KV-1 of Lieutenant Pavel Guja passes on Pushkinskaya Square in Moscow after a military parade
Soviet tank aces. Pavel Danilovich Gudz was at the front from the first day of World War II. Together with the 4th mechanized corps, he participated in the battle in the Lviv ledge, experienced the bitterness of summer retreats 1941 of the year. He took part in the defense of Moscow, where he had an effective battle on his KV-1, destroying ten enemy tanks in one battle. In one of the fights in 1943 year lost his hand and was seriously injured, but still returned to the front - already with a prosthesis.
Pre-war life of a hero
Pavel Danilovich Gudz was born in the village of Stufchency, Proskurovsky district, Kamenetz-Podolsky region 28 September 1919 of the year (today it is the territory of the Khmelnitsky region of Ukraine) in an ordinary family of Ukrainian peasants. The childhood of the future Soviet general was unsweetened in every way. The recently ended World War I, the collapse of the Russian Empire as a result of two revolutions and several years of bloody civil war seriously undermined the life of the peasantry.
To feed the family, Pavel’s father went to work in the Far East, where got a loader at the port. When Pavel Hudz graduated from a rural school, the boy's father died at work in an accident, after that only his mother was engaged in raising a son.
Despite all the difficulties of peasant life, Pavel showed interest in studying, he managed not only to finish the rural seven-year plan, but also continue further education, enrolled in 1933 in the cultural enlightenment located near the house. The choice of a future place of study was largely influenced by cinema, whom the young man met in his native village, when the movie-shift arrived there.
Graduating from college, Pavel Gudz moved to the city of Satanov, Khmeltsnik region, here he was sent for distribution to work in the local house of culture. Already in 1937 year at the age of 18 years, Paul was appointed inspector of public education in the Satan district executive committee, then the young man joined the CPSU(b). At this time, he showed himself more creatively., staged performances at a local club, was fond of photography and even dreamed of entering the Kiev film school.
Lieutenant Pavel Hudz in 1941 year
Ahead the young man loomed or creative, or party career, but unexpectedly for everyone in 1939 Pavel Gudz submitted documents and entered the 2nd Saratov Tank School, which trained personnel for medium and heavy tanks, at first it was multi-tower T-28 and T-35, but just before the war began, the school began to prepare tankers for the KV tank.
New heavy tanks began to enlist in large numbers before the war, being an unpleasant surprise for the Nazis. Hutz graduated from Saratov School with honors, after which he was sent to the rank of lieutenant for further service in Lvov at the disposal of the 32nd Panzer Division of the 4th Mechanized Corps. A new lieutenant arrived in his 63rd tank regiment a week before the start of World War II.
It is worth noting, that at that point in time the 4th mechanized corps of General Vlasov was one of the most staffed in the Red Army and had no problems with tanks, including modern designs. The corps was before 101 KV tank and 313 T-34.
The hull problems were the same., as the whole Red Army. The troops were in the process of formation, the same 32nd Panzer Division was part of the new formation. The command and rank of the compound was not united, tankers have not studied enough new combat vehicles, which massively arrived in units before the war itself, there was a serious lack of middle and junior command personnel. While 22 June 1941 years, the border of the USSR crossed a fully mobilized army, accumulated serious combat experience in two years of victorious military campaigns in Europe. It was with such an opponent and in such circumstances that Pavel Danilovich Gudz should have been faced immediately after graduation from school.
Fights in the Lviv ledge and a parade on Red Square
First war morning, 22 June, Pavel Hudz was met by the duty officer. From the very first days of the war, the corps began to advance to the front., to fend off the blows of the German units in the Lviv ledge. While advancing to the front unit, where was Paul Hudz, collided on a highway towards Kristinopol (from 1951 of the year - Chervonograd) with an advanced detachment of the enemy.
The forward detachment of the Soviet troops included impressive forces of five KV-1 tanks, two T-34s and two cannon armored vehicles BA-10. Joining the battle, Soviet tankers first destroyed the enemy cannon. According to the results of the first meeting with the enemy, they reported on the destruction of five German tanks, three armored personnel carriers and several vehicles.
Later that day, the KV-1, under the command of Lieutenant Guja, dealt a glancing blow to the enemy ice rink, knocking down a caterpillar and pushing a combat vehicle into a ditch. It is worth noting, that the experienced fighter Galkin was the driver in the crew of the newly made lieutenant, which was previously a test of KV tanks at the Kirov plant in Leningrad. It is believed, that it was one of the first tank rams of the Great Patriotic War.
In the book of Mikhail Baryatinsky "Soviet tank aces" is indicated, what is the first battle Paul Hudz was presented to the Order of the Red Banner. However, he did not succeed in receiving the award, the situation in the Lviv ledge was not in favor of the Soviet troops, who had to rush east, these days there was no time for rewards.
TO 10 August 1941 year all, what remains of the 32nd Panzer Division, concentrated in the area of the city of Priluki, here the unit was finally disbanded. The surviving material part was transferred to the 8th Panzer Division, and the staff went to the Vladimir region, where the process of forming the 91st separate tank battalion and the 8th tank brigade began.
Lieutenant Hudz was recorded in another new unit - the 89th separate tank battalion, the composition of which was formed from the most distinguished commanders and Red Army soldiers of the 63rd Tank Regiment. By the end of August, Lieutenant Pavel Hudz was already the chief of staff of the new unit.
The new part was equipped with tanks only by the beginning of November 1941 of the year, when the tankers received a somewhat unusual task. Late in the evening before the parade, the commander of the battalion K called him. Horin, who told the lieutenant, that to participate in a traditional military parade on Red Square 7 November, it is necessary to send a company of heavy tanks KV-1, only five cars.
Then Hutz found out, that the parade will take place in 8 am, that is, two hours earlier than usual. The command transferred all other vehicles to the 16th Army, which waged heavy battles with the enemy in the area of Skirmanovo - Kozlovo. In this way, the heavy tank KV-1 of Lieutenant Guja turned out to be captured in the photo and video while driving past the monument to Pushkin.
The battle of one KV-1 against 18 German tanks
Whole november 1941 years in the midst of fierce battles near Moscow, tanks from the 89th separate tank battalion were used by the command to parry German attacks. Heavy combat vehicles were attached to infantry units, first in a few pieces, and by the end of November, as the material part is eliminated in battles and one tank each.
3 December the Germans made their last desperate attempt to break through to the capital of the USSR. Units of the German 40th Motorized Corps struck in the direction of the villages Nefedyevo and Kozino to the left of Volokolamsk highway. The Germans managed to capture these settlements, ousting from the positions of fighters of the 258th Infantry Regiment of the 78th Infantry Division. The battles with the 10th German Panzer Division continued in this direction for two days., until the Germans were forced to stop.
On 5 December, Soviet troops were preparing a counterattack on the enemy, To strengthen the 258th Infantry Regiment, the only heavy tank KV-1 remaining at that time in the 89th Separate Tank Battalion was transferred. Pavel Danilovich Guju was to command a tank in this battle. The advancing Soviet troops were supposed to knock the Germans out of Nefediev.
At night Hudz with the crew, using conductor, brought the tank to the firing position closer to the village. At the same time, they observed maximum disguise, using only sidelights, the engine was also muffled. According to one version, to hide the extension of the tank to a position, Hutz agreed with the gunners, so that under their volleys get to the village Nefedyevo as close as possible, about 300-400 m.
German tank Pz IV destroyed near Moscow
In the morning, tankers were able to count in the village and the surrounding area. 18 German tanks, the silhouettes of which began to emerge in the cold frosty dawn. At the same time, the Guja crew achieved complete tactical surprise. The Germans did not expect a counterattack and did not think, Yes, and it was hard to imagine, that they will be attacked by a single tank. Tanks stood between huts without crews, who quietly rested in the village.
KV-1 began to shoot the enemy and by that time, how the crew rushed to them, already burning 4 tanka. At the same time, the crew fired machine guns at the German tankers running up to the vehicles, not all of them managed to get inside, staying on the streets of a captured village, literally in 35 km from Moscow, which remained an unattainable goal for them.
Pavel Hudz organized the battle as competently as possible. No matter how strong the fighting vehicle, available to him, in open battle with 18 enemy tanks, he would never have defeated. Therefore, he made the most of his surprise factor.. But even in such an atmosphere of chance, that KV-1 will not be damaged or destroyed by the enemy, there were not many.
Tanks outside the village opened strong fire on HF. One of the shells soon hit the tower, even though he didn’t break through the armor, crew sensations were not the most pleasant, many were injured, gunner Sablin fainted, and his place was taken by Paul Hudz. Расстреляв 20 shells, экипаж уничтожил еще 4 танка врага. После чего Гудзь решил атаковать. Стреляя с коротких остановок, КВ уничтожил еще два танка противника, после чего немцы дрогнули и начали отступать, скрывшись с места боя. Экипаж танка КВ в этом бою израсходовал почти полный боекомплект, а на броне своего танка танкисты насчитали 29 попаданий вражеских снарядов.
За этот бой у Нефедьево экипаж танка КВ-1 был награжден, Павла Гудзя представили к ордену Ленина. It is believed, что между Рокоссовским, Сталиным и Жуковым вышло недопонимание по поводу этого случая, Сталин предлагал наградить танкиста званием Героя Советского Союза, но днем ранее Жуков уже подписал документы на награждение орденом Ленина, который и так являлся наивысшей государственной наградой СССР.
In any case, Hudz himself was never upset about this., yes and a hero, as such, did not consider himself, he was just doing his job, based on that life path, who chose back in 1939 year, поступив в танковое училище.
В дальнейшем карьера Гудзя в армии шла только вверх. In May 1942 года он старший лейтенант, in July, the captain and commander of the tank battalion of the 212nd tank brigade. In November, Pavel Danilovich receives the rank of major and becomes deputy commander of the 8th Guards Tank Regiment of Breakthrough.
In battles near Stalingrad, the officer was seriously injured., всего на теле танкиста насчитали 8 ран: шесть осколочных и две пулевых. По словам родственников героя, Павла посчитали погибшим, так плохо было его состояние. Однако друзья однополчане не поверили в смерть офицера, разыскали тело майора, который находился уже вместе с убитыми и буквально вытащили его с того света, передав врачам. Despite severe injuries, in May 1943 years after treatment at the Saratov Military Hospital, Hudz returns to the front. К осени того же года он в звании подполковника становится командиром 5-го отдельного гвардейского танкового полка прорыва.
Последний свой бой Гудзь провел при освобождении родной Украины в октябре 1943 of the year. В Запорожье в районе Днепрогэса танк офицера был побит. Три члена экипажа погибли, в живых остался мехвод и Павел, который получил серьезные ранения руки, у него была повреждена левая ключица, а раздробленная кисть висела только на лоскутах кожи.
Когда Павел пришел в себя, в перископ он увидел два «Тигра», которые обходили обездвиженный расстрелянный танк, не подававший больше никаких признаков жизни. Решение пришло мгновенно, отрезав ножом остатки мешающей ему кисти, Гудзь из уже подбитого КВ открыл по противнику, подставившему борт, огонь и подбил два танка. Уже в ходе боя в советский танк попал еще один снаряд. Очнулся командир боевой машины лишь под вечер в воронке рядом с КВ, куда его вытащил механик-водитель.
Впереди вновь были госпиталя, на этот раз это была настоящая инвалидность. The tankman lost his hand, but did not lose courage and desire to fight the enemy. Again after being wounded in April 1944 Hudz returned to the front - already with a prosthesis, снова вступив в командование 5-м отдельным гвардейским танковым полком прорыва. true, теперь он пробыл на фронте только до мая 1944 of the year.
В полку его встретил маршал бронетанковых войск Федоренко, который проводил инспекторские поездки по частям, оснащенным новым танком ИС-1, известным также как ИС-85. Именно по его инициативе Гудзь, на счету которого официально было 18 уничтоженных немецких танков, все-таки был отозван с фронта и зачислен слушателем командного факультета Военной академии бронетанковых войск, которую окончил с отличием в 1947 year.
Павел Данилович Гудзь
Вся его дальнейшая карьера напрямую была связана с армией, тактикой и применением танковых войск, в том числе в условиях ядерного взрыва, преподавательской работой, испытаниями новой боевой техники, в том числе БМП-3.
В отставку прославленный танкист ушел только в 1989 году в звании генерал-полковника. Несмотря на тяжелые фронтовые ранения, Павел Данилович прожил долгую жизнь. Он скончался в возрасте 88 лет в Москве в мае 2008 of the year.
/Sergey Yuferev, topwar.ru/