Russian submarine "Lamprey"
20 September 2018 in St. Petersburg on the water was ceremonially lowered the new diesel-electric submarine project 677 "Kronstadt". Over one hundred and ten years earlier - 11 October 1908 in St. Petersburg launches the first not only in Russia, but also in the diesel-electric submarines of the world - it was the submarine "Lamprey" project. This boat, equipped with a diesel engine, It became the ancestor of all diesel-electric submarines of the Russian Navy.
Diesel-electric submarine (DEPL) - a submarine, equipped with a diesel engine for surface running and an electric motor, intended for movement under water. The first such boats were created at the beginning of the XX century, when the industry was able to provide a relatively sophisticated diesel engines, which quickly pushed out of the area of submarine shipbuilding kerosene and petrol motors, as well as the steam installation, which have been used by designers before.
The transition to a dual circuit engines allow submarines to reach a high level of autonomy swimming (during the First World War, the autonomy of the boats already measured thousands of miles) and a significant passage of time under water (no less 10 hours of economic progress). Important was the, that disappeared danger of an explosion of steam boilers, or gasoline vapors, which makes submarines in a truly formidable fighting force was the cause of this type of weapons and their widespread use. Over with 1910 by 1955 years all existing submarines (with a few rare exceptions,) It was constructed by a diesel-electric scheme.
The first diesel-electric submarine "Lamprey"
Experience of submarines in Russian-Japanese war makes, that submarines of small displacement can only be used in coastal areas. Therefore, the Naval Staff came to the conclusion that, that in the Russian fleet should have submarines of two types - coastal, displacement to 100-150 tons and cruising, intended to act on the high seas and having a displacement of about 350-400 tonnes.
Already in 1905 , the Russian ship's engineer and mechanic Ivan Bubnov has developed two projects submarines, displacement 117 and 400 tonnes. submarines, built on these projects, We received in the name of future Lamprey (small boat) and Akula (big boat). Both submarines Marine Technical Committee (MTK) rated "proficient". Their construction was supposed to serve as the independent development of the Russian submarine shipbuilding.
Bookmark submarine "Lamprey" on the stocks of the Baltic plant held 6 September 1906 of the year. The construction of the submarine was carried out with the direct manual work Bubnov. In the history of this submarine boat ever came as the world's first submarine with diesel power plant. Two diesel engines for submarines were built in St. Petersburg at the Nobel factory (today it is the plant "Russian Diesel"), which by that time I had been accumulated sufficiently large construction experience such engines. At the same time in the construction of diesel engines for boats factory met with a large number of unforeseen difficulties. Particularly in the manufacture of a reversing device, which was first created in our country for engines of this type.
facer, arising Nobel plant, detained willingness diesel, the first one was commissioned in July 1908 of the year, and the second - in October of the same year. There is also a delay in the construction of submarines led and unavailability of the main motor, for which the assembly replied plant "Volta" in Revel (Tallinn today). To top it all, on the night 21 Martha 1908 year in a fire has been completely destroyed already collected and adopted by battery, produced by the "Electric Travayl de Meto" in Paris.
The descent of a new submarine into the water held 11 October 1908 of the year. 23 October 1908 year "Lamprey" first appeared in the Sea Canal, true, all under one diesel engine and an electric motor, a second diesel engine on the boat at that time have not yet installed. 7 November of the same year, the first time a submarine sank into the Neva at the quay wall of the Baltic plant. According to the results of experimental dives, it was decided to equip submarines with lead ballast keel to increase. Over the next year went to work on the finalization of the boat and its testing, including performing torpedo firings. Recommendations from the ITC on acceptance of the submarine "Lamprey" in the fleet were obtained 31 October 1910 of the year.
The submarine "Lamprey" was the further development of Russian submarines such as "Killer Whale", which was characterized by arrangement of the main ballast tanks in the lungs extremities, outside the pressure hull of the boat. Ballast system "Lampreys" differed from their predecessors: in addition to the two main ballast tanks on the bow of the boat deck there were also tanks - stern and bow, close to the wheelhouse. Main ballast tanks are filled with special centrifugal pumps, a deck filled with gravity. When unfilled tanks deck boat could go to the positional status (Only on the surface of the cutting remained) at sea state up 3-4 points. All ballast tanks of the boat was let down a high-pressure air, with which it can be purged from the water ballast tanks at any depth.
Solid middle part of the "Lamprey" submarine corps was formed from the annular former corner section 90h60h8 mm, spaced from one another at a distance 33 cm and forming geometrically correct body with decreasing diameter from the center to the extremities of the boat. The thickness of the shell plating reached 8 mm. From the end tank middle part of the submarine hull separated spherical strong thick bulkheads 8 mm. On top of the hull was riveted durable cutting, having an oval shape and made of magnetic steel. Durable hull was designed for a working depth of immersion - nearly 30 m, limit - to 50 m.
In the bow of the submarine monohull two 450-mm torpedo tube were placed, such devices in the Russian submarine were used for the first time (on a submarine-type "Dolphin" and "Killer Whale" used rotary lattice torpedo tubes Drzewiecki system). salvo firing of two torpedo tubes have been impossible. In the bow of the "Lampreys" hull was battery, which consisted of two groups of 33 in each element. Between the groups of battery cells housed passage, intended for maintenance of batteries. Under the floor was gangway 6 vozduhohraniteley stock high pressure air, as well as one vozduhohranitel for firing 450-mm torpedoes.
In the bow compartment boats was also the anchor motor drive, outputted to the upper deck. On the right side of "Lamprey" was located zlektrokompressor to replenish compressed air reserve. On the left side was electric. Also in the bow of the submarine was located torpedopogruzochny hatch with durable cover, which was closed from inside the boat. Through the hatch on the side of the boat could not only torpedo ship, but batteries, various equipment and supplies.
Battery closed deck, who also served as the floor space. On the sides of the submarine batteries placed boxes for the team things, and they can be lifted on hinges, to get access to the batteries. In the lowered position data boxes formed along the sides of the boat flat area, which could be used for the rest of the crew members free of watch.
In the control room of the boat under the deckhouse on the sides of two small cabins were vygorozhena for the commander and his assistant. Aft bulkheads of these cabins were the walls of the fuel tanks, located on the side of the boat. U-boat crew consisted of 18 human, including two officers. In the control room were the ship's ventilation fans - Fume and vduvnoy, and battery, intended for ventilation of the storage pit.
In the wheelhouse of the boat had five portholes, which allows you to visually observe the surroundings. Here at the top of a solid cap was placed with four portholes, it served as the input hatch cover on submarine. In order to observe the terrain in a submerged position in the wheelhouse two optical devices have been installed - a periscope and kleptoskop. Kleptoskop different from the periscope, that during its rotation eyepiece observer remained in place, without changing its position relative to the horizon. The cramped conditions at the small cabin that was important enough.
"Lamprey" in the port of Libau
To control the submarine in a horizontal plane used conventional vertical steering wheel with a roller drive and steering wheels, one of which was located on the upper bridge and intended to control the "lamprey" on the surface, and the second was installed in the control room to control the boat when submerged during. a submarine control in the vertical plane carried by two pairs of horizontal rudders, located at the bow and stern of the boat.
Two diesel engines "Lamprey" power of 120 l. from. each have been established in line, They worked on one propeller. Engines connected to each other via the friction clutch razobschitelnoy. Exactly the same clutch aft diesel engine was connected to the propeller motor, and the, in its turn, It was connected to the propeller shaft via the dog clutch. Used powerplant diagram presupposed, that the propeller of the boat could operate: one electric motor 70 hp, one aft diesel engine 120 HP. or both diesel engine power 240 HP.
Possibility of supplying three different capacities on a common propeller device designer demanded boat propeller with variable pitch. Pitch changing drive has been located inside the hollow propeller shaft inside the submarine, where there was a screw-threaded device to rotate the propeller blades. Operation of the submarine demonstrated, that the drive is weakened from shocks and vibrations, especially when sailing in stormy weather; occurred screw pitch reduction, which created many difficulties for the team and the inconvenience of the need to maintain a constant speed of travel of the submarine.
23 Martha 1913 of the year, making a test dive after winter parking, "Lamprey" almost died along with the crew near Libau. Near Libau lighthouse with boats passed the escort boat port, they are going to dive. transmitted signal, boatswain semaphore flags rolled into a tube and stuffed them under the bridge deck cabin. He did it so poorly, flags were in the ship's mine ventilation valve, who at that time was opened. In preparing the submarine to dive close the valve foreman Minaev did not pay attention to what, that the valve is not closed, because it interfered with semaphore flags. maybe, he just did not pay attention to what, that vent worked tightly and did not close until the end, write it on a feature of the submarine.
As a result, when immersed "Lamprey" starts to draw water through the half-open ventilation valve. Water enters the engine room, and the boat received a negative buoyancy and sank to a depth of approximately 11 m. In this case, the boat fired emergency buoy, who noticed the boat, and that contributed to the beginning of the rescue operation. I arrived at the scene a powerful 100-ton harbor crane, minonostsы, with divers tow, officers and sailors - the participants of the Training Detachment diving. As a result, through the 10 hours after the flooding were able to raise the stern of the boat to the surface and through the aft hatch to conduct the evacuation of the crew. All the divers were in faint and dizzy, because the inhaled vapor and chlorine acid batteries of the flooded water. The entire crew was taken to the hospital with poisoning, but the death toll was not.
During the First World War, completely renovated by the time the boat took an active part in the hostilities. AT 1915 year during the next repair its armament was supplemented by a 37-mm cannon, which is set at the stern of the boat. Total "Lamprey" made 14 military campaigns, However, the results did not reach. In this case, the very boat several times attacked the enemy ships. For example, in summer 1915 year submarine, thanks to the skillful actions of the machine foreman D. M. Trusov, He was able to escape from the ram. For this, he 29 October 1915 he was awarded the George Cross 4th degree.
In the autumn 1917 year "Lamprey" along with the four submarines of the "Killer Whale" arrived in Petrograd to undergo overhaul. Here the boat caught the revolutionary events, repair was postponed indefinitely. All the boats were in January 1918 year put for storage in port. About them remembered only in the summer 1918 of the year, when the Soviet government was required to strengthen the Caspian Flotilla of the actions of the invaders. Boats repaired and transferred by rail to Saratov, whence they came under its own power to Astrakhan. In May 1919 year near the fort Alexandrovsky "Lamprey" was involved in a battle with British ships.
After the end of combat operations in the Caspian Sea, boat while in storage in the port Astrakhan, till 25 November 1925 there has been no decision on sending it to be scrapped due to wear and tear of all the mechanisms. After 16 years of service, the first Russian diesel-electric submarine was dismantled for scrap. Long-term operation "Lamprey" submarine has confirmed the correctness of design solutions, proposed Bubnov, part of them (immersion system apparatus, overall design) We found in the future development of the design and construction of small submarines already in the Soviet Navy.
The performance characteristics of the submarine "Lamprey":
displacement - 123 tons (above water), 152 tons (underwater).
Length - 32,6 m.
width - 2,75 m.
Draft average - 2,75 m.
The power plant - two diesel engines for 120 HP. and the electric motor - 70 HP.
Speed - 11 knots (surfaced), 5 knots (underwater).
Cruising range - 900 miles on the surface (8 knots), 25 miles - underwater.
Operating depth - 30 m.
Test depth - up 50 m.
Armament - 37 mm cannon (from 1915 of the year) and two 450-mm bow torpedo tubes.
crew - 18 human.