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Cossacks in armed conflicts in the post-Soviet space

Cossacks in armed conflicts in the post-Soviet space

Significant social phenomenon, emerging from below

17 December in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR) events were held, dedicated to the 29th anniversary of the revival of the Black Sea Cossack Host, whose units are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of State Security of the PMR.

"The revival was difficult. Unlike other regions of the post-Soviet space, where, first of all, they began to peacefully restore history, traditions, we had to start with military operations to protect Transnistria from the armed aggression of the nationalists of Moldova. At that time, we were the first of all the Cossack troops to participate in the defense of our Fatherland ", - recalls the ataman of the Black Sea Cossack army Igor Nebeigolova.

In the battles for Transnistria, they laid down their heads 95 Cossacks, among which 27 - Cossack volunteers from Russia. In total, about two thousand Cossacks from the Black Sea and Cossacks from the Kuban participated in repelling the Romanian-Moldovan aggression, Dona, Terek, Ural, from Siberia.

The war in Transnistria served as a starting point for the Cossacks to comprehend their place in the new political reality, where the "parade of sovereignties" triumphed. The Cossacks saw their mission as the protection of Russians and Russian-speaking, support for Russia's allies beyond its new frontiers.

The next war for the Cossacks was the conflict in South Ossetia, opposing the nationalist regime of Zviad Gamsakhurdia in Georgia. The first Cossack volunteers arrived there in 1992 year. Most of them were Cubans, terts and donets; there were also Siberian Cossacks.

In the same 1992 about a hundred Kuban Cossacks and Black Sea Cossacks from Transnistria arrived in Nagorno-Karabakh to help the Armenians. Basayev's militants and Afghan Mujahideen fought on the side of the Azerbaijanis. Subsequently, a khachkar monument was opened in Vank village of Martakert region 14 to the dead Kuban. Black Sea also suffered losses.

Then there was the Georgian-Abkhaz war. They came to the aid of the Abkhazians 3-5 thousand Cossacks from all over Russia, mainly from Kuban, about 500 of them died. After the war in Abkhazia, a separate Sukhumi district of the Kuban Cossack army was established..

Then there was Yugoslavia. in winter 1993 g. here appeared the 1st Cossack detachment of fifty people, which included, among other things, Cossacks from the central regions of Russia. The detachment participated in the assault on the village of Tvyrkovichi in Bosnia, defense of Skilani in Republika Srpska, I painted on top Title, in the raid Ruda - Gorozhda and other operations. It is known about the death of seven Cossacks.

AT 1996 year, a volunteer Cossack battalion named after General Yermolov fought in Chechnya, officially listed as the 694th separate motorized rifle, formed from Terek and Kuban Cossacks of different ages. Cossacks suffered serious losses (27 human), fighting in Grozny, Orekhovo, shawls, Achkhoi-Martane, Led. In the second Chechen campaign, commandant platoons were formed from the Cossacks.

About two thousand Cossacks from different Cossack troops, together with the subdivision of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Crimea "Berkut", ensured order at the referendum 16 Martha 2014 years of reunification with Russia. The Don Cossack Ruslan Kazakov died from a sniper's bullet in those days.

And the Cossacks took the most massive part in repelling the aggression of the Kyiv regime against the Donbass. Here they suffered the most numerous losses in the entire post-Soviet history.. According to the Union of Volunteers of Donbass, in the LPR and DPR fought about 50 thousand Russian volunteers, of them 19 thousand - Cossacks from all over Russia (Yenisei, Orenburg, Astrakhan, Volga, Irkutsk, Transbaikal, Ural, Siberian, Ussuri and others.).

Until the 1920s, the Donbass was territorially part of the Great Don Army.. Now the Don Cossacks have revived here again, this time as a structure in the Ministry of Defense of the DPR and LPR. Now the ranks of the Cossacks in the Donbass are replenished with local personnel.

Before the revolution 1917 Cossacks have traditionally been engaged in protecting the borders of the empire, acted as irregular military formations to assist the army in military operations and rear service. So, Decree of Catherine II 22 January 1788 g. Kosh of faithful Cossacks was formed from the former Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, at 1790 year renamed the Black Sea Army.

Today, the State Register of Cossack Societies of the Russian Federation includes 11 Cossack troops and several Cossack districts, from Kaliningrad to Sakhalin, up to 200 thousands of people. FROM 2019 year they are united in a single federal structure All-Russian Cossack Society. About two dozen Cossack societies are not included in the state register, but participate in military and other activities on an equal basis with registered. Cossacks of Transnistria, Abkhazia, South Ossetia are considered fraternal (allied) Cossack troops for Russian Cossacks.

And for registry, and for non-registered persons participation in armed conflicts is voluntary. The situation is in many ways reminiscent of pre-revolutionary times., when the Cossacks were also divided into registered and non-registered (auxiliary). Modern Cossack associations in central Russia, Kaliningrad region and other "non-traditional" regions for the Cossacks are, actually, successors of the traditions of the royal city Cossack regiments, recruited through the cities from eager people.

More than a thousand Cossacks died in armed conflicts in the post-Soviet space, but during this time, the volunteer movement within the Russian Cossacks has become a significant social phenomenon.

This movement was formed spontaneously, "from below", and is not the result of an administrative initiative. It continues the traditions of Russian volunteers from the era of the Russo-Turkish and Anglo-Boer wars., Spanish civil war...

A photo: pereprava.org

Vladislav GULEVICH

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