Continuing the theme of Soviet armored trains, The authors encountered a problem, which, basically, It was already announced in previous article. It is the variety of trains. Each PSU is unique in its own way. Talk about the identity of even two armored trains, one series can be a stretch, especially given the fact, BP that were built upon the principle of "I am blinded him from, what happened", and the real battle your way real armored trains confirms.
In this situation it is necessary to "dismantle the bones" literally every train for a detailed description of the weapons. From locomotives and passenger cars finishing in the database. But even this approach does not give the reader a full understanding of the composition of the specific BP and its purpose.
It is for this reason that we go the other way. As a basis we take the postulate, that armored train - it is first and foremost the train! If you take the analogy, that emerged from readers after meeting with railway technology for military purposes at the time, this ship, divided into compartments.
The only difference between the vehicle and an armored train in the, that the ship's compartment is a part of the ship, and the train is more or less self-contained and easily replace an identical. Moreover, the railway "compartment" is identical to the only destination.
In this way, any armored train, you will be able to identify and define not only their own destiny without difficulty, but also the basic profession of arms.
so, main component is any armored locomotive.
more precisely, locomotives. At least two, sometimes three. Broneparovoz itself and the so-called black locomotive.
Purpose understood locomotive. The main engine of the entire system. Broneparovoz charge warhead BP, and the black (civil) locomotive is designed to work on the BP movement when redeployment and withdrawal base from the danger zone in the event of an enemy breakthrough, broneparovoza damage or to increase the velocity of the composition.
Depending on the picture, especially the Civil War, BP and look. Just part of the train. Even broneparovoz in this part of just another car.
For reservations using locomotives "O" Series. This series of steam locomotives in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union was the largest mass. If we consider the specific locomotives, which is quite a lot today as monuments at railway stations, you can see the additional letters in the title. This is the result of numerous upgrades of the machine.
A distinctive feature of armored locomotives for a low axial load and low silhouette. Special production of "war locomotive" was not, used production machines. The first condition was necessary in order, to avoid substantial excess axial load after booking. The second - the locomotive should not stand out from the other components of the train.
Exactly the same rule applied to other essential element - the tender. Broneparovozy sufficiently "greedy" and for transportation of coal requires a special locomotive car. It was this car, armored in the same, as the main locomotive, and he called tender.
In this way, armored train locomotive consisted of two elements: broneparovoza and bronetendera. It is in this form it is presented on all armored trains.
Black is a steam locomotive was generally conventional locomotive. He was not even included in the delivery of the armored train. practically, black steam locomotives were attached to the commander of the PSU has to direct garrison.
The next essential element of an armored train were bronevahonы or broneploschadki. it wagons, where concentrated basic armored weapons. It bronevagony determined firepower in all BP. Depending on arms, ie from bronevagonov (broneploschadok), went the division of armored trains themselves.
Bronevahonы (as well as armored) dependent on railroad. more precisely, the availability of appropriate trucks. The first PD can see the presence of lung broneploschadok on biaxial carts. Locate the heavy gun or two guns on these trucks is problematic.
Only in 1933 , the designers of the military warehouse №60 began to use the new carts Bryansk factory "Red Profintern". These four-axle trucks have been and could withstand the weight of 50 tonnes. They became the basis broneploschadok, which can be seen today in the form of SQ-35 (Playground easy arr. 1935 g).
Such bronevagony can be easily recognized on several grounds. First of all, booking. Voenksklad was unable to be welded during assembly bronelisty bronevagonov. Because the reservation has been traditional for these designs. The sheets are screwed to the frame using bolts.
If the lateral book withstand the mounting, the front and rear sheets of the designers have been compelled to strengthen corners. These 4 corner perfectly visible on any PL-35.
It is interesting and very book of the submarine. The thing is, voensklada that experts have created a combined book an air gap! External armor plates, thickness 15 mm were connected with a 12-mm conventional steel sheets through an air gap.
It was later mentioned in documents, in the manufacture of armored trains some guessed before, to fill the space between the sheets concrete. And it happened at the output is something very difficult, bipartite, with different densities, but try, Become the.
Next characteristic feature of PL-35 - there are two towers at the edges of the central platform and the commander's cupola. However, sometimes there are submarines with one tower. Instead of the second set memory with machine guns "Maxim".
PL-35 was created in the pre-war period and, naturally, the designer had to create a special tower for guns. by the way, it also provides the specificity of PL-35. Towers for installation 76mm cannon arr. 1902 year were welded from sheets of armor (15-mm) in the form of 20-gon.
Thus, designers have not only reduced the corners, but also changed the layout of the entire tower. She became less. Even panoramic cupola on the roof of the tower became less visible and vulnerable.
The same was subjected to upgrading and commander's cupola. It also decreased due to the use of a tank panorama PTK. Furthermore, commander was internal communication, not only with the commanders of the towers, but with machine guns. And, electricity connection apparatus became autonomous through the installation of 10 battery. They are also used for emergency lighting.
For the first time "taken care of" and the machine gunner. When firing through loopholes covers "Maxim" often received holes and fell into disrepair. Besides, board installation "Vertlyuz", used previously, gave the enemy more opportunity to attack because of the rather large "dead zones".
Hard to tell, how you have to be tough machine gunner, to generally get somewhere. For I do not see anything.
Now the gun was armored housings and ball mount. firing angles for each machine guns increased significantly. The depth of the "dead spots" are minimized.
Next broneploschadka is an extension of PL-35 concept. She received the name SQ-37. And met for a PSU as often. true, distinguish this submarine is quite difficult.
The thing is, that voensklad №60 after the establishment of PL-35 engaged in the development of more secure platforms. But at the forefront put the protection of the crew compartment. Simply put, it was necessary to reinforce the towers book. And this in itself caused the need to strengthen the entire reservation bronevagona.
An intermediary between the PL-35 and PL-37 PL-36 became. Supposed to enhance a reservation housing 20 mm. Armor plates have been welded together, but the connection to the frame was bolted. Towers with guns, 76-mm rifle Countdown. 1902/30 gg (barrel length 40 calibres) should be sloped (no less 8 degrees in the vertical).
Seriously amplified machine-gun armament. At the ends of broneploschadki installed on two towers with machine guns (Total 4 additionally), but most importantly, upgraded towers for artillery can fire at the corners of the -5 to +37 degrees, which allowed for a barrage of aircraft.
Guide ABTU Red Army decided to go for a simpler way. Use the achievements of two submarines. By PL-35 took the body, amplified to book 20 mm. By PL-36 - cannon tower. It is this "hybrid" and became known as PL-37.
Broneploschadki PL-37 was equipped with steam heating on the steam engine locomotive, interior lighting and batteries for emergency lighting. Under the floor tool made by stacking entrenching, spare parts for guns and machine guns, tools for the repair of armor, subversive of property and property due.
Besides, peepholes in the commander's cupola broneploschadki, the front door and turrets fitted with observation devices with bulletproof glass "Triplex".
by the way, This is the question whether we are ready to fight with the German, or rather the European, army. conversation conversation, but a reality - a reality. All broneploschadki PL-37 fit into the Western European railway envelope and prepared for the transition to action on the gauge railways 1435 mm.
And the other bad news for "vtridtsatyenaspredali", at 1938-39 , the PL-35 active upgrade to SP-37 on the same voensklade №60. True to this time workshops and design warehouse has been an independent company - armor repair base №6 (June 1937 of the year).
Recall the firepower of the submarine.
Armament PL-37 consisted of two 7b,2-mm sample cannons 1902/30 year on upgraded column book-rests of the sample units 1937 the factory "Red Profintern" with the elevation angle 37 degrees.
Thanks to new tools and installations PL-37 firing range increased to 14 km (in SW-35 - 12 km, in areas like the number voensklada 60 — 10 km).
Besides, in contrast to the PL-35 to PL-gun 37 equipped pedal descent, making it easier for firing. Machine guns mounted in a ball mount as PL-35. ammunition 560 shells and 28 500 rounds (114 boxes), packed in special racks.
It remains to describe the top. About easy broneploschadke SQ-43. It's not even, that this submarine is really good. Just considering the armored train in their development, you come to a strange, at first sight, conclusion. The development of technology takes place under the same laws, and that the development of living creatures. Spiral ...
first, that comes to mind, when you see broneploschadku PL-43 ... Chechen war's end 20 century. Only then remembered the German armored train, are crushing the armies of Europe before the war with the USSR. Why?
Simply because, PL-43 that no more no less, and the T-34 tank on railway platform! Even the outline of the platform to some extent repeat the well-known outlines of the tank. The same fire power and armor top. And the same weak bottom protection.
Experience first fights and RKKA loss showed weakness platforms type PL-35 or PL-37. In an effort to increase the firepower of platforms, designers have gone down the same path, on what went tank builders. more guns, More guns, more armor.
but, two towers PL-35(37) on a single platform is a tasty morsel for any artbatarei or any tank. Destroying one platform led to 50% loss in firepower! And considering all the armored train, almost to the loss of room for maneuver armored train, so how to reset the rails broneploschadku this was not an easy task. Especially, in a battle.
Say that, It is known that the authors of the reasons, which is a new platform, must not. it, note, personal conclusion, made on the basis of interviews with historians of the railways.
A return to the old, 20-ton platform may occur for many reasons. Likely, is the large number of platforms in the railway system, and lighter weight armored bay, which receives the output.
Certainly played a role tragic statistics of the first years of the war. "Thirty," we produced and lost in large quantities. AND, taking into account the most vulnerable points of these tanks, remzavody had available an adequate supply of serviceable, ready to be installed on the new chassis, tank turrets. Taken from the tanks, are exploding mines, shell obtained in the engine compartment and so on.
Tank tower and gave enough light truck designers play in solving the problem of the armored bay crew protection. Even in the case of contact with the submarine at BP crew always had the opportunity to conduct further fighting, since died one crew / calculation one broneploschadki (and not a fact, that all), and the rest almost did not suffer.
Besides, heavily damaged the submarine crew could force a reset and set the whole train. agree, that make it easier with the mono-tower submarines somewhat easier, than two-tower, which is heavier than doubled.
If you look closely at the PL-43, even then it is seen, that book held on the "Tank" principle. tank tower. powerful (to 45 mm) body book and keep from armored trains book itself carts.
so, broneploschadka PL-43 was made on the basis of 20-ton biaxial platform. Axle load of about 18 tonnes, platform length over buffers 10,3 m. Bronelisty nose bead thickness and feed broneploschadki 45 mm, roof - 20 mm.
The tank turret, with a thickness of the coil board and feed walls 45-52 mm, It was placed 76 mm tank gun F-34 and 7.62 mm tank gun DT. Another two DT machine gun installed on the sides broneploschadki.
Ammunition was a submarine 168 shells and 4536 rounds. Quite promising potential, thanks to the possibility of fire in all directions, the presence of armored sights. Plus quite effective gun.
The next element is an armored train broneploschadka defense. There are at least two areas. In front and behind the submarine broneploschadok.
When considering the armored train BP-35, this platform has attracted attention for the, what, PL-35 in contrast to bronevagonov (37), it is 2-axle. And clearly it looks obscenities. Really, SPU-BP platform was developed in the workshop №60 warehouse as an addition to the already existing on the train "air defense system", SPARK "Maxim", located in tender locomotive.
so, the usual 20-ton platform. In the center hexagonal tower. booking 20 mm. Inside the tower installation M4 (Quad memory machine guns "Maxim"). Boezapas - 10 000 cartridges in the tape. For the calculation of the evacuation of three people, there is a hatch inside the tower. The crew was evacuated under the platform. How it looks when driving, It seems hard.
It is much more common to see anti-aircraft defense-4 platform with a 37-mm automatic anti-aircraft guns mod. 1939 year K-61. Also used antiaircraft broneploschadki with 25-mm anti-aircraft automatic cannon 72-K, two 12.7-mm anti-aircraft guns DShK, variants with one gun or a gun.
How view, anti-aircraft platform includes all, I could shoot at the planes. Wherein, use anti-aircraft guns against enemy infantry was impossible because of the lateral platforms booking.
We have temporarily stop the story, but in the next part of the story will continue on the other components of the armored trains of the Great Patriotic War.
armored train, become parties to the photo shoot (as well as all further) They are in the museum in the Upper Pyshma and the memorial at the Moscow station of Tula.