The study of any culture cannot be fully imagined without studying the myths and legends of each individual people, which significantly distinguish them from each other and indicate the level of development of society in a certain period of time. Myths can tell us a lot., therefore, it is important to address them and give them due attention.
The concept of "myth" – very important, but quite complicated. Modern scholars and philosophers argue a lot about him.. The word "myth" itself comes from the Greek language and means "translation", "Legend". Often in everyday life, he is brought closer to such concepts, like a "fairy tale", "Legend", consider a story about something, which really was not. But at the same time a myth – it's not just someone’s fiction.
Note! Myth – it's not just fiction. Likely, myths are based on some events, that happened in the deep past.
Many people once seriously believed, or believe now, that in fact everything happened just like that, how this or that myth tells about it. Myths often talk about sacred objects, about gods and communication with them. can say, what a myth – It `s that, what other people seriously believed or believe, but we do not believe. There are people, who consider a myth a lot of that, what we believe now, that we consider important and even holy.
The myth is closely related to the concept of a miracle. – such an event, which we are not able to explain, which we consider impossible. can say, that miracles always violate the usual logic of the world. To our ancestors, much of that would have seemed like a real miracle., what is usual for us now.
Every big, brilliant man did something like that, what was impossible before him. But, on the other hand, into incredible things, the impossible is often believed by people with mental disorders (eg, a person may consider himself a grain and be afraid, that birds are pecking him). This belief in the incredible is called delirium.. A person may suffer delirium on any one narrow topic, but otherwise be quite normal. Then he is able to convince other people that he is right., who also begin to believe in it. This is often how myths are born..
On a note! Myths are often unhealthy fabrications of individuals. The inventors attach great importance to these inventions, believe in them and convince other people in them.
Brilliant artist Salvador Dali spoke: "I differ from the insane only one: I'm not crazy". Many great people, able to see the world differently from everyone, sometimes mistaken for crazy. In the past people, who had a vision, heard voices etc., often considered not sick, and marked by special grace, who understand the essence of things, hidden from others.
Mythological thinking does not distinguish between natural and human, dissolves the human in the natural, gives a feeling of unity with nature, strengthens the will and sensation of a person as part of the team. If there are no boundaries between the imaginary and the real, then nothing is impossible.
Main function – socio-practical, which aims to ensure the unity of the team. Myths ensure the preservation of the social and psychological unity of the team, since the source of myth is not only horror and depression of man, but also dreams of mastering the forces of nature through human will.
Consider several examples of mythologization of consciousness on representatives of different nations.
Myths sometimes hide deep truths. So, in the desert of arizona (USA) is the round "Devil's Canyon". Now scientists have established, what is it – huge meteorite crater, which fell no later 20000 years ago.
During this time, many tribes and hundreds of generations were replaced there.. But local Indianstold much earlier than scientists, "Devil's Canyon" was formed from the fall of "heavenly fire".
Events from the deep past! Ancient tribes cannot interpret events correctly and give a mystical description to ordinary things.. for example, meteorite fall can describe, like the descent to earth of "heavenly fire".
Dogon – people, living in mali (Africa) – in their myths gave special significance to Sirius – the brightest star. They considered, what Sirius really – triple star, two small and very heavy satellite stars revolve around the central star. It really is, but it’s possible to see Sirius’s satellites only with a modern powerful telescope.
Scientists have long believed, that Homer's poems about the Trojan War, where do gods operate, – this is only a literary fabrication. But then Heinrich Schliemann, who believed in the reality of those events, based on the testimony of Homer, found and unearthed the ruins Troy.
Even more interesting is the worldview of primitive man.. In our time, we can still find primitive tribes and consider their.
Primitive peoples had a different idea of the origin of man. for example, according to Australian aborigines, the first people in antiquity were lumps, remaining at the bottom of a dry ancient ocean, shapeless bullets, which stuck together, and in which only the beginnings of the parts of the human body.
Demiurge (in one of the options – flycatcher) unfastened these pieces with a stone knife. The leading role in the myths of Aboriginal people was played by totemic ancestors. They often called the time before time “the time of dreams”. At the same time, ancestors created mountains, river, often the moon and the sun, taught people different skills, especially rites of initiation.
On a note! Demiurge – from ancient greek: master, connoisseur, specialist; artisan, artisan; creator, creator. In Christianity – one of the names of God as the creator and builder of all that exists.
Many natural objects – rock, caves, water bodies – revered as places of "going into the ground" or "traces" of totem ancestors. There Australians held shrines, kept their sacred churings. Such shrines – prototype of future temples, in which they communicated with totemic ancestors, held rites of initiation, magic rites for war and hunting. Some tribes believed in the Great Mother – personification of the fertile power of the earth, which gives rise to all things.
Another ancient race with a primitive culture – bushmen, living in south africa. Their beliefs are much like Australian. But it was common for them to pray – a request for help in the hunt – to various celestial phenomena (the sun, the moon, stars) and other powerful spirits.
Bushmen especially revered Tsagn – mantis insect. He with his family (different other animals – crane, porcupine, etc.) were once humans, who lived here before the Bushmen. he created the sun, the mountains, animals, most bushmen, taught them the rites of initiation. Clock – "Lord of all things", he gives rain, causes life and death.
Such obscure worship of insects and spiders is found in other peoples of Africa.. In particular, in Akan peoples (Ghana) the heavenly god Nyama in the form of the Big Spider Anansi weaved the entire Universe like a world wide web.
In this way, myths are an integral part of the culture of any people. The peculiarity of a particular mythological system, one side, determined by the uniqueness and identity of the ethnic group, to which she belongs. On the other hand, mythology determines the uniqueness of a particular people, affects his mentality, psychology, features of the formation of culture, traditions, the process of spiritual self-identification of the people within the boundaries of the world history of mankind.
Memory of the people! No need to be afraid and avoid myths. Myth – this is the memory of the people, part of its culture and heritage. Myths need to be preserved and passed on to future generations. Who knows, which of this was true?
There is some peculiarity in the mythology of ancient Egypt. It is not just a retelling of the history and events of the life of mythical heroes, it is filled with philosophical thoughts about the being of beings and people. Which strive and entourage that mysterious era.
Published: lentok Source