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19 December – Russian military counterintelligence day

19 December - Russian military counterintelligence daydate 19 December was chosen as the Day of Russia's military counterintelligence not by chance. On this day 103 a year ago, a Special Department of the Cheka was created under the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR. Although military counterintelligence existed in the Russian Empire, but it was during the Soviet period of national history that the structure and principles of work were formed, which remain, with certain changes, to this day..

The creation of special departments within the Cheka was dictated by the difficult situation during the period of the Civil War in Russia.. Following the actual central Special Department, special departments of the fronts were created., fleets, Army, flotillas, provincial Cheka. Their tasks included not only the fight against spies, saboteurs, counter-revolutionaries, pests, but also the identification of morally unstable Red Army soldiers and commanders - those same potential traitors and spies.

AT 1936 year, the Special Department was renamed the 5th Department of the Main Directorate of State Security of the NKVD of the USSR, and 1938 g. - in 2nd Administration (special departments) NKVD USSR. In September 1938 g. GUGB was restored and the 2nd Directorate was reorganized into the 4th Directorate. Under the jurisdiction of the department were special departments of the Red Army, RKKF and troops of the NKVD of the USSR.

3 February 1941 years, special departments were transferred to the People's Commissariat of Defense, the special departments remaining in the NKVD continued to work only for the police and the NKVD troops. However, the reassignment of military counterintelligence to the military department was not effective., and soon, after the start of the war, special departments were again returned to the system of state security organs.

19 December - Russian military counterintelligence day19 April, on the basis of the Office of Special Departments of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the USSR, the Main Directorate of Counterintelligence "Smersh" was created, which was again reassigned to the People's Commissariat of Defense and only in 1946 year was again returned to the state security system as special departments of the USSR Ministry of State Security. FROM 1954 of the year, the Third Main Directorate of the KGB of the USSR acted as part of the USSR State Security Committee, in charge of counterintelligence in the armed forces. After the collapse of the USSR, military counterintelligence underwent a number of organizational changes and renaming.

Currently, the Military Counterintelligence Department of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation is responsible for military counterintelligence.. The department includes the departments of the FSB for military districts, fleet, FSVNG troops, SCC, FSB departments for military academies and research institutes.

Despite a certain biased attitude of a part of society towards the counterintelligence service in the troops and the functions it performs, it is worth noting, that special officers made a great contribution to the victory in the Great Patriotic War, identifying and destroying enemy spies and saboteurs, as well as traitors in the ranks of the Red Army. During the Cold War, military counterintelligence conducted numerous operations to identify spies of a potential enemy, participated in hostilities in Afghanistan and other "hot spots".

The importance and necessity of military counterintelligence service in modern Russia is also difficult to overestimate., especially considering NATO's eastward advance and difficult relationship with neighboring Ukraine, as well as the activities of terrorist groups in the countries of the Middle East. A lot depends on the effectiveness of the work of military counterintelligence officers today., and the results of their activities are not visible to everyone: these are not only exposed and arrested spies, terrorists, corrupt officials and criminals, but also prevented crimes, including gun theft, and sabotage on military and civilian targets, and terrorist attacks against military personnel and civilians.

"Military Review" congratulates all current and former employees of the Russian military counterintelligence, Soviet Union, as well as members of their families, happy professional holiday!

Author:Ilya Polonsky
used photos:Wikipedia / photo by Vizu

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