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“Armani” – yesterday tank

"Армата" - yesterday tank

A special role in creating the future of the tank, played Colonel-General Sergei Maiev. FROM 1996 by 2003 he served as Chief of the Main Armored Directorate of Defense of the Russian Federation, and led the development of the T-95 (OCD «Improvement-88»). editor in chief «Rosinformbyuro» Vyacheslav Prunovu spoke with the patriarch of the Russian tank production.

– Sergey Aleksandrovich,

how do you think, will the «Armani», that closed the show will present in Nizhny Tagil,

revolution in tank?

Or we again «beat on their tails» and catch up with the West?

– I finished my service in the Main Armored Directorate in 2003 year. By this time, it was created by a type of Russian armored vehicles. At the exit was a tank T-95 on «Improving -88». At the exit there was a group legkobronnyh tracked vehicles such as BMP, various modifications. At the exit was a group of APCs:

BTR «Sprout» and modernized BTR-70 and BTR-60. AND, it would seem, all went to the finish line. We showed to the public the new tanks «Black Eagle» and «Berkut».

– «Berkut»?

– Yes, «Berkut», at the Omsk plant. These were the prototypes, I ran, that would create a spirit of competition, one side, and on the other, to divert attention from the main work

«Improving -88», which was conducted on «Uralvagonzavod».

And at the Kharkov tank factory developed new machines «Boxer» and «Hammer».

There was a high-caliber gun patrolled 152 mm, Chassis as T-64, boxer engine capacity of fifteen hundred horsepower.

true, the crew was placed in the usual way. But in Kharkiv car were former disadvantages of T-64. Very complex loading mechanism, dense arrangement. The disadvantage of our tanks was that, that in the center of the machine, placed in the machine loading projectiles. It turned out the least protected place:

60 mm side armor and the center of the target. After all, the enemy is aiming always at the center of the machine. This was clearly demonstrated in Chechnya, when our same RPG-7, closeup, hitting the center and there is a detonation of ammunition, the complete destruction of the tank and the death of the crew. It simply carries the nines.

Tank «Object-195» at the test site, so, it was decided to reach an entirely new type of construction, which was implemented on «Improving 88».

Promising tank T-95 had adopted a tanker and a separate capsule crew, disposed in front of the case. All processes, including the management of the course and shooting organization, They have been automated.

Radar has detected enemy targets at a distance 10 km.

Missile range, as a means of high-precision destruction, more 5 km.

Firing a cannon at a distance 3 thousand. meters with the help of special equipment.

The car is a very powerful structure. And the most important thing, She had a very high margin of engine power. Despite, that the weight was within 52-58 tonnes, it stride, during 10 sec., speeds up to 70 km / h. So was well-designed suspension and chassis.

Tank «Object-195» at the test site

– There were seven rinks?

– seven rollers. course

the suspension was smooth and very high coefficient of. Suspension was so soft, that the shot she walked on the water. We had to make changes to the design of shock absorbers, that would remove these fluctuations. Very convenient situation was the driver's mechanics – semi recumbent. Control Push, easier, than in the US «Abrams».

I myself, personal, three o'clock drove T-95 on snowy woods, trying to plant, get a push in the ass, and I is not got. Our cars have always been problems with the ergonomics and comfort. A T-95 was a very high level of comfort. The crew was placed linearly. shoulder, to shoulder.

Left Mechanical – driver. In the middle – commander, and right – gunner guns. Commander and the driver could each – other substitute.

– And they were not closely? enough space?

– enough, And how!

machine width – 2 m 30 centimeters. They sat on the couch. And between the elbow was still away 20

centimeters. ergonomic chairs, Well, and management does not require any kind of physical force. All on the joysticks.

this comfort, as he was in the car, I have not seen in more than one car world.

I took «abrams» and the feeling of driving the T-95 were more comfortable, than from «Abrams» and «leopard».

In this case, the firepower of the machine was very high. I will not be talking about rocket, it was unique. A

piercing projectiles punched (…) cm homogeneous armor.

Experimental setup 2A83 152mm howitzer gun carriage to B-4. polygon NTIMT

certainly, expensive car. Work on it could only be highly qualified specialists. anticipated, it should be contractors. Although, could teach and draft structure. There was a very high-quality on-board machine, which is fully defined state of all components and assemblies for 60 parameters. And immediately issue a warning. Any problem, and on the screen in the driver jumps marked as, that we should do this and that- the.

–The entire crew was in a capsule? Probably, for such armor,tankers feel invulnerable?

– They were in a capsule, which was mounted in the hull of.

The capsule is separated from the crew compartment, where there were ammunition. And it gave a special sense of security. The French have conducted a special study and found, that the actions of the crew efficiency in heavy machinery three times higher, than light armored vehicles.

because, that the crew feels invulnerable heavy car.

– But enough to save the crew, you need to still protect the ammunition.

 – ammunition security was also very high. besides, there are provided expelling panel. If, what- something happened – expelling panel beaten out, but because the people there did not have, it could afford, and it kept the car. She could be restored.

– But with such a «shipwreck» caliber, there was to be a small ammo?

– Ammunition for T-95 was 40 ammunition, as well as on conventional machines.

Tank «object -195» of boots

– A motor?

In such a large tank and the engine should be very powerful.  DvigatelH-shaped. certainly, it was possible to provide accommodation and a gas turbine and a boxer engine. But we decided to modify its X-shaped diesel. Capacity of fifteen hundred horsepower. There was a problem with the fuel supply, problems in terms of thermal load. But these issues have been resolved to our Chelyabinsk plant. it was released 15 engines, and operating time was within 1000 hours.

– Many noted unusual type T-95. Unlike other Russian tanks, He was very high.

– Our military can not get rid of the presentation, The car should be stocky. But that was then, when there was no guided missiles. And now. If the guided projectile is flying on the metal mass or heat,

he will still find the goal, even if it is on the ground will lie.

– It is believed, that at that level the problem of electronics «vision» It could not be solved until the end.

– certainly, the operation of the machine would have been some problems. Take T-80. Now T-80- absolutely reliable machine. And the first time away from it all turned out to be, because it was not reliable. And the T-95 could be such a problem. But I clearly confident, that due to the rapid development of technology, these shortcomings have been eliminated.

the main thing, that was found completely new design option. You mentioned, that T-64 differed from the T-62, as well as T-55 differed from the T-34, A T-34 differed from the BT-7.

And T-95, it was a new high-quality technical races.

Tank «object -195» of boots

– And the Ministry of Defense has ordered this revolutionary tank?

– planned, at

2005 year, complete state tests and to put it into series. In the first year should have done 100 machines, later- 300 machines. That is ahead of the development of world tank building years 15. Two years ago, at an exhibition in Paris, I saw a layout «leopard», in which German designers have tried both- the T-95 repeat placement crew, munitions and making a gun and technical elements of. But it was just a mock-up.

– And we had a new-generation machine in the metal.

– And we have two samples of the T-95 already departed 15 thousand. km. And the gun is already made 287 shots. The tank was ready. It was necessary to create a third embodiment, a full-scale revision, based on the first and second sample, and the third embodiment hold state tests, make any- changes and run a series of. And would we have the best tank in the world.

– But what happened? Why abandoned finished T-95 and opened a new work on «Armate»?

– What happened, hard to explain. I am on one of the military meetings – industrial Commission, when customers were, and the Chief of the Main Armored Directorate was Nikolai Ershov, I told them, that in order, that would finish this car, it is necessary to make one more tank, at a cost of about 500 million. rubles,

– Well, it is not a fantastic money.

– Yes they were, this money. On the creation of the T-95 is not a lot of it has been allocated, Total 2.2 billion. rub.

And when I left, we had 700 millions. 400 millions, to make a third car and 300- of gosispыtaniya.

But, I objected, The car, constructively too complicated and it will not be mastered and will be very expensive. And I said,: «Yes it is expensive and complicated, but you just do not spend 700 million rubles, and much more, Specifications simplify and make the car. Class which is lower». So I said,: «You make the bastard».

Now with «Armata» done – I do not know. but I think, Chief Designer Andrei Terlikov try all the best to the T-95 in drag «Armata».

– There were rumors, that show in Nizhny Tagil, disassemble T90 MS « Tagil» and put on his shestikatkovuyu

base new combat unit.

– Yes, there should not be a problem with the body. Indeed, the experience gained tremendous.

I came to the head of the central board 1996 year. This machine was in the stage of preliminary design. I declared himself the head of the project. I became personally carry out the Council of Chief Designers. Money was scarce. The stomach was empty, and the head worked well. But when the money became more, head began to work less.

– And so « on empty stomach» Ural designers have made T-95 and a revolution in tank, and heavy universal Undercarriage «Armani» It will be the breakthrough?

– I do not know this. I can not blame «Armata», but also downplayed significance of this development will not.

– known, What's on «Armate» It is not installed 152 mm, a 125 mm gun.

How do you think, why the designers went to the deliberate reduction in firepower?

– reason – complexity of manufacturing large-caliber tank guns. first 152 mm gun did not explode 86 shot. We could not understand the reasons. It turns out, internal pressure increased to 7 500 atmospheres, and on the other tanks were 3000. Aggressiveness powder and the initial velocity is very high.

And we have to change the thickness of the barrel wall, that would change the amplitude of the fluctuations of metal.

And they went on 280 shots. And in that caliber projectile – very difficult product. And so, seen decided to take the old proven design.

The former head of Alexander Galkin GABTU warned: « If you refuse the 152 mm cannon – the whole idea will fail!». After all, the Americans, left there 140 mm tank gun. They just spend modernization and put on «Abramsy» new tool.

125 mm gun makes this machine («Armata») uncompetitive on the battlefield at all times. AND 152 mm cannon to be sure the new car!

– comes, creating «Armata», the designers have taken a step back?

– Creating T-95, we have reached a new class of machines. Unfortunately, is lost.

The paradox is, what «Armata» You will need to drag on performance to the level of«Improving 88». But the enemy – does not stand still.

– you think «Armani» It is worse T-95?

– Well, of course, it will be worse «Improving 88».

I think so. But the new just is not given. It was necessary to compress all into a fist, and to bring the T-95 to mind. AT 2005 , we can really begin to release the new tank.

Now -2013 year. Eight years have passed!

-But still, Why T-95 does not have adopted? Why put an end to the already finished

the world's best tank? Why take up a new, dubious developmental work? Maybe it's about money? After CB lives due to developments? Forgive me, Lord,! I think, here only personal motives. Here Ershov wanted to become an outstanding tanker. I warned him: «You are thrown in a year!» And so it happened.

Renat Ismailov

A source

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