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Weapons of World: aircraft guns

Weapons of World: aircraft guns

first, why we decided to begin, - with air guns. Yes, if we talk about the plane, it is - a very complicated thing and consists of many parts. In the area of ​​our investigation will be the engines and armament.

Let's start with weapons and machine guns caliber rifle. clear, because, that the gun was the primary all. A heavy machine guns and cannons - this is the second time. Although it is interesting.

But at the start of the Second World War, the main mass of fighters of all countries vigorously so rattled machine guns caliber rifle. Yes, who had guns, they were with guns. But the machine gun caliber rifle - an indispensable and obligatory attribute of the time. So start with them.

we do not deliberately place them, sharing on best / worst. Let's do this, you.

so, We started!

1. shkas machine gun. the USSR

ShKAS many consider the achievement of the national engineering school armory. And not without reason. Yes, over the years, since its creation gun, number of legends and tales about ShKAS simply amazing, that quantitatively, qualitatively.

Weapons of World: aircraft guns

But we will talk about the legends of another time, Now we note, Oh really, in some respects, and constructive solutions gun was more than outstanding. Incredible for the time rate system provides exactly the drum cartridges supply, prydumannaya Shpytalnыm. The main, most weapons units constructed Tula engineer armorer prerevolutionary school Irinarkh A. Andriy Komarytskyi.

Machine gun Shpitalniy and Andriy Komarytskyi seriously different from the classical schemes of the time. The main highlight - this is, the developers were able to turn the main disadvantage of outdated domestic cartridge flange-flange in the dignity.

It is thanks to the cartridge flange can be rolled along the helical groove of the drum and its extraction from the belt and feeding place for 10 shots.

ShKAS was a universal machine gun. TO 1934 year have been mastered wing and turret version, and with 1938 on the aircraft began to set and synchronous model.

The use of multiple synchronizer reduced rate, to 1650 rounds per minute, wing and turret version had a rate 1800-1850 rounds per minute. But on the synchronous version to compensate for the lengthened barrel on 150 mm, which gave a better ballistics.

dignity: best rate at the time in the world, good ballistics cartridge.

disadvantages: complex design and high costs. The machine gun was very capricious to dirt, there were more than 30 types of delays in shooting.

2. Browning 0.30 М2-AN. USA

Pity, of course, John Browning did not live up to the moment, his offspring start a solemn procession across countries and continents. But Browning died in 1926 year, a machine gun stood on the wing in 1929.

Weapons of World: aircraft guns

At all, the fate of the gun was not so easy. Adopting M2 coincided with the beginning of the Great Depression in the United States and the subsequent financial crisis. All of the new military developments were curtailed, and M2 machine guns production went leisurely pace until the beginning of the 2nd World War.

Similar to today's day, But in other countries, is not it? But yes, export rescued. And not just rescued. Belgians bought the first license, and began to produce a machine gun FN FN38 / 39 with minimal changes.

AT 1935 year to join the British Belgians, namuchavshis with "Vickers". English fairly worked on a machine gun and made a bunch of changes in M2, including Fit to gauge yourself. «Browning 0.303. Mk II »has become the basis of aircraft armament in the UK during the 2nd World War.

By the beginning of the 2nd World War in the United States of 7.62 mm (0,3 inch) considered insufficient for aircraft armament. And M2 began to give way to another machine gun, «.50 Browning AN/M2».

TO 1943 was 7.62 mm Browning M2-AN was finally removed from operational use and has been used as a weapon for target practice in the preparation of pilots.

But nonetheless, He played a very significant role in the war, Since all without exception, US planes, issued before 1941 year armed with this gun.

Release gun Browning M2-AN estimated at more than half a million pieces, counting and licensing.

dignity: low weight, reliability, great rate, good ballistics.

disadvantages: rather complicated scheme (Browning these different).

3. MAC 1934. France

"I was blinded him!"Freedom of blindness, without continuing. The machine gun is very, very kind, from the beginning of the work and to adopting more than a decade. But the French wanted a gun for aviation, and so…

Weapons of World: aircraft guns

Designers from the state arsenal Chatellerault decided to create a new weapon for France, using the achievements of his company «Berthier» and American «Browning».

So 1934 year version of the machine gun MAC Mle1931 virtually unchanged entered service under the designation of French aviation MAC 1934.

The machine gun was designed to be installed on all aircraft, but for the first time it has been designed for installation in the wing.

Here, the French staged a show, which actually remain in the annals of the history of aviation weapons.

The idea of ​​designers, MAC 1934 (wing) I had to carry ammunition supply of the stores ...! For this hefty drum shops have been designed to 300 or 500 rounds. So far, these monsters confidently hold (soon 100 years will be celebrated) first place among all the stores of all time. No one has surpassed in volume.

Weapons of World: aircraft guns

clear, that aircraft designers were just happy to come up with all sorts of monsters fairings, as these drums do not fit into any normal wing. Or, as an option, possess guns sideways, It is sparking passionate love at gunsmiths technicians. Yes, still drive feed ammunition was air, through gear pair ...

Very interesting machine gun ...

To use the machine gun as a defensive weapon of bombers, nevertheless, "tiny" shops were invented on 150 and 100 rounds.

After few years, fed up with this perversion, French still decide, it is necessary to prikoldovat belt feed. And then fate made them a gift in the name of I-15bis with the Spanish pilot, fell into their hands by the flight from Spain, which ended the civil war.

French ShKAS carefully studied and ... just stripped on 101% ammunition feed system!

And - lo and behold! - France appeared normal gun! Which was installed on all French fighters and bombers up to that moment, how France ended in war. This is the "Chatellerault MAC 1934 Mle39 "with belt feed. Used as a cloth tape, and metal. Otherwise - MAC 1934 and ShKAS.

dignity: high frequency repeated bursts (French sources talk about 1400-1500 rounds / min, but modern experts say, what are the real numbers - 1200-1300 rounds / min).

disadvantages: like all similar designs did not differ in reliability.

Ballistics were average due to low muzzle velocity, which was partially offset by the length of the barrel, but just partially.

4. MG-131/8. Germany

In terms of machine guns, of course, large-caliber product of the concern "Rheinmetall" was more than known. Compact large-caliber aircraft machine gun MG.131 was produced in a turret, synchronous and wing versions.

Weapons of World: aircraft guns

But we're not talking about MG itself. 131, and about MG.131 / 8, transitional model caliber 7.92 mm. We switched from MG.15 and MG.17 machine guns, from which they inherited the design of most of the nodes and the principle of operation.

The history of fine-tuning the machine gun took three whole years (which is generally uncharacteristic for Germans) and the machine gun entered service only at the end 1941 of the year.

The machine gun can be called the next generation weapon. The device used a capsule electric ignition system, which significantly affected the rate of fire weapons. Cooldown has been dubbed electro. The machine gun was actually a two-way, i.e, by rearranging several parts, it was possible to change the direction of movement of the tape. The electro-pneumatic loading mechanism could also be rearranged from one side to the other., which greatly facilitated life when mounting a machine gun in the wings or a synchronous version.

Beginning with 1942 year MG.131 / 8 confidence has registered as a synchronous machine gun under the hood of fighters "Messerschmitt» Bf-109 and "Focke-Wulf» FW-190. Produced confident batches before the end of the war, and, if fighters gradually switched to the large-caliber version, then in bombers on turrets and in tower installations MG-131/8 were installed until the very end of the war.

And even after the end of production 1944 year (all were released more 60 thousand pieces) unclaimed aircraft machine guns in hand easily reworked and transferred to the Wehrmacht. Elektrovosplameneniya gun system changed to a standard trigger mechanism, They are equipped with a machine gun bipod and shoulder rest or machine.

dignity: high frequency repeated bursts, excellent ballistics, best muzzle velocity, reliability.

disadvantages: heavy fully loaded with electric release and recharge and feed mechanism.

5. Breda-SAFAT. Italy

The Italian forge of weapons is something. This is "Beretta", "Delirium", "Benelli" and so on. This design idea of ​​higher flight. AND, honestly say, implementation of so-so. maybe, the fault of the Italian disorder. However, judge for yourself.

Weapons of World: aircraft guns

The company «Società Italiana Ernesto Breda» is one of the oldest in Italy. It was founded 1886 in Milan. That's just not producing weapons, and locomotives. But here Ernesto Breda decided, that not a single locomotive designer alive and engaged in the creation of weapons.

Having trained personnel on the licensed assembly of the "FIAT - Revelli" M1914 machine gun, Brad went further. And presented to Mussolini himself (Brad funded the fascist party, so everything is logical) gun project.

Mussolini gave the order not just to start production without waiting for test results, but also to release immediately two machine-guns, of different calibers, 7,7 and 12.7 mm. Heavy machine gun will be discussed in the next article (with him it was all very sad), but the source, 7,7-mm, It turned out to be quite a. The product has received the name «Breda-SAFAT».

Weapons of World: aircraft guns

Breda-SAFAT machine guns were installed on almost all types of combat aircraft produced in Italy until the debugging of the large-caliber version. I.e, to 1942 of the year. But that, what was normal for the 30s (2 synchronous machine gun 7.7 mm), since the beginning of the war it has become nothing at all.

At all, Italians were out of luck. 7,7-mm machine guns quickly disappeared from the scene at the beginning of the war, and with the further development of larger caliber did not have time, and the war is over for Italy.

But on the ground guns Breda-SAFAT, oddly enough, served up to 70-ies of the last century as the zenith.

dignity: reliability and dependability.

disadvantages: weak ballistics, low initial velocity bullets.

6. Vickers E. United Kingdom

This gun was released a lot of. According to various estimates, at least 100 thousand. But the war - it is not only the number, but also the quality. And here we have two ways.

Weapons of World: aircraft guns

Sometime, at the end 19 - early 20 century, English arms was considered the best in the world, but English conservatism ruined many, including this. English gunsmiths still been largely advanced guys, inventing the loose ammunition belts, hydraulic synchronizer and a defensive turret for bombers, so called «Scarff's Ring». But the machine guns ... Yes, reliable and reliable Vickers Mk.I was, but still it is essentially a modified «Maksim».

At the beginning of the 20th century, the British company Vickers bought the patents of American engineer Hiram Maxim. Bringing the gun to perfection with characteristic British care, British Army adopted a Vickers Mk.I.

Life is a series of modifications to the gun turned out to be very long. but the paradox, in Britain itself it is not caught. The British Defense Ministry chose to establish licensed production of "Browning" machine gun.

A "Vickers" was prepared for quite a long life in the licensed version. Polish, Czech, Australian and Japanese machine guns with greater or lesser degrees of success provoevali almost the entire war.

dignity: simplicity, reliability.

disadvantages: a low rate of fire, not the best ballistics.

7. Type 89-2. Japan

Japan fell victim to its friendship with Great Britain. The role of the main aircraft machine gun in the pre-war period was firmly occupied by the "Vickers class E" caliber 7,7 mm, export version of "Vickers Mk.V".

Weapons of World: aircraft guns

Naval aviation also has adopted its "Vickers" aircraft. It is worth remembering, In contrast to many countries in the Japanese naval aviation was a separate force. The downside was that, that in addition to machine guns the Japanese forces and forced to buy ammunition. Japanese aviation is very dependent on imports.

FROM 1929 by 1932 year machine gun "Vickers E" was produced under the designation "Type 89 Model 1 ". But later it was replaced by a new model of "Type 89 Model 2 ", in which it was possible to use the old cartridge and "Type 89", and the new "Type 92".

Machine gun "type 89 Model 2 "was produced in big series until the end of World War II. clear, that the gun did not meet modern requirements, even at the beginning of the war. But the conservatism of Japanese is quite comparable with the conservatism of the British, therefore "Type 89 Model 2 "provoeval until the end of Japan.

The machine gun was used in synchronous installations Japanese fighters and light bombers almost all types of. Its main "chip" was, that in synchronous execution, he almost lost in the rate of fire compared to the wing version.

Naval aviation used the same gun to the ground at the same time colleagues, but unlike their license agreements do not zamorachivayas. To 1936 , the Japanese naval pilots used purchased guns, and only then began to produce gun "Type 97", which differed little from the "Type 89 Model 2 ".

dignity: reliability and practicality, "Vickers".

disadvantages: deficiencies "Vickers".

Weapons of World: aircraft guns

And who was the best?

sources:
— Eugene Aranov. Aircraft machine guns Browning.
— Alexander Shirokorad. The history of air armament.
— Eugene Aranov. Aircraft Armament Germany.

/Roman Skomorokhov, Alexander Staver, topwar.ru/

A source

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