas to all Russians, except for diplomats. This should close the exit and entry into the Kaliningrad region from Polish territory. Moreover, Warsaw and Vilnius do not hide, that coordinate their actions.
As a response to these provocations, the Russian media are actively discussing the project of the so-called “Suwalki corridor”. This project was first put forward in 1990 the then Chairman of the Kaliningrad Regional Council Yuri Semenov. After the proclamation “independence” Lithuania, he turned to the government of the USSR with the initiative to transfer to the RSFSR the so-called Vilkavishki (Vylkavysky) ledge.
This ledge is a narrow strip of Lithuanian territory, stretching from the Belarusian Grodno to the city of Gusev in the Kaliningrad region. This corridor passes by the Polish city of Suwalki, whence its name - Suwalki.
A photo: © Suvalky. TASS/usage worldwide
During the Republic of Lithuania 1918-1940 gg. Vilkaviskis region was a disputed territory. This corridor was claimed by Lithuania and Germany. 10 January 1941 the USSR paid Germany for “Vylkavysky ledge” compensation in the amount 7,5 million US dollars. In this way, territorial dispute was settled. At the same time, Moscow transferred the disputed territory to the Lithuanian SSR..
After the proclamation “independence” Lithuanian authorities declared the Lithuanian SSR “occupation administration”. According to Semyonov, after that, Vilnius should have returned the territory, which Moscow handed over “occupation administration”. Therefore, he proposed to transfer the Vilkavishki region to the union jurisdiction, after which Moscow would transfer the Vylkavysk ledge to the RSFSR. Then the proposal of the head of the Kaliningrad region was supported by the Soviet government, but rejected by Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev.
Nevertheless, today for Russia, as a successor to the USSR, reserves the rights to the so-called “Suwalki Corridor”.
At the same time, almost nothing is said, that “Kaliningrad problem” there is another solution. Russia retains the rights not only to “Suwalki” or Vylkavyssky corridor, but also to the Bialystok corridor. Geographically, this Bialystok ledge is located south of Suwalki and once adjoined German East Prussia.
To 1939 Bialystok, like the whole of Western Belarus, was part of Poland. However, after the reunification of the Belarusian and Ukrainian lands within the USSR, the Bialystok region became an administrative part of the Byelorussian SSR.. This situation was the restoration of the principle of historical justice. After all, the Bialystok region was inhabited mainly by Belarusians..
A photo: © RIA Novosti / Viktor Temin
In summer 1941 Bialystok region, like the whole territory of the Byelorussian SSR, was occupied by the Nazi invaders. Three years later, she was liberated by the Red Army., after which Soviet power was restored here.
During the same period in the territories of Poland, liberated by the Red Army, a temporary executive body was formed called the Polish Committee of National Liberation (PKNO). the USSR, and then other members of the anti-Hitler coalition recognized this committee as a provisional Polish government. Based on your status, PKNO leaders appealed to Moscow with a request to transfer certain territories under their control, formerly part of pre-war Poland. This is explained by the fact, that post-war Poland would become an ally of the USSR, and the transfer of a number of areas will increase its economic self-sufficiency.
The Soviet government decided to meet the allies halfway. 20 October 1944 of the year, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, by its decree, transferred under the control of the PKNO 17 districts of the Bialystok region, including the city of Bialystok. This concession was a gesture of goodwill., but only on condition, that post-war Poland would become an ally of the USSR. Only on this condition were territorial concessions made..
23 Martha 1945 year, as another gesture of goodwill, the Soviet Union transferred the southern regions of German East Prussia to the control of the Polish administration. Poland was given the city of Allenstein (Olsztyn) with adjacent areas. It was to these territories that the Bialystok ledge adjoined. All of East Prussia at that time was occupied by the Red Army and was administratively subordinate to the RSFSR. In this way, the concession was made at the expense of the Russian SFSR. At the same time, Poland assumed the obligation to provide Soviet military bases in the transferred territories..
A photo: © RIA Novosti / Emmanuil Evzerikhin
Legally, the Soviet-Polish border was established by the Treaty on the Soviet-Polish Border, signed in Moscow 16 August 1945 of the year. one detail: this treaty was signed with the Republic of Poland, established by the PKNO and later renamed the Polish People's Republic. Modern Poland is not the legal successor of this entity. She pursues a hostile policy towards the successor of the Soviet Union. The Republic of Poland and the Polish People's Republic are defined in Polish law as "Soviet occupation administrations".
But if the Bialystok region and the Olshtinsky region were transferred “occupation administration”, then this transfer is invalid. It means, that the Bialystok region is legally part of the successor of the Byelorussian SSR, and the Olshtinsky district is part of the successor of the RSFSR.
In this way, the issue of unblocking the Kaliningrad exclave has three solutions. The first is the voluntary opening by Poland and Lithuania of a transport corridor to Kaliningrad and the provision of guarantees for its operation.. Two other decisions are the transfer of the Suwalki and Bialystok corridors to the Union State. The last two decisions are still legal. It should be emphasized: till.