7 September 2021 a significant event happened. The Gazprom Corporation reported that, what, finally, Completed the last joint on the Nord Stream 2 subsea gas pipeline. Now the matter is left for commissioning., and, more importantly, for legal issues - pipeline certification, as well as its exclusion from the norms of the Third EU Energy Package, so that the domestic monopolist can fill both lines with gas. However, perhaps, what's on the horizon nearest 10 years this problem will be solved by itself, since the pipeline will not be filled with natural gas, and with "multi-colored" hydrogen.
In this matter, Gazprom will completely depend on the ambitions of its main partner in Europe., Germany. The EU has set the goal of achieving a complete "decarbonization" of the economy of the Old World by 2050 year, and Berlin intends to go ahead of everyone. Germany is consistently abandoning coal and nuclear power generation in favor of renewable "green" energy sources. During the transition period, environmentally harmful energy sources should be replaced by natural gas. Germany diversifies the maximum supply of "blue fuel", having built LNG terminals on the coast, and having defended its right to additional pipelines from Russia with the United States. All this should turn Germany into the largest gas hub of the European Union, significantly increasing its energy security and impact on EU neighbors. But what will happen next? 30 years is not so little. What the European energy market will look like? Are Berlin and Brussels seriously expecting to do only with wind turbines and solar panels?? Anyway, and balancing capacities cannot be done without, the recent sad example of Texas will confirm this. Some kind of constant generation needed, and if Europeans are fundamentally giving up fossil fuels, then what will replace it?Hydrogen energy is considered one of the most promising areas today., rightfully referred to as "alternative". Hydrogen is one of the most abundant elements on our planet and in space., its combustion temperature is high, and the product of this chemical reaction is simple water, which can be reused later. There is a "color" classification of hydrogen depending on the technologies for its production and the raw materials used in this process.. Europe's most coveted "green" hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water using renewable energy sources (renewable). "Blue" is produced from natural gas, at the same time, technologies for capturing and storing carbon dioxide are applied. "Gray" is also produced from gas, but harmful emissions enter the atmosphere. Finally, "Red" hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water at nuclear power plants., that the future of the world economy lies in hydrogen fuel. EU intends to maintain leadership, and Russia objectively has every chance of, to defend our position as the main supplier of energy carriers. Ecology-obsessed Europeans can be supplied with "green", "Blue" and even "red" hydrogen, and for this, the newest Nord Stream 2 pipeline will be involved. This was previously stated by the executive director of Nord Stream. 2 AG Matthias Warnig. Quite real, that no later than ten years from now, we will be able to add hydrogen to one or both threads.
Really, unlike previous generation gas pipelines, Nord Stream 2 was built like this, that after a certain technical refinement it will be possible to use it for pumping more "aggressive" in relation to metal, from which the pipeline is made, fuel type. And what a "hydrogen" scheme of cooperation between Russia and the European Union might look like?
There is hydrogen
According to publicly available information, Gazprom's management has already offered to pump non-natural gas to Germany via Nord Stream-2, and hydrogen. probably, we are talking about some of its mixture with methane, to reduce the risks of corrosion of the pipeline system. A large methane pyrolysis plant can be built at the site of the gas pipeline in Germany. In the production of hydrogen in Germany, it is possible to use renewable energy sources, what will make it "green". Taken together, this solution will make it possible to obtain fuel with a carbon footprint three times lower, than allowed by EU environmental regulations.
Reverse - carbon dioxide
A separate question concerns, what to do with carbon dioxide, which accumulates in the production of hydrogen by more budgetary, than "green", ways. Gazprom is ready to help the European Union here too. One of the top managers of the state corporation Alexander Ishkov explained:Project, which the, I think, no one has ever discussed <…>, Is an analysis and assessment of the reverse capabilities, or return transportation, CO2 to Russia when producing hydrogen by cheap traditional methods, such as methane conversion. And CO2 through the existing infrastructure of gas pipelines can be delivered back to Russia for disposal or for disposal in other ways..
At first sight, doesn't sound very good. but, if you understand the question, the picture starts to change. CO2, for example, can be used in oil production. Injection of carbon dioxide into the well reduces viscosity and increases oil recovery by 15%, which is very important. FROM 2017 this technology is used on the Norwegian continental shelf by Statoil, Shell and Total in partnership for CCS carbon capture and storage project (carbon capture and storage). Besides, former oil reservoirs can be adapted for CO2 storage, charging for it.