One can only regret, that the aircraft was released as a small series and did not take part in hostilities. He had a chance to go down in history as the best fighter with piston motor, but that did not grow together. Although the machine is actually turned out very, very remarkable.
It was one of the fastest fighters with a piston engine in the history of aviation in general. If the Germans were able to conquer technical problems, who generously poured 335 th all time, and yet to organize its serial production, the ...
Yes, history does not know the subjunctive mood. But "Mustang" and "Tanderboltam», not to mention the "Tempest" and "Spitfire", It would have complicated, because the German pilots would have been in the hands of a fighter, really able to deal effectively with any Allied aircraft. And has a remarkable technical characteristics.
But let's start with a story. But not with the history of the aircraft, but with ideas. With the idea of tandem engines.
If someone thinks, Do.335 that was in terms of the scheme something so outstanding and original, razocharuyu. The scheme was sparse, but not something so, out of the ordinary. It is also used in the First World War. The German air force planes were Fokker K.I., Fokker M-9 и Siemens-Schuckert DDr.I, designed precisely for such a scheme,.
And as the German planes fell into different hands, it is no wonder, that this scheme after the war received little, but recognition.
At least, in the USSR were created very interesting machine with tandem engine ANT-23 (I-12) and SAM-13, We build such machines in Europe.
Basically, the majority all the cars were similar construction: a short-fuselage nacelle arranged front and rear motors, which is located between the cockpit. Front motor rotates screw pull, and the rear - pushing. Since the rear part of the fuselage occupied motor, Aircraft equipped with double-girder tail.
The exception was the French Development, but "Arsenal" two motor drives two coaxial screws, rotate toward each other.
But as the work on the aircraft in all countries needed to lengthen the fuselage. Tiny cockpit, sandwiched between two engines, thing of the past. But here's what happened: in the case of the fuselage extension, torque from the rear of the engine would have to transmit to the screw shaft through a long, which inevitably led to strong vibrations. Plus screw for handlebars adversely affect the controllability of the aircraft.
Two-girder scheme allows to maintain the effectiveness of the rudders, but it led to the, which increases the aerodynamic resistance of the machine.
But with vibration designers fought for a long time. Still a long shaft has become a huge problem. Generally, in my opinion, for all the time the piston aviation aircraft happened just a few projects, where a long shaft problem was solved at all. And in fact: the hero of our story, Flying Boat Do.18 and American P-39 and P-63, "Cobra" and "Kingkobra".
well yes, P-39 and P-63 were aircraft with a classic screw arrangement, but long shaft took place to be.
So it happened, that the scheme of "push-pull" was not humanly realized, but it fired the engineering brains for a long time. no wonder, such a scheme would be advantageous. After the plane had a classic silhouette with wings without engine nacelles, but had a capacity of twin-engine aircraft with all the consequences such as increased vitality and capacity.
Even in the event of failure or damage of one engine, it was possible to continue the flight to the second motor. Furthermore, "Push-Pull" I am not such a bad moment threatened the twin-engine aircraft, as the skew traction. I.e, Many dvuhmotorniki could fly on one engine, but who said, it was easy and convenient?
When the tandem arrangement of engines this bias could not be, in principle,, understandably, vectors that both traction motors coincided. There was even an economical flight with only one engine running. Besides, another engine behind the pilot - is the protection of. In fact - armor, which does not have ballast.
Claudius Dornier all realized a long time ago. In fact,, Dornier prefer to build flying boats. The first of its flying boats became Rs.I (Giant flying boat I). This aircraft went down in history as the first German plane, which was used in the construction of duralumin. The aircraft ended in October 1915 year and the start of the test, but drowned in a storm in one of the first flights.
But the second plane, three-engine Rs.IIa, suffered alteration in his four-tandem scheme ...! Dornier engines arranged in pairs in two nacelles, Front wherein the motor rotates the screw dragging, and the rear - pushing. From that moment this arrangement engines became another trademark Dornier.
Dornier built its aircraft anywhere, not only in Germany, associated Treaty of Versailles. for example, in Italy, at a specially organized for this company CMASA.
The main objective of the company was to develop aircraft, subject to the limitations of the Versailles Treaty and therefore prohibited in Germany. And the first such machine was the boat, has made the company "Dornier" known all over the world.
It was a flying boat Do.J «Wal», licensed production of which was soon organized in Japan, Holland and Spain. The boat was named one of the best cars of the time, it was purchased by many countries, including the USSR.
Presumably, no one is surprised that, that the boat was designed for the tandem scheme ...
Apart from civilian cars, Dornier in Italy designed and warplanes, including fighters Do.N «Falke» and «Falke-See». Second, as the name implies, It was floatplane. And it produced even in the United States under the name "Curtiss-Wright» WP-1.
name thundered, Dornier became a famous designer, and projects fell one after the other.
The flying boat was tested Do.14 another interesting scheme. Two BMW VI engine row placed in the fuselage side by side. The motor rotates one (but great, diameter 5 m) screw through a reduction gear. Screw has been pushing. According to this scheme, on racks above the fuselage could accommodate and pulling the screw, but it was here at Dornier love pusher propeller.
Already mentioned Do.18, I became some kind of a quintessential innovation.
He also had engines, arranged in tandem, but the rear engines just had elongated shaft, Connecting with a pusher propeller. I must admit, that Dornier got to eliminate the inevitable in such cases, the vibration. A model designer Do-26 went further. Experiments with shafts allowed to implement a system deviation screws up during takeoff, to screw blades do not hit the water. The secret was on the one hand is simple - a long shaft with joints, but realize it could only Dornier.
With such baggage is not surprising developments, Dornier decided that a larger and during 1937 Year has four projects for one another cooler. After thoughtful reflection was left alone, the so-called R.59-04 and even registered a patent.
According to patent, it was a plane, tripartite: with front engine and tractor propeller, Central to the cockpit and other fillings and rear, which houses the second motor, a pusher propeller and empennage.
The central part was separated from the rest of the firebreak. Plume occurred reservation all parts of the sheets of several millimeters in thickness.
The plane was equipped with engines capacity of DB601 1250 HP. and develop a calculated maximum speed 755 km / h at an altitude of 5000 m.
At all, the aircraft was originally planned as a high-speed bomber. The car pictured is quite remarkable both technically, and externally. If the engines it was all clear, tandem scheme with a shaft at the rear of the screw actuator, then here are other moments were interesting innovations.
It had a cruciform empennage circuit, to protect the rear propeller from hitting the ground. The second feature of the aircraft were variable sweep wings, adjustable within 20 degrees on the ground.
When you have finished the preliminary work, Dornier began to offer their offspring Luftwaffe, but then it was waiting for a fierce denial. The thing is, that at the time of completion of the work in 1940 the command of the Luftwaffe stayed in a certain euphoria and seriously considered, that the aircraft, which are already in service will be enough to solve any problems.
What it was all over in five years, we all know, as well as the, how difficult it was to break through the existing system in Germany with new aircraft. Goering categorically did not want to consider the long-term programs, with the exception of, perhaps, development of jet aircraft. But even there the "most equal" was Willy Messerschmitt, and Ernst Heinkel and Henry Lubbe ("Arado") They were both equal to less.
But Dorn did not give up and continued to work on the plane. apparently, he felt, that the aircraft will be needed. You can call it engineering foresight situation, but it turned out that way.
Dornier even cheated and developed hybrid. I am standing in front piston motor DB603, and the tail of the jet engine was. The nozzle is placed under the tail, which has ceased to be a cruciform.
Efforts were really rewarded. especially after 1942 of the year, when at the front everything went very nice for the Germans, and they began to appear on German cities regularly crowd of British and American bombers.
Especially getting "Mosquito", which really for the first time the Germans could not do anything. Light, wooden, with two good engines, "Mossy" equally well looked both as a fighter, and bomber. But on the wooden piles for the Luftwaffe, we already talked.
Generally, the problem of "Mosquito" had something to do. I.e, come up with some method to counter fast and easy (and poor who undertake radars of the time) British aircraft.
Competitive conditions directed "Arado", "Junkers" and "Dornier". And no wonder, I won "Dornier", the more ready and high-quality aircraft. The "Arado" project Ar.E-561 frankly not turned. Work began on it as much in 1938 year, because the aircraft greatly resembled the Bf-110 and smaller than his superior.
The "Junkers" contrary, the design was very innovative, but not brought to mind. And Ju.EF-115.0 did not go further, although he was very advanced aircraft. He had two in-line engine, located in the fuselage in front of and behind the cockpit in accordance with a tandem scheme. Both engines were rotated two coaxial screws tri. But there were so many flaws, it became clear - the winner of one. Dornier.
But it was not there. Plane in the series did not go. more precisely, its hard not allowed. Was an evil genius named Willy Messerschmitt. We are already at the time concluded, that Mr. Messerschmidt somehow decided, that all flying in the Luftwaffe was to be made in his factories. And if Messerschmitt was forced to endure Kurt Tank and its "Focke-Wulf", here's Dornier clearly proved the odd according to Willy.
But Messerschmitt was very dangerous, and most importantly - poorly predictable player. But he also made an application, although it had not been asked specifically. And 1942 he presented the project Bf.109Z. "Cvilling", that is two standard Spark Bf.109. And even I began to actively push the plane to the series, build a prototype, but he (prototype), Fortunately for all, It was destroyed during the bombing.
But Messerschmitt continued his business and even introduced in 1943 , another project, with whom scandal, because it was a complete copy of the project Dornier R.231.
Dornier, which all these intrigues brought to white heat, I asked the Inspector General of the Luftwaffe Field Marshal Milch. like Milch ordered to stop practicing covert games and build aircraft, which had already received a Do-335 name.
However, the contract was limited to just 12 units, but only intended to release a series of 35 aircraft in the embodiment of high-speed bomber. Later. And as a result of the work were so-so, our shatko, our Valko.
But Dornier very lucky. Quite suddenly Do-335 received the support of a very serious man. Machine interested in himself, Adolf Hitler.
It is not necessary to repeat, that the Fuhrer was slightly gathered for any unusual patterns, and all, that at least a little like a "miracle weapon", It aroused his interest and support. This is what happened with the Do-335.
But Hitler 1943 year - it is not Hitler in 1945, because of his interest in the Do-335 was quite objective. The more that the idea of "Blittsbombera" He was obsessed with the full. Yes, Then his obsession to play a bad joke with Me.262, but he was still in conception fighter, and have turned Dornier bomber.
When the threat of Allied landings in France began to acquire a distinct outlines, Hitler categorically demanded to accelerate the work on "shnellbomberam".
By the time it became clear, that Me.262 experiments came to nothing, and fighter bomber did not turn in any circumstances. Yes, Me.262 had three advantages: high speed, high load capacity and the ability to play the role of a fighter. Hard to tell, as recast in bomber complicated to deal with all Me.262, I think, It was not such a big problem. Much more hemorrhoids become very "raw" engines of the aircraft and the lack of trained technical personnel.
But undercover game Messerschmitt did their job, and he still was able to convince Hitler, that his "Swallow" better "Arrows" Dornier. Several "Swallows" is already flying, Furthermore, plane stunned not only Hitler's own high-speed characteristics, and eventually Do-335 played in the reserve. In the event, If everything goes wrong Me.262, as planned.
Messerschmitt "knocked" Dornier. Milch was against, but I do not have anything could. The decision was taken.
Meanwhile, tests have shown, Me.262 that I did not like a bomber. Bombs plane could take only the external suspension, and the pylon was in the tail section, seriously disturbed the alignment of the aircraft, and it is fraught with the loss of stability, especially at the time of reset. Sights were just bombing from horizontal flight.
But Messerschmitt still led Hitler. When the Allies began landing in Normandy, serial production Me.262 still unfolding. A Do-335 safely (or unfavorable) dependent on the stage of the first prototype.
But in the end 1943 , began test flights. All flights of the prototype was carried out three experienced pilots: Altrogge, Kvencler and Dieter.
During the fourth flight of the prototype has a top speed 600 km / h at sea level altitude. It revealed, The car is relatively easy to pilot, even when only one engine is running. was noted, which is a pusher propeller airplane flies faster, than pulling. At a screw speed to aircraft developed 560 kmh.
There were many shortcomings, but it is for a new car basically normal. Strongly warmed the rear engine, spontaneously evolved landing gear. And this lack of chassis was observed even in the production aircraft. It does not work very well empennage, especially elevator.
But the plane is generally received very favorable reviews. Milch again tried to convince Hitler, showing test results in Rechlin, provides additional motivation in the form of bomb load (1000 kg in the Do-335 against 500 in Me.262A) but all was to no avail.
Unfortunately, Fuhrer disregarded the arguments of Milch and "Swallow" is still Messerschmitt had absolute priority. Dornier "coaxed" to build another resolution 14 aircraft. 12 series Do-335A-1 and 2 double training machine.
It was a complete fiasco, and all further work was carried out rather by inertia and per, that Messerschmitt still screwed up with his "swallows".
Just slowly decided on arms. Only the fifth instance of armed, setting the long-barreled gun MK.103 caliber 30mm, shoot through front propeller shaft and disposed in the collapse of cylinder. Two 20-mm gun installed above the motor MG-151/20. In this case, the plane was able to take in the bomb bay 500 kg bombs.
And continued testing in Rechlin. Tests involved one of the most experienced German pilots, Henry Beauvais. During the flight, he managed several times to disperse the aircraft to 760 kmh. Faster flew only Me.262 jet and rocket Me.163. Taking into account all the exotic "Comets" Me.163, the only competitor Do-335 was only a Me-262.
Despite its impressive size, Do-335 was surprisingly maneuverable. The trial battles with Fw-190, Do-335 often sat "Focke-Wulf" on the tail. And with an unfavorable scenario, the situation, pilot on the Do-335 gave full throttle and quickly broke away from the enemy. "Arrow" Dornier could not catch up with any one aircraft with piston engine, or German, or allied. All this was going to use the machine.
Do-335 cabin was very comfortable, that the German planes do not often observed. From the cockpit Do-335 offers a good overview forward, to the side and down, as the car is in front of the wings.
Overview back was bad, pilot saw only, that opened his rear-view mirror. Such mirrors were some prototypes, A separate planes-0 and on production machines. That's just seen in them was not very much.
TO 1944 it became clear, that the "Swallow" Messerschmitt "failed". Hitler decided to give priority Do-335 and immediately begin its serial production. 7 July 1944 It was followed by an official order ... But it was too late.
The Allies landed in Normandy, stop them there was no way. The second front began to approach the boundaries Reich. What was happening in the East, We all know from our history.
Helped Do-335 and allies. And from the heart. 28 Martha 1944 of the year 750 American bombers attacked the plants in Friedrichshafen and Oberpfaffenhofen, a gathering Do-335. However, the ability to act and defense forces staged a smokescreen rescued plants. But during the summer the Americans inflicted several blows, a 3 August factory in Friedrichshafen leveled with the pre-production batch "Arrow".
In September 1944 year formed a special part Erprobungskommando 335, whose task was to Do-335 test in combat conditions. There passed a few Do-335A-0 and, perhaps, A-1. The task of the pilots was to develop a strategy to use the plane as an interceptor, shnelbombera and scout. Detachment commander was Captain Mayer Alfon.
26 October 1944 , a special order came in defense of Germany, which it warns of the emergence of a new German aircraft. In the order of the characteristic features of the machine have been reported: cruciform empennage arrangement of motors and a tandem.
Aircraft from Erprobungskommando 335 We do not often come into direct contact with the enemy. I will mention only a few such cases,. Confirmed the loss of a Do-335.
By the end of the war have released 61 Do-335 aircraft, Considering all the prototypes. Some machines were understaffed.
Though, even so modest gains, It was a very interesting plane with a very advanced design. Competition it could actually make only jets.
Of course, even if at the level of 1943 year in Germany would be able to start production of this car in sufficient quantities, it would still not solve the problem of allies, raznosyaschih into dust and rubble German cities. Pull end, tighten the agony - it is quite possible. But no more.
To Do-335 has had a real impact on the course of the war, and the plane could make it, as was really good and even more so, it is necessary that it started to produce in large quantities at the turn 1942 of the year.
However, in the Reich chose to drive thousands of dubious Bf.109 and bet on Me.262.
Generally, Do-335 story is the story of, that undercover games and intrigues for the sake of profits no one will bring to no good. What is not generally prevented Willy Messerschmitt die respected man in Germany 1978 year, having stayed put after the war.
Claudius Dornier died 1969 at the age 85 years in Switzerland. But if Dornier flying boats have become part of history as the great planes, here's Do-335 "Arrow" became the memorial of a different kind.
Hard to tell, fortunately or unfortunately. This nice plane could carry more than one life Soviet, American and British pilots, so that, probably, OK, that it happened.
Wingspan, m: 13,80
Length, m: 13,83
Height, m: 5,00
wing area, m2: 37,30
- empty aircraft: 7 266
- takeoff: 9 600
Engine: 2 х Daimler-Benz DB 603Е-1 х 1800 (1900) HP.
full speed, kmh: 785
Cruising speed, kmh: 682
practical range, km: 1390
The maximum rate of climb, m / min: 1090
Service ceiling, m: 11 400
Crew, people: 1
- one 30-mm cannon MK-103 70 shells;
- two 15-mm guns MG-151 with 200 rounds per barrel;
— 1 x 500 kg bomb RS-500 or SD-500 or 2 250 kg SC-250 in the bomb bay and 2 x 250 kg SC-250 on the external load.
/Roman Skomorokhov, topwar.ru/