The main problems of survival
notoriously, that the body needs for survival, first of all, water and food, particularly in the context, When every drop of energy and patience. Without food a person is able to live more than a month, but if you are in an emergency, no need to indulge in food. Nature will save you at the ability to use its resources. Caught in isolation, follow the guidelines:
look for food and water. Calculate the distance and time to the place, where you are going;
Distribute power as follows: 2/3-the first, 1/3-for the second half of your way;
avoid eating dry food and food, containing much starch. Remember, food makes you thirsty. eating foods, rich in carbohydrates, except fruit, It allowed only after boiling;
Try to keep work to a minimum. less work – less need of food and water;
Eat as regularly as possible. Scheduled to ourselves every day a good dinner, you need to cook. cook it, spending wisely Products, Use tasty and easily digestible food. Back up time to prepare food for the whole period;
Chew very well any food for better absorption by the body and greater benefits.
known, that the human body is almost at 65% It consists of water. Water is part of the fabric, without it is impossible the normal functioning of the body, implementation of the exchange process, maintaining heat balance, removal of metabolic products, etc.. Dehydration only a few percent leads to a violation of his life. Lack of water during the day (especially in hot areas) It has a negative impact on the moral state of man, reducing its fighting capacity, volitional qualities, It causes fatigue. Loss of a large amount of water the body is dangerous to human life. In hot areas without water a person can die within 5-7 day, and for a long time without food can live in the presence of water man. Even in the cold zones to preserve the normal working person needs about 1,5-2,5 liters of water per day. The amount of water, required to maintain the normal water balance in the body:
The average temperature, FROM – Ming. water requirement, liters
32 – 3l
26 – 1.9l
21 – 1.5l
15 – 1.4l
10 – 1.3l
4 – 1.2l
If the amount of water, which loses people, reaches 10% body weight per day, there is a significant decrease in efficiency, and if it rises to 25%, it usually leads to death. However, even with a large loss of water all broken processes in the body recover quickly, if the body is filled up with water to normal. knowing the signs, pointing to the lack of water in the human body, You can roughly determine the percentage dehydration relative body weight.
evidence, pointing to the lack of water in the human body:
1-5% – Thirst, feeling unwell, movements slowing, drowsiness, redness of the skin in some places, temperature rise, nausea, stomach upset.
6-10% – Dyspnea, headache, tingling in the hands and feet, lack of salivation, loss of ability to move and speech-impaired logic.
11-20% – Rave, muscle spasms, tongue swelling, dullness of hearing and vision, cooling body.
When the ambient air temperature + 30 ° C even 20-25% dehydration easier to transfer, than dehydration 10-15%, but at higher air temperature. Allowed to establish rules about 2,5 liters of water per day. In hot weather and at high water demand physical load significantly increases and reaches 4 liters per day. But not all parts of the world there are natural water sources (river, Lake, ponds) and not all of these sources can be used. Need to know, how and where to find groundwater. In the conditions of autonomous existence, especially in areas with warm climates, with limited water supplies, or in their absence, water supply becomes an issue of primary importance. It is necessary to find water source, if necessary cleaned water from organic and inorganic impurities or its desalinate, If it contains a large amount of salts, ensure its storage. Natural resources can be divided into several groups: open water (river, Lake, streams); groundwater reservoirs (the keys, springs, accumulation of water in underground reservoirs); biological water sources (plants vodonosы); meteoric water (rain, snow, Dew, opresnennыy ice). In areas with temperate and cold climates search for water sources is not difficult. The abundance of open water, snow allow timely provide the body's need for water, create the necessary supplies of water for drinking and cooking. Only in a few cases it is necessary to use natural indicators for access to the water source (paved trails animals, usually leading to water, moist soil lowlands). Rainwater. To collect rainwater dig a hole and lay her large leaves, that the collected water does not soak into the ground. Dew. When the rain, tie fabric tree. water, flowing along the barrel, will linger, and drip into the container, supplied at the bottom. The water from the springs of keys and mountain and forest rivers and streams to drink raw, but before quench their thirst with water from standing or of oblong ponds, it was purified from impurities and disinfected. Creating a supply of water at the time of transition it is advisable only in conditions, when water sources are located at a great distance from each other. Store containers in any possible. But as the hot tropical climate, the water in storage is rapidly changing its taste, blooming, it is boiled during a halt. With limited water supplies,
especially in hot climates, where the body loses a lot of fluid through sweat, dehydrated, it is important to reduce sweating. This can be achieved, Protect yourself from direct solar radiation using a simple Awning, limiting physical activity during the hottest time of the day, moisten clothes, etc.
In this way, measures on water supply and water use in the conditions of autonomous existence can be reduced to a few basic provisions:
search for water, especially in the desert, It must be one of the priority measures;
If there is a water source, drink water without restriction.
Water can accumulate in cracks, which can be quite deep. Keys and springs in the mountainous terrain to be found in those places, wherein the dry gully cut layers of porous sandstone. The rocks like granite for water, usually, unsuccessful; here it can be found only in fractures and cracks of rocks. In the high water zones can be extracted as follows. On a sunny day in the large, sun-warmed stone, having a pronounced cleavage surface, put 15-20 a handful of snow at about 10 cm apart; dishes put under the mouth of the hollows. In just a few minutes with one big stone you can collect up to 1 liter of drinking water. dark spots, stood out on the slopes, or bright, lush vegetation sometimes indicate the presence of ground water in this place. For obtaining water must dig a hole at the lower edge surface of herbaceous and wait, until water leak. In the valleys with loose soil water is much easier to find, than in the highlands. In some cases - in the valley bottom or at the bottom of the steepest slopes. Here there are streams and other water sources. You should not confuse, that track the detected dry creek, without water. Under appropriate skills can be found here water. Should not spend time digging a well there, where there are no signs of water. Well it is necessary to dig at the base of the steep slopes of the valley and cliffs terraces, mostly there, where it grows juicy, bright grass. The presence of lush grass testifies, that there is water at a shallow depth. In the valleys with clay soil sometimes have sand layer, which may be springs. To find water in these areas is necessary to find the most humid station on a section of clay cliffs and dig a hole here.
During the movement consume water at one important proviso: Observe a reasonable dosage and mode. So, during the transition replenishment of water reserves in the body ("Drums" refueling) It must be carried out on large halts. Here, depending on the weather, loads, the rate of movement, nature path, that is, the number of allocated sweat on this site water, recommended drink 250-500 ml of water. At small halts can drink 100-200 ml of water. Directly during route during short stops, due to special difficulty is overcome portion, It is subject to the availability of easy to reach for water (Creek, thermos) sip-rinsing or other fluid cavity and pharynx acidified water. It should be borne in mind, that with significant fatigue dramatically inhibited the secretion of salivary glands, whereby there is dryness of the mouth mucosa, saliva increased density, making it difficult to swallow, that is, there is
false sense of thirst. To resolve this issue should be strengthened salivation, arousing relevant products gland, containing various organic acids (malic, citric, cranberry). Well satisfies that thirst mint or sour candy (sweetmeats, caramel), slice of dried apricots or prunes.
To quench the thirst of good use lightly salted water. In this case the body tissue enriched required salts. Podsolka water, especially snow, the rate of 0.5-1.0 grams of salt per liter of water hardly felt in the flavor. Should be considered, that human taste at high fatigue blunted. In this state, even large amounts of salt will not cause discomfort.
danger, associated with use are not suitable for drinking water.
Regardless of, how worried thirst, do not drink unsafe water. disease, transmitted by water, They are the most dangerous in the struggle for survival. Undrinkable water abounds pathogens.
In the case of lack of water is necessary to strictly adhere to the following rules: – many do not have; – eat food in small portions; – Do not smoke; – primarily provide water wounded and sick; – water use within the established norm in the morning and evening, day limited wetting of the lips and mouth; – to reduce the craving to drink water in small sips, long holding it in your mouth; – in hot weather long stay in the sun longer and stay in the shade; – do not take off their clothes and headgear for protection against sweating body; – on the march to observe the established mode of movement, move at a measured pace, under the tongue, you can put a stone or small stone.
Avoid drinking tap water (apart from the pure spring or streams in the highlands), especially from standing waters, or downstream of settlements. Water from the river, channel, of a body of water must be decontaminated. In order to make the water suitable for consumption, it was purified, ie. osvetlyayut (free of turbidity and color) and disinfected (free from germs). water, poisoned by toxic substances, and also having a bad smell and taste, is used only in exceptional circumstances since the special purification. For purification, easy to manufacture simple filters of multiple layers of the bandage or empty tin, breakthrough in donыshke 3-4 large holes, and then filled with sand. You can dig a shallow hole half a meter from the edge of the pond, and after a while it filled with clean, clear water.
water clarification. The cloudy water may brighten settling in buckets, casks, rubber containers, dug tanks. On upholding the need 10-12 hours, wherein the brightening is obtained incomplete, ie. fine clay substances of vegetable origin and do not settle and for longer upholding. This method of water clarification is used in the long-term parking, mainly for household needs. Clarification is faster and the quality of its higher, if the water add chemicals.
Water can be disinfected Alum (pinch on the bucket), crystals of potassium permanganate (to a very weak pink color of water and let it stand for an hour), tablets pantotsida, yodyna, holazona etc.. - 1-2 tablets
dissolve in 1 l of water and let stand for 30 min. If the water is heavily polluted, pantotsida dose should be doubled. Thus turbidity settles to the bottom, water brightens. Suitable for disinfection and 5% solution of iodine tincture: 2-3 drops on 1 liters of water, Mix well and let stand for an hour. After introduction of a coagulant in the water tanks thoroughly stirred 2-3 minutes, then watch, in what capacity will settle large flakes. flakes coagulant, settling to the bottom, entrain the particles and turbidity substances, have caused color, and thus clarified water. Water clarification coagulant selected fewest, It is resulting in satisfactory sedimentation, ie. rapid precipitation of flocs and full water clarification. The excess of coagulant is not allowed, since the water becomes sour taste and after a while began to turn cloudy after clarification by flocculation secondary. Filters from scrap materials is well clarified water, if the water is treated before filtration coagulants and subjected to standing for 1-2 hours. It is possible to clarify water, not treated with coagulants, but the water quality will be worse, and the filters are dirty quickly.
In the middle zone for water sterilization can take the young branches of spruce, pine, fir, cedar or juniper ordinary rate of 100-200 grams per bucket of water and boil them for 30-40 minutes. Then there is throw a few pieces of alder bark, oak, willow or birch, more boil for 10-15 minutes, let cool. After the branches and bark will be removed from the dishes, at the bottom will be brown, poorly soluble precipitate. it is drained, water with it can not be used.
Suitable for a similar purpose feather grass, rifts courses, yarrow and field violet at the rate of 200-300 grams per bucket of boiling 20- 30 min.
However, these methods can not purify water from pesticides and chemical fertilizers. In using the water unsuitable for drinking, You can get sick with dysentery, cholera, Tifa, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis or swallow a leech.
2.1.1. cloudy, stagnant and contaminated water.
If the scouts visited all water sources and still left without water, You have to drink water from ponds with muddy and stagnant water, even if it is with the smell.
Waterproof barrels used for the filter housing, sideburns, boxes. The magnitude of river sand is used as filter material 0,5-3 mm, charcoal same magnitude, the cloth, sawdust, cotton (cotton wool). With appropriate materials for the filter apparatus is required from 1 to 5 hours. To lighten the murky, but colorless water used sand and fabric filters, and for clarifying turbid and colored water - sand and coal and tissue-coal. Filtering water through carbon frees her from the smell, taste, many toxic substances and poisons. Sawdust and cotton used, if there is no sand or coal, and, if they are more accessible. River sand before loading into the filter is washed with water (it is desirable to clean) Removal of clay and silt materials, replacing water several times and stirring sand with each new portion of water; as washed gravel. Fresh wood chips or flakes before loading boiled filters 30 first minutes 0,5% bleach solution (5 gram of bleach 1 litere of water), and then 30
minutes in pure water (otherwise they will stain the water and give it a bad taste). Sawdust and charcoal is better to be loaded into the filter in the bag from any tissue (unpainted), sufficiently dense, to sawdust and coal is not washed out. You can use calico, The batch, dense sack cloth or gauze in several layers. Before preparing tissue is boiled or washed in hot water bag (dyed fabric decolorized by soaking in to settle and merge with sediment 10% bleach solution followed by rinsing in clean water). a filter material bag should have dimensions slightly larger, than the filter housing (bag should fit snugly to the walls of the filter). The use of bag filters greatly simplifies operation, washing the filter media. Without fabric filter bag is loaded so. On the gravel or lattice fabric layer put, on the cloth sprinkled sawdust or coal, topped with a new layer of fabric, and onto the fabric - thick layer of sand 3-5 cm. Charcoal filter is better to take active. Ordinary charcoal is pulverized and washed before use. Bag for tissue-carbon filter made of thick fabric unpainted (severe twill, the cloth, walking on cape, winter footcloths), pre-wash. Bag filter length make 1,5-2 meters and placed in a barrel (box) folded in an accordion. One square meter of the bag provides 100-200 liters of filtered water per hour. filter materials, delaying turbidity and bacteria partially, gradually polluted, and they must be periodically washed or replaced. The need to wash or filter materials shift determined by the deterioration of the quality of filtered water, or a sharp decrease in filter performance. Contaminated quartz sand is removed from the filter and washed, replacing water 3-4 fold, and then again charged into the filter. Soiled cotton dust and washed with pure water at the rate 3-4 a bucket of water on 1 sawdust bucket; Besides, sawdust and cotton after 3-4 washing should be boiled for 10-15 minutes. Cotton before washing and after washing or boiling rastrepyvayut. Soiled fabric is washed in hot water with a brush. Contaminated charcoal replaced by a new. When working with filters from scrap materials must be kept in mind, if filtered water, not pre-treated or treated coagulants, but bad supernatant, the 15-20 minutes, it will be dark, and only after that the filtrate quality (water transparency) will significantly improve. water, clarified filters from scrap materials, before use for drinking have to be decontaminated (exempt from germs) boiling or chlorination. Currently on sale there were manual filters ("Barrier"), that may be included with the "survival" of the group.
In extreme situations, the water can be boiled as follows::
1. On top of the fireplace to put 20 pieces of small stones.
2. Dig a small hole in the ground and lay plastic.
3. Remove from the fire heated stones.
4. Put stones in water, poured into plastic.
Besides boiling, water disinfected by chlorination. For chlorination and apply liquid chlorine bleach (Field used more often last). chlorinators - special devices are required for the use of liquid chlorine. Bleach is a white powdery mass with a pungent odor. When basing the group bleach should be stored in tightly
sealed container, in a cool, a dark and dry place, because of the dampness and the light it decomposes, allocating chloro, and loses its disinfecting properties.
Fig.1. Apparatus for water purification
To clean the muddy water should be:
pass water through the container,
filled with sand, wood
coal and fine gravel (rice. 1);
then boil the water in
flow 10 minutes. let the water
to stand 45 min, after which it
you can drink.
Chlorination of water should pay attention to the selection dose of chlorine. Insufficient amount of chlorine does not fully disinfect water, and excess - gives water a bad taste and odor. It is necessary to chlorinate the water so, so that after treatment it was barely perceptible, not hinder use of chlorine taste. This will prove, that the water is completely decontaminated, chlorine and water with a slight taste is harmless to the human body. Chlorine, remaining in the water disinfected, It called residual chlorine, and its content in the water should be 0,2-0,5 mg / l. Chlorine required for the chlorination dose depends on the water quality, and is determined empirically or via chlorination kit. Chlorination of small amounts of water (bowler, bucket, tank) produced pre-prepared solution of bleach, containing 1 grams of active chlorine per 1 litere of water. Such a solution is prepared by dissolving in 1 liter of water 1 gram of bleach (1/2 teaspoons), containing 25% active chlorine. Bleach solution can measure tablespoon or teaspoon. A teaspoon of the solution contains on average 4-5 mg of active chlorine, canteen - 16-20 mg. Because groups can not be set for the chlorination of water, the determination of required doses of chlorine can be carried out in different vessels, for example in a bucket or bowlers, in the following order. In three buckets poured on 10 liters of water, then the water was added a solution of bleach. If the water is clear and colorless (hloropotrebnost 1-1,2 mg / l), in the first bucket add two teaspoons of solution, comprising 1 grams of active chlorine 1 liter of water, Secondly - and three in the third - four teaspoons. It means, that in the first bucket of active chlorine added 0,8 mg / l, second - 1,2 mg / l, in the third - 1,6 mg / l). mix well, the water is allowed to settle 30-40 minutes. After that, the water taste the, starting with the first bucket. chlorine dose is considered to be correctly chosen for the water in the bucket, wherein the chlorine taste is felt weak, and the amount of solution, poured into this bucket, accepted for settlement by further chlorination. for example, if it has been found, that for disinfecting buckets of water required two teaspoons of bleach solution, then the other vessel is appropriate recalculation. So, water chlorination 100 liter barrel (10 buckets) would need 20 tea or 4-5
tablespoons bleach solution. If the pungent smell is felt in all three buckets chlorine, so, taken amount of bleach solution is too high and must be reduced. Chlorination of water can obviously produce large doses of chlorine, exceeding its hloropotrebnost (perehlorirovanie), eg, 10-20 grams of active chlorine per 1 cubic meter of water at hloropotrebnosti 2 g. A large dose of chlorine provides a more reliable water disinfection, wherein the chlorination time can be shortened for transparent water to 15 minutes, to muddy - up 30 minutes. To remove excess chlorine, unpleasant taste imparting water, water dechlorinated, adding to it, or hypo, that is more accessible in the field, filtering it through filters, containing activated charcoal or. With dechlorination of water filtration through a coal load of sawdust or can pass water until, until the filtrate appears strong chlorine taste, interfering water consumption. After this, coal dust or replaced with new ones. If the filtrate is not completely chlorine taste and were to be used within a few hours, it is further chlorinated. For this purpose, the filtrate is poured into water or transparent nedohlorirovannuyu small portions 1% bleach solution; the required amount of non-chlorinated water or 1% bleach solution set, slip to taste. To reduce the time for water treatment using alumina and bleach bleaching and disinfecting it is carried out simultaneously in the same vessel. In this case, water is first introduced bleach and thoroughly stirred, and through 5-10 min - dissolved alumina. In the presence of bleach accelerating and improving coagulation. If soft water to the addition of hydrated lime or quicklime necessary to resort less. Alumina and the required dose of bleach is selected empirically in buckets. Good clarified water, if at first it enter alumina, and through 5-10 minutes - bleach.
2.1.2. Detection water sources.
Kamenistaya soil. 1) Look for sources or leaking water. Limestone saturated with many sources of water, anyway, richer they, than any other rocky soil. Because limestone is easily decomposed, They have a lot of large, deep cracks from reaching the surface of groundwater. Look for water sources, especially in these places. 2) Poristaya kamenistaya soil, especially avalanche origin, well lets seeping groundwater. Water sources can be found in the valleys are rocks of volcanic origin. 3) Leaking water available in places, where dry canyons intersect porous sandy soils. 4) In areas with granite soil water can be detected in the green mountainsides. Make a dam at the foot of the slopes, covered with green grass, and wait, until it is filled with leaking water.
spud. 1) Water is more plentiful and available in loose soils, than stony. Scout water sources in the valley bottom or on their slopes, since here the groundwater level closer to the surface. Water sources can be found below the dry river. 2) Before you start to dig a well, make, that there are signs of water. Dig on the bottom of the valleys, under mountain slopes or the green turf during the wet season. In a wooded area in
coast, in flat rivers groundwater level is close to the surface. Even shallow wells will provide you with plenty of water. 3) Rainwater can be found above the ground water level in the rivers, stagnant waters, marshes. Think of the water contaminated and dangerous for life, even when there is no human habitation.
Along the coast. 1) Water can be found in the dunes on the coast or right on the coast. Look in the valleys between the dunes and dig a well, if the sand is wet. On the coast, dig a hole in the sand at about 100 yards above high tide level. The water can be salty taste, but it will be a lifesaver. Pass it through a sand filter, to reduce the salt concentration. 2) Do not drink the sea water. The salt concentration is so great in it, it will bring a lot of fluid from the body and may stop functioning kidney.
In the desert and arid areas. Look for signs of water in the desert and arid regions. To some extent, are those of the direction of flight of a number of birds, the presence of plant and animal tracks. 1) Sand Grouse in Asia, crested lark and some other birds, at least, once a day visit the place, where there is water. Parrots and pigeons in general live in places, where a lot of water. 2) And you, elder, Reeds (reeds), grass and other plants are grafted only there, where the water close to the surface. Focus on these attributes and select the location for excavation pits. If you do not have a bayonet or other tool (sapernoy blades, for example), dig with a sharp stone or pole. People, living in the desert, often know, where water sources are. They mask their different ways, for example, a bunch of twigs or other shelter, especially in semi-arid areas. Places with moist soil or scratched animals, or rise from birds and insects, certainly contain close to the surface of the groundwater. Here you can dig safely.
In the mountains. Dig in dry riverbeds, because water is often available under the gravel. If you are in the snow fields, type in an empty container (container) snow and put it in the sun in a sheltered from the wind. In the absence of special tools, make them out of flat stones or wood.
Water from the plant. If your search is rain or underground water have been unsuccessful, or if you do not have time for water purification, the best means of getting it are plants. Clean, fresh juice of many plants is readily available to you. In the case of produced water absolutely necessary (the juice) from the following sources:
plant tissue. 1) Many plants with thick leaves or thorns accumulate drinking water. On occasion, try it. 2) A possible source of water is a cask cactus, It is occurring in the US southwest. Eat this tool only in an emergency and only if, if you have enough power, to cut it fat, full peel of thorns. Cut the tip of the cactus and stir the pulp inside the fruit. Pour the liquid into the container. Large pieces of the cactus can be saved as a water storage in emergencies. Cask height of about cactus 3,5 Steps contains about a quart of milk juice. But this is an exception to the rule, which states, what
milk and juices of plants of a different color should not be used as food or water.
The roots of desert plants. The roots of these plants are often located close to the surface. For example, the Australian “water trees”, Desert oak and mahogany. Remove the roots from the ground, cut them into pieces of length 24-36 inches. Sderite bark with them and extrude water.
Vinogradnaya Lausanne, palm trees, coconuts. 1) Vinogradnaya Lausanne. Not all species of vine contain a tasty liquid, but try to find the source. Use the following tips, to squeeze the juice of certain types of vines: – Take a deep notch in the vine as high as possible; – make another notch closer to the ground and place a container under the dripping liquid; – if it stops flowing, Repeat this technique on the other side of the vine and so on until, yet out of it will not be collected all the moisture. 2) Palma. Coir, sugar and some other types of trees include sweet liquid, you can drink. that “start up” juice from palm trees, score the top of the stem, pre-bending the palm to the ground. If renewed every 12 hours of this operation, you get about a quart of fluid a day. 3) coconuts. Choose green nuts. They can be opened easily with a knife, and they contain more milk, than ripe coconuts. Do not drink more 3 – 4-x cups a day. This juice is very strong laxative. To open a coconut without a knife, Use a sharp stone or knot sticking out of the tree and hit with sufficient force them nuts. Milk can be obtained, pierced with a sharp object coconut on both sides.
Plants, which trap and accumulate water. 1) The bamboo cane is often water in joints. Shake the old cane, yellow bamboo color. If you hear a gurgling sound, do notches at the base of each splice and collect water in a jar. 2) Another rich water plant is a tree of travelers, growing in Madagascar, tree-canopy in the tropics of West, baobab tree in northern Australia and Africa.
2.1.3. "Distillation" of water.
water, which we use in everyday life, comes mainly from the soil. For construct groundwater wells. "Distilleries" device (rice. 2) pursues the same objective. Solar heat increases the temperature of the air and soil, plastic-coated, until, until the air is saturated with moisture and can no longer hold water vapor. Then steam begins to condense into tiny droplets on the inside of the plastic, because it is colder, than moist air beneath it. The droplets slowly running down the plastic and fall into a bucket.
Since the heat for this "distillation" of the device comes from the sun, it would seem, nightfall obtain water stops. However, after sunset plastic is rapidly cooled, while the soil temperature remains relatively high. Therefore vapor continues to condense on the surface of the plastic. From four o'clock until eight o'clock in the morning, you can get a half times more water, than for the whole day. To improve its performance the pit is half filled with freshly picked plants, Shoots camel thorns and the like.
Do not count, that you will immediately be able to drink water. need, at least, 24 hours to, to collect 0,5 l moisture; however, you can get even a liter or more.
"Distilleries" device can also be a source of food. A bucket of water attracts snakes and small animals, that crawl on the plastic and can not get out.
It can recommend another method of obtaining water. Since all plants, and including desert, constantly evaporating at least a small amount of water, it can be caught by using an ordinary polyethylene sack. The pouch size 1x0,5 m is put on the bush, branch of a tree and tied at the bottom. water, evaporable plant, deposited as droplets on the inner surface of polyethylene, which accumulates in the bottom of the package. Per hour depending on the size of the plant can be assembled before 50-80 ml of water. Important, that this method practically does not require any physical effort and can be applied in any desert - sand, saline, stony, where is though any vegetation.