Tank T-10 as a monument.
28 November 1953 It issued a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers on adopting the newest heavy tank T-10. 15 December the Minister of Defense signed an order similar content. As it turned out later,, These documents were the beginning of the end of the era of Soviet heavy tanks.
T-10, created as "Object 730" or IS-8, It was the last domestic tank heavy class, managed to pass all the tests and go into service. After him, a number of new cars in this class have been developed, but none of them were not satisfied with the military. As a result, the T-10 was the last domestic production tank and took a special place in the history of tank development.
During World War II heavy tanks showed itself as a highly effective means of dealing with the enemy armored vehicles and fortifications. Armored vehicles series "HF" and "EC" made a significant contribution to the victory, and showed the need for further development of heavy tanks. several projects of new heavy tanks was proposed in the early postwar years, able to demonstrate superior performance and fighting qualities. However, the bulk of such projects does not differ perfection and because no progress on development work and prototype testing.
One of the advanced EC-5 tanks.
18 February 1949 , the Council of Ministers adopted a resolution number 701-270ss, determines the further development of Soviet heavy tanks. In accordance with this document, should stop all work on the machine with a combat weight of more than 50 t - at that time there were several similar projects. Besides, Resolution required to create a new heavy tank, fitting into said restrictions. It should develop in the framework of cooperation of several enterprises. The design and construction of new equipment was allocated only a few months. In the autumn scheduled to begin combat tests.
In accordance with the decision Sovmina, in the development we were to participate SKB-2 Chelyabinsk Kirov plant and pilot plant №100 (as well g. Chelyabinsk). Shortly thereafter, the pilot plant became a division of the newly formed Institute of Leningrad-100. In this way, the actual development of the project led SKB-2 and Research Institute 100. The combined team of designers led ZH.YA. Kotin. In this project, according to the documents, was "Chelyabinsk", which was reflected in his work designation.
Throughout the design work and until adopting a new heavy tank called "object 730". Until the early fifties, he also was called EC-5, later changed to EC-8. A well-known index of the T-10 only appeared when taking the machine into service. For political reasons, a new heavy tank, Unlike its predecessors, the result was not named after the statesman.
To develop a new tank was allocated only a few months, which affected the approaches to its implementation. Constructors of Leningrad and Chelyabinsk decided to use the developments on existing projects, however, they had to adapt to new requirements. Depending on the requirements and specificities of existing developments, engineers had to improve or worsen certain units.
An experienced IS-8.
For example, housing for the "Object 730" / IC-5 decided to do on the basis of the heavy tank IS-7 armor. However, this car weighed 68 t and did not fit into the existing restrictions. In this regard, it was necessary to alter the finished housing, reasonably loosening protection. While conducted various research works, the purpose of which was to search for optimal reservation options. Their findings have been used in the draft EC-5 and, in conjunction with the IS-7 decisions, it possible to obtain an optimal ratio of protection and weight.
IS-7 tank also contributed to the development of the power unit for the future "Object 730". One of the existing machines of this type easier to 50 m and equipped with several new units and units. A similar test platform was rebuilt from heavy tank IS-4. With such machines were studied various structural elements, Firstly, power point, transmission and undercarriage.
weight limitation 50 t allowed to do engine B-12, developing capacity 750 HP. This product is allowed to obtain a specific power 15 HP. per ton at a reasonable cost and operational complexity. It has been developed and tested several versions of different composition transmission. As part of the chassis used studies for projects IS-3 and IS-7. Most of the parts of the chassis are improved units IS-3 tank. curious, that they could also be used on other tanks "EC" Series. Of the EC-7 project borrowed torsion beam length contraction.
In the development of the housing project to use the ideas of IP-7, but the defense intentionally deteriorated. Similarly, the situation was and with weapons. The designers decided to abandon the 130-mm guns, not to mention the further growth of the caliber. The tower was proposed to establish a 122-mm gun D-25TA - a modernized version of a well-deserved D-25T. The main innovation as part of the installation was the gun electromechanical rammer. Now the loader had to put the shells and cartridges on a special tray, without wasting time and effort on their chambering in the bolt. This led to a twofold increase in rate of fire.
T-10 in the museum Kubinka.
Generally, "730" project / IC-5 is particular interest in terms of approaches to development and solving the design problems. The offered armored vehicle for a variety of characteristics inferior to some of the previous models. Firstly, she was less heavily armed and weaker protection. However, EC-5 was distinguished by a limited combat weight, and therefore it was suitable for military service.
Features tanks are sufficient to address the major combat missions. Armor provides protection against modern foreign weapons, and own weapons allowed to attack and successfully destroy armored targets different major classes. In this way, new EC-5, despite a slight lag of the parameters of its predecessors, It had significant advantages in the context of practical value.
The main provisions of promising project were formed as soon as possible. Already in April 1949 , the draft project went to the Department of Defense. By early summer, there was a set of design documentation, necessary for the construction of prototypes. Almost all summer spent in CHKZ to build two experimental tanks. The first of them collected by mid-September. Soon the construction of two more experienced "Object 730"; they were sent to trial in December of the same year. To speed up the first new type of tank equipped with transmission from the IS-4. Also used some other details borrowed.
The first tests showed, EC-5 tank in an actual form does not comply with. Firstly, there were problems with the transmission, and cooling system fan type. Shortly units of EC-4 was replaced new transmission development VNII-100 with improved features. The fans have given way to the ejector cooling.
Scheme T-10 first modification. Figure Arsenal-info.ru
In February 1950 year - a few months after the due date - to the first experimental tanks joined by a few new machines, intended for public testing. For several months, the tanks have been tested on different ranges in different regions. Re able to identify some shortcomings design. By the end 1950 took part in the tests 13 armored vehicles such as IS-5. Another two copies built in the next 1951.
In the course of the factory and state tests different design deficiencies have been identified, on the disposal of which took time. Debugging JS-5 tank / "Object 730" lasted until the very end 1952 of the year. Machines were revision and then went to the ground for a demonstration of the results. Having dealt with some problems, Designers took up other. As a result of work in a certain way delayed, but still finished with the desired result.
At the beginning 1953 the year it was decided to replace the index. During debugging JS-5 tank seriously changed, and its current version would be considered a new model. In this regard, there was a JS-8 designation. Quite possible, promising that the tank would have retained that name until adopting. Soon, however, events occurred, which resulted in the tanks stopped calling after IV. Stalin.
During 1953 , the Research Institute of 100 and takes the last CHKZ design modifications and preparing for the launch of series production. 28 November the Council of Ministers decided to adopt a forward-looking tank on the Soviet Army. Decree introduces a new designation it - T-10. A few weeks later there was a similar order of Minister of Defense.
Launch of serial production is not distinguished by high rates. To end 1953 in Chelyabinsk built all 10 new tanks. In the following 1954, the assembly line came 30 armored vehicles. AT 1955 year present record was set - 90 units. The known data, in this production of T-10 have stopped the first base modification.
Since the early fifties, the designers have developed a new gun mounts with odnoploskostnaya stabilizer, and by the mid-fifties to complete this work. AT 1956 the improved T-10A tank went into production, equipped with a stabilizer PUOT-1 "Uragan", improved weapon, new night vision devices, etc.. A year later came into production tanks T-10B and T-10BK. They had a two-plane stabilizer Puotila-2 "Thunder" and new gunner's sight. The tank with the letter "K" was a commanding and more different radio, packings installed in place of part of ammunition.
In the same 1957 was adopted to take deep upgraded tank T-10M. He received reinforced armoring and 122 mm cannon M-62T2 with stabilization biplanar, carrying new guns of increased caliber and advanced optical instruments. Machine weight rose to 51,5 t, however, this was offset by a new engine. The T-10M produced with 1957 by 1966 years; it was the most massive modification of the "Object 730". As the service continued, the equipment of previous modifications was repaired and upgraded according to the M project.. In this way, over time, the entire fleet of heavy tanks was brought to an improved form.
According to local sources, for 13 years ChKZ and the Leningrad Kirov Plant have jointly collected over 1500 heavy tank T-10 all modifications. NATO intelligence gave much more bold assessment - about 8 thousand. tanks. Anyway, issued T-10 was enough to re-armored troops, providing for the replacement of obsolete heavy tanks. The Soviet army received a convenient and successful tool for solving special combat missions.
It should be noted, that in the mid-fifties the T-10 tank was considered, rather, as a temporary measure, because by that time several new projects of heavy tanks with higher characteristics have been developed. However, none of them came to adopting, and later the army refused to create new heavy-duty vehicles, focusing on the new concept of the main tank. As a result, the T-10 turned out to be the last domestic heavy tank., serially built and operated by the troops.
Until the sixties, the fleet of equipment of our army included T-10 tanks of a number of modifications, but by the end of the decade the situation had changed. All machines of the family, belonging to various modifications, were modernized according to the latest T-10M project. The operation of such equipment continued for several decades and ceased after the collapse of the Soviet Union.. The order to withdraw the T-10M from service appeared only in 1993 year. In this way, last heavy tank served 40 years. Notably, that the service T-10M continued against the background of constant modernization and development of main battle tanks of new models.
Armored T-10 was adopted by the 65 years ago, and this was the beginning of the end of the era of Soviet heavy tanks. It finally ended only a quarter of a century ago - in the early nineties. "Object 730" / IS-5 / IS-8 / T-10 was created as a compromise between increasing combat efficiency and combat weight. This approach gave the desired results, and the T-10 was the only heavy tank of his time, reached the adoption. Soon the development of the main tanks began, and the last heavy T-10 took a special place in the history of domestic tank building.