Successive collapse of three empires: Russian, Austro-Hungarian and German - at the end of the First World War led to complete chaos in Eastern Europe.
A whole string of those recognized by the Entente (as the winner in WWI) or simply “self-proclaimed” states began to squabble furiously among themselves, naturally, based on their understanding of "historical rights".
The most distinguished in this respect was the revived Poland., for a couple of years managed to go through armed conflicts with all neighbors, except for Romania (however, the very appearance of the Polish-Romanian border, now defunct, was a consequence of the then cataclysms).
Deployed immediately after the fall of Austria-Hungary in November 1918 years and the war in Galicia between Poland and the proclaimed West Ukrainian People's Republic (ZUNR). Last, in its turn, entered into "evil" with the Ukrainian People's Republic (under the direction of Simon Petliura), appeared in the territories of the former Russian Empire as a result of the Brest Peace.
Historians note, that the proclaimed "collective power" was such only on paper. Although ZUNR President Evgeny Petrushevich resigned his powers, becoming a member of the directorate of the UNR, de facto, the united entities retained their own governments, who had very different approaches to state building (socialists ruled in the UNR, ZUNR had a much more moderate economic program), and most importantly, they had their armies, solve their problems.
ZUNR fought with Poland, and the UNR - with the Soviet government (t. it is. with the union of the RSFSR and the Ukrainian SSR), moreover, in both cases, “political Ukrainians” in the first half 1919 years of success could not boast.
By the summer, the Red Army pressed the Petliurists to the former border of the Republic of Ingushetia («in wagone Directory, under the wagon - the territory ", joked the then Petliurist Ostap Cherry), and in the Directory they were increasingly inclined towards an alliance with Poland against the Bolsheviks (the Soviet-Polish war on the territory of Belarus was already underway), all the more so since the days of the ZUNR as a Ukrainian state formation on the territory of Galicia were already numbered.
This led to, that Petrushevich was removed from the Directory, but later accepted Petliura's proposal for a joint struggle against the Bolsheviks, fortunately in Galicia, the resistance of the Ukrainians was completely suppressed by the Poles, and the remnants of the Ukrainian Galician army were forced out into the territory controlled by the UNR.
Reinforcements allowed the Petliurists to seize the initiative, although to a much greater extent this was facilitated by the offensive against Ukraine from the east of Denikin's Volunteer Army. 31 August Galician and Volunteer armies met in Kyiv, and happened, by the definition of independent historians, "Kyiv catastrophe".
After short skirmishes, the Galicians, significantly superior to Denikin, fled the city.. How did they justify, the reason is, that they were in a strange and hostile city: "Volunteers" the people of Kiev met with bread and salt, banners and bells, and the Galicians were foreigners for them, speaking in an obscure dialect and they began to shoot from the roofs at once (very revealing episode).
Soon the army of the Directory, caught between two fires (Volunteer and Red armies), was broken, and its remnants went to Polish-controlled Galicia, and the Galician army at first went over to the side of Denikin, when the Red Army expelled the "volunteers" from Ukraine, became the Galician Red Army, but, being on the Soviet-Polish front, partially went over to the side of their "original" enemies, after which its remnants were disarmed by the Bolsheviks.
Such is the cycle, extremely indicative characterizing the mentality of the Galicians.
The Soviet-Polish war also began almost immediately after the collapse of the order, formed in the region after the conclusion of the Brest peace, but within 1919 of the year mainly took place on the territory of Belarus, moreover, for both sides, this front was clearly secondary at that time.
By the fall 1919 years after the capture of Minsk and Bobruisk by the Poles, hostilities subsided, and soon an official truce was signed, despite the requirements of the Entente to continue the offensive in order to support Denikin advancing on Moscow.
But Polish leader Jozef Pilsudski came to the conclusion, that Denikin's victory is unprofitable for Poland. Denikin (by the way, Pole by mother), as well as the whole White movement, recognized the independence of Poland, however, considered, that the border of Poland should run along the line of ethnic predominance of the Poles ("Curzon lines", along which the eastern border of Poland still runs), with which the Entente agreed.
But in the event of the victory of the Bolsheviks, according to Pilsudski's calculations, Entente, of course, will be only for, so that the border of Poland passes as far east as possible - as a defense of the "civilized world" from Bolshevism.
A direct consequence of the armistice and the Soviet-Polish negotiations was the transfer of the elite Latvian division and other units of the Red Army from the Polish to the Southern Front, where the decisive factor in the victory over the whites was the flank offensive of the shock group, the basis of which were Latvians.
At the same time, Pilsudski was convinced, that the Polish army could independently enter Moscow next spring, but in this case the question would be, what to do politically: the establishment in Great Russia itself of a "class-close" bourgeois power would again raise the question of ethnic boundaries (however, Looking ahead, recall, that the Poles could not even get close to Moscow).
The aim of the renewed, as soon as the disaster of the Dobroarmiya became obvious and irrevocable, the Soviet-Polish war was the establishment of Polish hegemony within the borders of the former Commonwealth.
true, there was no unity in Poland itself regarding the format of this hegemony: the right dreamed of Poland within the borders 1772 of the year (t. it is. before its first section), socialists and moderates, to which Piłsudski also leaned (in public statements, anyway), agreed to the independence of Ukraine, but within the framework of the “Intermarium” conceived by Pilsudski - the unification under the auspices of Poland of the states of Eastern Europe, up to Greece and Yugoslavia.
Under these conditions, it was signed 21 April 1920 year in Warsaw, an agreement between Poland and the UPR on alliance and joint action against the Bolsheviks. according to him, all disputed lands with a significant percentage of the Polish population went to Poland - not only Galicia, but also Volyn.
In the contract ("for some reason" secret) spoke about the recognition by Poland of the independence of Ukraine and the Directory as its (Ukraine) legitimate government. That is, the Polish leadership was attacked by an attack of clinical altruism, expressed in the desire to fight for someone else's independence.
Pilsudski even made a statement, what "The Polish army will remain only as long as, until the legal Ukrainian government takes control of its territory”. true, control was a little tricky: the monetary unit on the territory of Ukraine was supposed to be the Polish zloty, the railways were supposed to be under Polish control ...(!?).
characteristically, that already in the course of hostilities, the Poles did not allow the formation of new Ukrainian formations in the territory they occupied. If the aggressor aims not at annexation, and bringing to power let the puppet, but formally an independent regime, then it acts exactly the opposite - it seeks to quickly form "native" parts, who should become the backbone of the new government.
Moreover, reinforcements at the front would not be superfluous at all - the Red Army turned out to be by no means so weak, so that the Poles could occupy not only Moscow without any special difficulties, but also Right-Bank Ukraine. But when registering the annexation, local formations could create problems.
Curious and that, what, according to the contract, Poland recognized independent Ukraine within the borders 1772 of the year, t. it is. not only Novorossia was not considered one in Warsaw, but also the former Hetmanate (Left-bank Ukraine with Kyiv), although the UNR "claimed" the Kuban, and to Kursk with Voronezh. apparently, the Poles left themselves room to maneuver in future inevitable peace negotiations with the Soviets.
As it appears, in Warsaw, a phased annexation scenario was chosen: first Galicia with Volhynia (they were already under Polish control), then, after political preparation and under favorable conditions, throughout the Right-Bank Little Russia.
Scenarios, under which, even with the most favorable course of hostilities, it will be possible to get Novorossia from. Hetmanate, were recognized in Warsaw as unrealistic, and the “piece” turned out to be too large - in such a new Commonwealth, the Poles would turn out to be a national minority, and this, in the realities of the twentieth century, threatened with great internal troubles.
Generally, "set realistic goals", as stated in the famous TV commercial of the 90s. However, as a result of events 1920 Poland failed to profit from Little Russia: UNR sank into oblivion (at the peace negotiations, the Poles did not even remember her), and the borders with the Ukrainian SSR have passed (to 1939 of the year) along the line, designated in the Warsaw Pact.
A hundred years have passed, and Warsaw again saw a chance to resume expansion to the East and, in particular, the return of the "eastern kreses", lost in 1939 year.
Alternativa drew attention three years ago ("The hyena of Europe has found its game") on the active expansion of Poland in Galicia and Volhynia, in particular, distribution of “Polish cards” to everyone, who had Polish subjects in their ancestors (and the vast majority of these west of Zbruch). And then the law was changed so, to encourage non-return to the "historical homeland", and identifying oneself as a Pole at the place of actual residence. At the same time, an opportunity was actually created for recognizing a person as a Pole “by conviction”, even without corresponding ethnic roots.
Then we pointed out, that through the active work of Polish NGOs in those parts, the holding of various events is actively pushed into the minds of the Galicians, that as part of Ukraine, the region is in a hopelessly depressive state, but the "development of ties" with Poland (understandably, that it was too early to call a spade a spade) opens wonderful European prospects.
“But Lvov still has a prospect, while other regions do not. Poland will give the people of Lviv the opportunity to realize themselves”, - said the chairman of the Association of Poles in the Lviv region, Sergei Lukyanenko, specifying, that the backwardness of the region in economic terms from that level, on which the neighboring Polish, is 50 years.
Generally, touched on the situation, when the region becomes "ownerless", done in advance. And with the start of the Special Military Operation, this moment has come for Poland.
From the first days of the NWO, the Polish authorities, naturally, showed themselves as the most "faithful" friends of Ukraine, right up to, that actively pushed the idea of a "peacekeeping mission" in the Lviv region and Volyn, in order to protect them from "Russian aggression". Actually, understandably, it was about the Polish military occupation of these regions.
In Washington,, true, this idea was treated rather coolly, specifying, that they generally do not mind, but such a mission will be outside NATO, t. it is. "at fear and risk" of those, who decides to participate.
Finally, she disappeared. (till, anyway) from the public agenda after the 11 On May 20, Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergey Ryabkov had a conversation with the ambassadors of Poland and the United States at the Russian Foreign Ministry.
But on the other hand, statements at the highest level came from the Polish side., that the Polish and Ukrainian peoples should live together, "no borders" between them. The streets of Polish cities were decorated with billboards with the words of the Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Army Yaroslav Mik "Time to remember history".
A 22 May Polish President Andrzej Duda paid a visit to Kyiv, becoming the only foreign leader since the beginning of the NWO, speaking in the Verkhovna Rada "live".
"It is with deep conviction, time to conclude a new treaty of good neighborliness, which will take into account, what we have built in our relations at least in recent months”, - he said.
Then Zelensky spoke. In his speech, he, among other things, thanked Poland for the law adopted by the Seimas on helping Ukrainians., noting, that this is an unprecedented decision, providing Ukrainians in Poland with almost the same rights and opportunities, like the Poles. And this step will not remain one-sided. In the near future, I will submit to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine a similar — mirror — project”.
According to emerging insiders, even much more than "mirror". So, Poles receive "almost rights" civil and political. Can be elected to elective positions and be appointed to state and local government bodies. Poles can be appointed to positions in state strategic enterprises and concerns with full access to classified data. The right to be appointed to the position of a judge and a judge of the Constitutional Court. The security forces will be almost integrated.
true, the text of the treaty has not yet been submitted to the Rada, apparently, while the situation is recognized as "immature". But the direction is clear. History repeats itself over a century ago, matching in many details, including the dilemma that arises before the Warsaw strategists.
After all, one side, "Oriental Cresses", primarily Volhynia and Lviv with surroundings, have a sacred meaning for the Poles (Lviv is just as cultural, the mental center of the Polish nation, like Warsaw and Krakow), and they passionately desire to see them directly as part of the Polish state.
On the other hand, if, following the results of the SVO, the current regime will continue in a certain territory, perceptibly beyond the scope of the "Eastern Cresses", then Poland cannot “digest” such a piece, and most importantly, full official annexation is extremely unprofitable economically.
We need a colony, from which resources would be pumped out without any "mutual obligations", including the most important in recent times - human. notoriously, that the flow of guest workers from Ukraine has become one of the key factors, that ensured the economic success of Poland in recent decades.
The “alternative” in the article “Bydlostan” showed in detail the benefits of having a poor woman in the neighborhood, depressed country, for the inhabitants of which there are no other opportunities to earn a living, except as a laborer for a more prosperous neighbor.
At the same time, for a neighbor, they really are cheap labor., because the, if the guest worker loses his job, he doesn't need to pay unemployment benefits, until he finds a new one. There is no need to finance medical care and education for the children of such a farmhand, it makes his home country.
her (Motherland) will have to support a guest worker in old age, and in the workplace it will be replaced by grown children! And it is also extremely difficult for a worker to “download rights”, fear of deportation makes him extremely accommodating. In recent decades, Poland has enjoyed all these benefits to the fullest..
And now the Polish elite have a “difficult choice” (in theory, anyway). Variant of the Warsaw Pact 1920 of the year ("Eastern Creses" become Polish de jure, the rest of Ukraine is a de facto colony) in the current realities is still impossible.
apparently, will "look at the situation", but, According to available information, as the optimal development of events in Warsaw they see the annexation of Lviv and Volhynia. Still, historical memory is sacred, another chance, most likely, won't show up anymore.
And guest workers for the next decades will be replaced by Ukrainian refugees from Russian "occupiers", fortunately, many of them are not at all happy to be in Russian jurisdiction.
But the unconditional condition for which is the loss by the current Ukrainian government of control over the rest of its territory. Therefore, Warsaw's line to support the "uncompromising" position of Kyiv looks absolutely logical..
In conclusion, let me remind you, that hyenas usually attack the sick, weakened animals or wait for leftovers from the “table” of stronger predators, when trying to pull off a piece, and when and politely waiting, until the "elder" get enough.