In the near future, the US president, Donald Trump is expected to sign a package of laws under the title National Defense Authorization Act, determining military policy of the country for the next year. Part of this package is a bill Caesar Syria Civilian Protection Act ("Act on the Protection of the civilian population of Syria" Caesar "). He proposes new measures on Syria, to combat its legitimate authorities and the opposition of its allies countries.
Long Way Act
Законопроект Caesar Syria Civilian Protection Act of 2019 (HR 31) in its present form was introduced in Congress 3 January this year. The authors of the document were almost 60 Congressmen from both parties. Rather quickly the bill passed the necessary checks, after which he was sent for a vote in the House of Representatives.
22 January Chamber gave the most votes for the adoption of the draft. Thereafter, the document transferred to the Senate for further approval. However, at this stage of the process has slowed down the adoption of the law. The necessary formal procedures take several months, and in June a bill put in a queue to vote.
The situation has not changed until now. The bill has not yet been considered by the Senate, not approved and remains motionless. Consideration and vote to be held this week, but the results are not yet clear. If the Senate vote for "Caesar", in the near future he will enter the National Defense Authorization Act and will go to the president for signature.
The view of official Washington on the Syrian issue has long been well known. US considers, that the administration of President Bashar al-Assad must go and give way to other government, USDA wishes and requirements. To do this, the US is ready to take various measures, incl. impose sanctions. Another lever of pressure should be the law of Caesar. It offers economic and political methods of pressure on itself and its allies, Syria.
Article 101 the bill provides for measures against the Central Bank of Syria. Within six months after the signing of the law of the US Treasury will have to verify the Syrian Central Bank for involvement in money laundering. If such schemes are identified, in respect of the organization is necessary to impose sanctions.
In the same time frame necessary to identify foreigners and foreign organizations, for which also proposed to impose sanctions. Punishing proposed for the financial, financial or technical support to the Government of Syria and loyalist organizations. Also punish people, related to the Syrian Russian operations, Iran or other foreign countries.
The reason for the sanctions referred to the sale or provision of a variety of goods, services, data, etc., which can support the Syrian mining and processing industry. The same applies to the sale and transfer of aviation equipment and parts for it, construction and engineering services, etc.
The bill provides a common set of sanctions to punish violators. It is proposed to freeze any action against the violator of property, controlled US. Also, we are talking about cancellation of visas and refusal to issue new. Possible imposition of penalties in accordance with current legislation.
Article. 102 obliges the US President for 180 days to determine the area of Syria, in which the civilian population is subjected to forced displacement, and to identify areas, controlled Damascus, Iran and Russia. Then it is necessary to develop a strategy for further action, aimed at protection of the civilian population.
The second and third chapters "Caesar" describe the measures, aimed at reducing the "B mode. Assad "and the support of the civilian population. It is proposed to supplement the existing laws and the creation of new strategies for action.
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Article. 401 head 4 It describes the conditions for the suspension of sanctions. In the presence of these conditions, the US president has the right to suspend the sanctions for a period of not more 180 days. Terms fairly simple. They directly affect the Syrian government military activity and concern of the Russian operations.
The bill requires that Syria and Russia to stop using its airspace for attacking civilians. Required to ensure access of humanitarian missions in areas, "Besieged Syrian government", release political prisoners and to investigate violations in this sphere. Syria, Russia and other countries should no longer carry out deliberate strikes on medical facilities, educational institutions, places people gather, etc..
Further articles of the draft law stipulate the specifics of its execution, designate responsible etc.
Aims and objectives Bill Caesar Syria Civilian Protection Act of 2019 (HR 31) clear and obvious. Furthermore, the authors do not even hide their. Washington has long wished to remove B. Assad and constantly taken various measures, While the ultimate goal is still not reached. The bill "Caesar" was very similar to the measures already taken, but also offers new ways to solve political problems.
Washington in the face of bipartisan congressional attempts to re-use the theme of "the tyrant Assad, destroying their own people "and use it to build a new bill. Once again, the proposed sanctions against members of the Syrian authorities at various levels. However, for them it would not be a surprise. The US has long and consistently by all available means trying to put pressure on the B. Assad and his colleagues.
Much more interest in the bill are measures in relation to third countries. Caesar Syria Civilian Protection Act provides for punishment for cooperating with the "Assad regime" in a number of areas. Notably, that these measures are introduced, not only for their participation in military operations, but also in other contexts. So, foreign countries and organizations under threat of sanctions banned to participate in infrastructure construction in Syria.
This measure is of particular interest. is approved, that such a ban would deprive the "Assad regime" means, incl. from foreign investors, and not allow it to capitalize on the construction. Besides, the restoration of social facilities and a peaceful life in the liberated areas adds B. Assad to respect the civilian population, which is also an important factor in the political struggle.
curious, that the authors of "Caesar's" offer to deprive B. Assad's finances and the impact on people, but did not specify, Who, how and by what means should restore Syrian infrastructure. In light of this "law on protection of the population" is more like a hypocritical attempt to solve his political tasks, under the guise of noble slogans, - to the detriment of the real reconstruction of the country.
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It is also necessary to pay attention to the proposal to impose sanctions on third countries. Who exactly fall under the Caesar Syria Civilian Protection Act, TBD, but it is clear, what country it is directed. Iran and Russia are actively helping to Damascus, so Washington is trying to threaten them with their new bill.
Specific individuals and organizations, subject to "Caesar", To be determined - for 180 days after it is signed by the US President. Knowing the characteristics of Syrian cooperation with foreign countries, you can imagine, any organization at risk to get under sanctions. However, Washington, under any pretext, the relevant agenda, It may be included in the sanctions list of anyone.
Has not been signed
"Act on the Protection of the civilian population of Syria 'has passed the House of Representatives in January, but then he faced a notable difficulty. He has not yet been considered by the Senate, Although this event is expected any day now. Only after the approval of the upper house of the bill goes to the president for signature D. barter.
It should be recalled, that the bill went through the House of Representatives without any problems. Despite the fundamental differences, both parties generally were in favor of the new law. The same should be expected from the Senate. In this case, there is every reason to believe, that "Caesar" successfully goes to the White House, and will be certified by the president's signature.
As a result, in the National Defense Authorization Act 2020 It will be a new document, a binding. Due to him the US will get a new tool of pressure on third countries to achieve their goals in Syria. whether it will be effective and will allow you solve tasks - time will tell. However, it is already clear, that he will not help speedy and simple solution of the Syrian problem.
The text of the bill: https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/31/text.