military experts
 Edit Translation

In the shadow of the Tupolev

In the shadow of the Tupolev

S.M. if — in the truest sense of the word co Tupolev in the creation of many famous martial and civil aircraft: Tu-4, Tu-4A, Tu-16 (with many modifications), Tu-95, Tu-104, Tu-114, Tu-124, Tu-134, Tu-154, Tu-22, Tu-128, Tu-145.

Father Sergei Mikhailovich was hereditary railwayman and came from the Volga Germans. He worked in the workshop wagon, Romanovka on station near the city of Saratov. there in 1914 g. born SM. if. AT 1931 , Sergei graduated from high school trade schools in g. Tambov, where he began work in a factory, He was repairing machines. His technical mind quickly noticed and soon transferred to the post of technique, in the reconstruction of the plant Office, it was there that he realized his first design work. AT 1932 by Sergey he moved to Moscow and entered the Moscow Aviation Institute. In the evening, he attended, and during the day he worked at KB at SV. Ilyushin.

AT 1936 by Jaeger received a diploma on completion of the MAI, after which he moved to the head of the design team at the aircraft factory number 240. In March 1938 Sergei Mikhailovich, the arrested. But he was lucky, since he was sent to the NKVD OTB (CCB 29), which is commonly referred to as «sharaga». There he worked with AN. Tupolev, brigade general types of aircraft Tu-2. When in 1941 Jaeger was released, He continued to work at the Tupolev. AT 1943 by Sergey headed the department Tupolev technical projects. And since that time nearly all vehicles with the brand “the” They began their journey from the desktop and Kuhlmann SM. Eger.

About, much appreciated Tupolev talent Jaeger, It shows an episode. Once management has decided to CDB «transfer to» Jaeger in myasishchev. Tupolev sincerely indignant and, risking his own reputation, went on strike, demanding the return of his assistant in his design office. Guide CDB was forced to meet the demands of Kolmogorov.

Creative community of Sergei Mikhailovich Andrei Nikolaevich was extremely successful. They are surprisingly complement each other. None other, how Eger, on the fly grasped the thoughts and aspirations of the Tupolev. He managed to create a team of the new sample, new content. Sergei Mikhailovich had knowledge of national defense issues: strategy and tactics of aviation, so successfully put forward to the Government long-term, weighty plans for the construction of heavy aircraft in the country. Center for the development of these plans is TEHPROEKT department.

Short name it does not reflect the essence of the activity. The center is involved in the problems, who were under the power of the largest departments. Government received assurances in the form of a resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers, technical projects department gave teams of designers to design engineering data. This is where the manifest erudition and talent of the designer Jaeger and his team. Not accidentally called Jaeger Division «Head staff» OKB.

Tupolev was not satisfied, usually, Even well-Draft project. He had seen the plane in kind, that is, to build a layout. Head mock shop first create an image of the future car. Dummy Commission considers preliminary design and layout of the aircraft, and after discussion maintains the layout and construction of the future car. This is complicated work. it is solved «blade» scientific and technological achievements. Defend the project in front of the leading specialists — not such a simple matter. This work has involved many departments OKB, but mostly «defendant» was with. M. if. In aircraft design system SM. Jaeger was able to make a fundamentally new content. Even during the organization OKB AN. Tupolev has established a team of general views on perspective and schematic design, under the guidance of a great scientist Boris Mikhailovich Kondorskii. However, his data were approximate, preliminary. Then came the new times, new orders, new people. time sped up, decisions are taken immediately, quickly. It was necessary to keep pace with the times. FROM. M. Eger and are managed «stand into operation». A. N. Tupolev presented to the government a draft resolution of the USSR, The state budget allocated the necessary funds for the construction of, tests and serial production of the aircraft. Naturally, a draft resolution was designed with. M. if. He is able to do brilliantly.

The method proved to be viable. It has been successfully used in the development of these aircraft projects, both TU-14, TU-95, Tu-16, Tu-104, Tu-114, Tu-22 And other. It is up to the moment, And when at the initiative. n. Tupolev Design Bureau was established within the Department «TO», in fact the case for the development of OKB supersonic unmanned aircraft and supersonic airliner Tu-144.

Department of technical projects to develop and transfer design teams all the necessary data for the detailed design. of course, in the process we have been made all sorts of refinements, starting from the contours of the glider, coordinate the placement of numerous equipment and ending with the control of the weight summary, intended to preserve the alignment of the aircraft. This is a difficult design work. Achieving design aircraft performance data monitored and, in the end, responsible for them as a department of technical projects «Main Headquarters» OKB.

In August 1945 , the Americans dropped the first atomic bomb. A new threat to our country. IV. Kurchatov instructed to accelerate the development of the atomic bomb, not limited to the charges. Tupolev, instead of a heavy long-range bomber Tu-64 proposed to build the aircraft carrier-based US nuclear bombs B-29. simply put, copy it, assigning the name of Tu-4. On the personal instructions of Stalin Tupolev were given extraordinary rights to lead all work, associated with the Tu-4. Kazan aviation plant entered a new order — build aircraft commercially drawings Tupolev.

Eger this time was entrusted the most important matter: remove the contours of the aircraft, equipment location, units, make the overall layout and more. all the technical forces were mobilized, involved 840 large enterprises in the country. The discipline was iron. Timing is extremely hard. Their transfer does not even enter speech. Working drawings EDO convey Kazan plant according to a strict schedule, which are regularly reported to Stalin. In May 1947 year produced the first plane. Test pilots fish and Vasil 19 They may have raised it in the air.

Thus began a new stage of development of heavy bombers. In a short time twenty aircraft were built, where, on Stalin's orders, selected the best crews of the country have begun troop flight tests. There is a limited number of engineers led by SM. Jaeger was instructed to issue a drawing on the support of the atomic bomb to test our first atomic bomb. Two planes were hastily converted for this purpose. A 6 November 1947 , Molotov publicly stated: «From now on, the secret of the atomic bomb does not exist».

Jaeger was able to use the experience of the world of aviation. According to foreign journals, he carefully studied the course of the movement and trend of development of civil aircraft. regular data, He analyzed and outlined a way to move. Somehow he exchanged his thoughts with the Tupolev. Andrei Nikolaevich new thoughts expressed somehow spontaneously. apparently, it was an expression of accumulating the time information and their own reflections. It happened at this time, when the plant was built Tu-4.

«Lying under the feet of a passenger plane, and you do not notice, — somehow Tupolev began talking with rangers. — Here look: you develop enough passenger compartment, and aircraft ready. Everything else we will take the third instance of the B-29».

During the year, 72-seater passenger aircraft Tu-70 was built. 27 November 1946 year F. F. Opadchiy lifted him in the air. The plane passed factory flight, He has successfully completed the state tests, but in the series is not passed. There was no spare capacity — the country was recovering from war. But he's a good base when creating a Tu-104.

As for the TU-4, it was, undoubtedly, good car, but, by definition war, it does not quite meet the country's defense requirements in terms of strategic objectives. Therefore the government has decided to entrust the Tupolev to build a strategic bomber with higher flight performances, than the Tu-4. The first step was the creation of Jaeger Tu-80 — modification Tu-4 (by increasing the take-off weight on 12600 kg). Conceptual design of the Tu-80 submitted for approval. The plane was built and tested. But by this time OKB VA. Dobrynina was created more powerful 24-cylinder engine VD-4K water cooling with takeoff power 4300 hp, which provided high-altitude aircraft to 10 000 m. Naturally, Tupolev demanded Jaeger develop the layout of the new TU-85 with powerful engines.

It was necessary to create a giant airplane wing with high aspect ratio 11,4 on a grand scale 55,96 m. Hard to imagine, but Jaeger was able to rapidly assemble extremely new aircraft. The plane was built in 1949 year and handed over to the flight test.

Tu-80 and Tu-85 show, that the crisis of the piston engine for heavy vehicles came, and the yield to be found in jet propulsion. Until that time, Jaeger made rough calculations and layout machines with engines Cradles, Klimova, Mikulin, but they were thin. Tupolev and Eger began to seek out the designer turboprops ND. Kuznetsova, which was developed by TV-2 power 6000 HP. We decided to make these engines Spark and get 12000 HP. using a four-bladed propellers A. Zhdanov, diameter 5,6 m on two counter-rotating Spark. Difficult to obtain powerplant, Eger and continuously worked, more accurately reflected on the, how do get the plane. And then the job creation machine, and again immediately.

Schematic diagram of the aircraft with a new swept wing and its systems, powerplants, frame scheme, equipment layout, weapons, control of the aircraft created under the guidance of SM. Jaeger in his department of technical projects. Involved in the work of other experts EDO teams, and, of course, TsAGI. Tupolev controlled the development of daily: I delved into them, I approve or reject. Very difficult to solve the problems of the swept wing with extension 10, question aeroelastic wing considering variable mass for fuel consumption and more. Problems and difficulties encountered at every step.

Need to say, that the first prototype of the Tu-95 («951») It was successfully completed in the assembly and referred to the flight test, which were in full swing. but 11 May 1953 of the year, in the 17th flight crash occurred — A pilot killed. D. Flight and flight engineer A. AND. Chernov. But the country's leadership demanded, without reducing the rate of, to begin construction of an understudy. Kuznetsov offered to create an engine capacity 12000 l. from.

Understudy Tu-95 («952») was no repetition of the first instance. The plane is much easier, used stronger materials, increased reliability of power plants, equipment. All the design work, construction and flight tests were conducted under the supervision of unremitting Jaeger. Sergei Mikhailovich, very quickly took measures to address identified problems. simultaneously, Kuibyshev aviation plant began mass production bomber. Air parade in Tushino 1955 It was demonstrated seven Tu-95 strategic aircraft.

In parallel with the work on the Tu-95 Eger was considering different options for building a passenger aircraft based on the Tu-95. AT 1957 year was created intercontinental passenger liner Tu-114 (with four TV-12M engines with power of 15.000 l. from. on 224 passenger with a range 8000 km and speed 800 kmh). For fifteen years, these aircraft served in Aeroflot. About the high quality and reserves of the Tu-114 says the fact, that it was set thirty-two world records. For participation in the creation of the Tu-114 and Tu-104 C. M. Jaeger was awarded the Lenin Prize.

AT 1951 year, the forces of the technical projects department and the entire design bureau were thrown to the rapid design of the Tu-16 («88»). The pilot plant successfully completed the construction of the machine, which 22 April 1952 years first took to the air. The plane showed good speed (1000 kmh) and was transferred to the Kazan plant for serial production. However, the car was heavy, which neither Tupolev really liked, not even Eger. Andrei Nikolaevich still had a pre-war practice to facilitate aircraft: bonus for every kilogram of lightweight (masses). Tupolev did not stop at any difficulties. During the redesign of the aircraft announced «mechanism» earned. The plane was lightened by six tons, showing speed 1018 km / h with the execution of all design data. At the insistence of Jaeger, Tupolev instructed to transfer the drawings of the backup aircraft «882» serial plant, stopping the production of the first instance under the cipher «881». Tupolev predicted a great prospect for the aircraft «882», named Tu-16. So it happened. The Tu-16 aircraft for many years gloriously served in the air force. He turned out to be truly multi-purpose. At its base were implemented 45 modifications for combat use. For this wonderful work of Jaeger in 1952 State Prize I degree was awarded, and in 1955 awarded the title of chief designer. Based on the Tu-16 using the achievements of the aircraft «70» The huntsman created a preliminary design of the passenger aircraft Tu-104. A mock aircraft was quickly built.. However, the Commission rejected the preliminary layout prototyping. Specialists of Civil Aviation and Air Force view that were expressed, what should be a modern passenger plane. He ordered to cut down the layout and build a new, taking into account the wishes expressed. Soon, the layout of the Tu-104 was approved with large additions and changes., and working drawings have already been developed. Slipways were built in the assembly shop. Eger with his team barely managed to go everywhere, check, what and how is done.

10 July 1955 years Test Pilot Yu. T. Alasheev made the first flight on the Tu-104. The plane passed factory and state tests, but he had opponents, which required, so that a lot of improvements were made on it before being transferred for flight operation, that «will make the aircraft safe and reliable». With great difficulty, we managed to overcome these obstacles.. When 22 Martha 1956 year Tu-104 landed at the London airfield, English newspapers wrote: «We didn’t expect anything like this., Russia surprised us with its Tu-104». Its high quality is eloquently spoken 26 world records. Twenty years of Tu-104 honestly served in Aeroflot. They worked out a resource for 35 thousand flight hours, which corresponds 15 thousands of landings. In recognition of his contribution to the development of the USSR Civil Air Fleet, one of the aircraft was put on a pedestal at Vnukovo airport, where did you start «labor» a life.

AT 1960-1970 years Eger took up the creation of the first generation of mass passenger aircraft Tu-124, Tu-134, Tu-154, in which he and his associates have made a number of innovations and improvements. Further development of the aircraft in operation were assigned to the chief designers, designated by the lead designers of these aircraft: DS. Markov — Tu-124, L.L. Selyakov — Tu-134. By plane Tu-154 — S.M. if. Tu-154 and today is a fairly large part of the civilian fleet in our country.

In the second half of the fifties around the world began to create heavy supersonic cars. By tradition, the Tupolev established order, when complex problems were studied in experimental aircraft or flying laboratories, not on the paper. For this purpose in 1956-1958 years were built Tu-98 and Tu-105A. The first development of this machine performs the Department of technical projects under the direction of Eger. Aircraft designed by designers OKB, were built by a pilot plant, passed flight tests at the flight base.

Elena Milёhina

A source

                          Chat in TELEGRAM: