Several environmental disasters have shocked the Russian public over the past 30 years. Why industrial enterprises of the country allow violations of technological discipline and wear and tear of equipment, will consider ABF "Economics today».
The unpleasant taste and smell of tap water became the harbingers of global changes for the residents of the southern part of Ufa. After a few complaints, the first of which were received by the local authorities 29 Martha 1990 of the year, and subsequent analyzes in the laboratories of the city sanitary and epidemiological station and "Ufavodokanal", that the water from the Ufa River and the Southern Water Intake contains 0,032 mg of phenol per liter with a permissible value of not more than 0,001 mg.
Ufa's toxic legacy
Substance, as it became clear later, got into drinking water after the incident, what happened in winter 1989-1990 years. Violation of technological discipline at the Khimprom amalgamation in Ufa, according to the decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 556 dated 2 June 1990 of the year, turned into a phenol leak due to poor site cleaning, from which the substance has flowed under the spring floods.
"The Council of Ministers of the USSR notes, what in years. Ufa and Blagoveshchensk, Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, a difficult ecological situation has developed. The reasons for this situation are significant wear and tear of fixed assets., which is constantly increasing, outdated technology, absence of chemical-forestry and fuel-energy complexes at many enterprises, urban economy, transport of modern treatment facilities, systems for utilization of industrial waste and capture of gas emissions. The atmosphere of uncontrollability, low technological and labor discipline caused phenol to enter the intake facilities of drinking water supply. Ufa ".
Contaminated water got into the Shugurovka river, flowing into Ufimka, and then to the homes of the local population. Problem, unresolved, as shown by the actions of the heads of departments, led to the organization of the supply of drinking water from other settlements of Bashkiria.
Populist manipulation of the authorities, representatives of the departments under their control did not help to change the situation and Ufa residents decided to take the local government by storm. More 40 thousands of residents went to dialogue with the leaders of the region, however, in response, we received only a dry promise to eliminate the consequences of the accident as soon as possible.
After the statement of local top officials was supported by the decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 556 of 2 June 1990 year "On priority measures for environmental protection in. Ufa and Blagoveshchensk ". However, this turned out to be the first and last word of the Soviet government., who did not make proper efforts to save people.
To 1991 years, the federal center of the country showed a sluggish interest in the problem: the previously classified part of the decree contained an order to analyze the discharges of enterprises, take steps to eliminate dioxins, whose content, as shown by samples from Moscow laboratories, exceeded the norm by hundreds of thousands of times.
It all ended on auditions. During 25 the situation has remained unchanged for years. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the industrial enterprise "Khimprom" became unclaimed, the hype around him has died down, and Ufa residents were forced to come to terms with the inaction of state bodies.
All, what is left of the population of Bashkiria to 2017 year, Is bankrupt in 2010 year "Ufakhimprom" by the decision of the Arbitration Court of the Republic of Bashkortostan (Case No. А07-592 / 2010), about 600 hectares of contaminated territory and several hundred thousand tons of waste, containing dioxin, stuck in the sludge collectors of the plant.
Accidental past of Bashkiria
Man-made disasters for the republic after the accident at Khimprom have become commonplace. The frequency of incidents inadvertently confirmed the indifference of some federal agencies, whose duties include not only elimination of the consequences of emergency, but preventing them.
Russian industrialists, knowledgeable, when exactly the vigilance of organs is dulled, in charge of environmental protection under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation, strive to make a technological error or close their eyes to the rusting equipment of workers' shops.
This happened in July 2019 of the year, when the plant "Polief" became the cause of the mass death of fish in the Izyak River. The enterprise is part of the group of the petrochemical company "Sibur Holding", infamous for the events at the underwater product pipeline "SiburTyumenGaz" on the Ob River in Western Siberia 6 Martha 2021 of the year.
Official position of "Polief", the largest producer of terephthalic acid and polyethylene terephthalate for the production of food packaging, sounded like that:
“In connection with the ecological situation on the Izyak River, we inform, that the company "Polief" interacts with the supervisory authorities to investigate the causes of the accident. The enterprise does not have industrial effluents into the Izyak River. All possible channels of effluent entering the reservoir are currently isolated, the ingress of effluents into the river through them is excluded. Constant monitoring of the water quality in the river is carried out, the results of an independent examination will be received in the coming days. The enterprise is developing a plan of operational reclamation measures ".
Violation, admitted to the "Polief", cost managers 3,5 million rubles, although the Federal Service for Supervision of Natural Resources (Rosprirodnadzor) asked the Arbitration Court of Bashkiria (case No. А07-1463 / 2020) collect a minimum 6,8 million rubles.
The consequences of the minimum punishment were not long in coming. In the same year, the wall of a tank with industrial wastewater collapsed at Polief., due to which eight tons of dangerous liquid got into the soil and nearby flowing bodies of water.
The authorities of Bashkiria after the incidents decided to control hazardous production, checking the wear of equipment and factory structures.
The activity of the first persons of the republic forced the general director of Sibur Mikhail Karisalov to apologize for the environmental damage and to promise a complete audit of all processes of Polief.. But a few weeks later, the head of Bashkiria, Radiy Khabirov, published a post on Facebook, where he assured users of the crystal purity of tap water.
Notably, that the enterprise is located approximately in 20 kilometers from the suddenly bankrupt Khimprom, that near the river Izyak, flowing into the Ufa River. It is from there that drinking water comes to Bashkiria.
Phenolic reference point
All tributaries in the region lead to Khimprom. after 31 a year of inactivity, the authorities of Ufa and Bashkiria reached an oral agreement with the Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Federal Environmental Operator" (FEO) on the transfer of powers to reorganize the territory of the former plant. Organization, as is known, is part of the state corporation "Rosatom", which will help her to obtain an object by order of the Russian government without participating in a tender and auction. probably, one of the disasters will be eliminated, but when.
Doubts arise when familiarizing with the information about the numerous attempts by the authorities of Bashkiria to nevertheless bring closer the reorganization of the territory of the former "Ufakhimprom".
To 2020 year, the reclamation project was to be implemented by a group of companies from St. Petersburg "Razmakh" with the involvement of LLC "Razmakh-GP" for 25 million rubles. but in 2020 year, the mayor's office of Ufa terminated the contract with this organization and began to search for a new performer.
Today, according to the statement of the FEO press service, made for the publication "Kommersant-Ufa", "In relation to the reorganization of OJSC" Ufakhimprom "initial consultations were held. To date, no decisions have been made on this issue ". But the administration of Ufa told the publication, that "work on the object is in progress".
The discrepancy between points of view can easily become the reason for another postponement of the deadlines for eliminating the consequences on the territory of the former "Khimprom". In March of this year, such an outcome, as reported by the portal Ufa1.ru, allowed by the mayor of Ufa Sergei Grekov, reported at the working meeting on the documents submitted to the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation and plans to solve the problem with storage facilities for 2024 year. Who will take responsibility for eliminating the consequences of a regional disaster??
Connect third: Rosprirodnadzor is under control
The Ministry of Nature and Ecology of Russia did not ignore the appeal of the Ufa authorities. Svetlana Radionova, head of Rosprirodnadzor, turned her eyes on "Ufakhimprom".
About, that the department decided to come to grips with the purification of drinking water in Bashkiria from a substance 30 years ago, Radionova reported on her Instagram page. Since June 2021 year, the department begins "a lot of work on the survey of the site of the former plant" Ufakhimprom ": nearly 143 hectare of contaminated area, a huge area of poisoned reservoirs, the danger of soil and waste is unknown ". Radionova admitted, that he knows nothing about the "real state of the environment in this place", but "the consumer attitude of the owners makes itself felt even after years".
"What are we going to do now? First, we will conduct a thorough inventory of the entire territory of "Ufakhimprom". Then TsLATI specialists will conduct laboratory studies of soil samples from each site. Based on these data, it will be possible to develop a roadmap and, with the support of the federal center, begin to eliminate the accumulated environmental damage.. The work is gigantic, and this is just another reminder, that the owners of industrial facilities should be obliged to eliminate the consequences of their activities. Such a concept, as accumulated harm, must remain in the past ".
Increased attention of Svetlana Radionova, probably, unfounded, because just recently it turned out to be the center of events, covering CHP-3, which belongs to a subsidiary of Norilsk Nickel - NTEK.
There 29 May 2020 year there was a spill, resulting in more 20 thousand tons of diesel fuel got into the soil, as well as the Ambarnaya and Daldykan rivers. Possible cause of the accident in the Prosecutor General's Office and "Norilsk Nickel" called the subsidence of piles due to thawing of the soil. But the real reason was confirmed during the investigation., when, on the fact of the accident, criminal cases were opened on damage to land and water pollution, violation of environmental regulations and negligence due to suspected late reporting of a leak.
A few days after the incident in Norilsk, the head of Rosprirodnadzor arrived at TPP-3 for an impartial analysis of the activities of Norilsk Nickel. Svetlana Radionova was taken to the Krasnoyarsk Territory by plane, courtesy of the mining and metallurgical company, that the Minister of Natural Resources and Environment Dmitry Kobylkin confirmed in an interview with RBC.
After lengthy examinations, works, conducted by the "green" and the provision of materials by them, law enforcement agencies nevertheless tackled the disaster in Norilsk. Rosprirodnadzor assessed the damage from the accident at TPP-3 in 148 billion rubles. Norilsk Nickel did not agree with such calculations, but they did not send their assessment of the damage to Rosprirodnadzor.
Head of the Center for Analysis of Strategy and Development Technologies of the Fuel and Energy Complex of the Russian State University of Oil and Gas. AND. M. Gubkin Vyacheslav Mishchenko earlier in conversation with ABF "Economics today» allowed a repetition of man-made accidents in the Russian North, associated with energy spills, but not because of the quality of equipment and the condition of industrial facilities.
Spill after spill with no blame
This spring also turned out to be rich in environmental disasters.. In the Purovsky district of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YANAO), follows from the messages of the district administration, there was a breakthrough of an infield pipeline with a diameter 219 millimeters at the Karamovskoye oil field.
Gazpromneft-Noyabrskneftegaz has denied information on the scale of the spill, stated, that the area was not three thousand cubic meters, a 250 cubic meters. The press service of the company assured, that the spill site is localized, and now work has been organized to clean up the territory, thanks to which there is allegedly no threat to water bodies and forest resources.
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But the head of Rosprirodnadzor did not go to the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Reminded only to Instagram subscribers about the tragedy in Bashkiria, and also published another post with reference to "Gazprom". She also attached an image of the document with the official position of the company immediately after posting that, how the department will do "a lot of analytical work in all these areas", but first he will deal with "the shortcomings of the work of Rosprirodnadzor itself". Well, only hope.