Not always a talented designer or engineer can realize their talents and skills in their own country. There are many cases, when good people go abroad and already there making new discoveries, or creating an outstanding technique. So, in the last century, against the background of the rapid development of the global aviation, significant contribution to the development of overseas branches have engineers of Russian origin. Let us recall some of the most famous compatriots, for one reason or another have worked abroad.
Emigration and helicopters
Perhaps, the most famous foreign aircraft designer of Russian origin is Igor Sikorsky (1889-1972). Sikorsky's career in aviation began in 1908 year, when he joined the aeronautic circle of the Kiev Polytechnic Institute. Students and teachers, members of the circle were engaged in calculations and built the experimental technique. To 1911 with the participation I.I. Sikorsky helicopters were several prototypes designed and built, that, however, not equipped with the swash plate and other necessary devices, which limited their opportunities.
At that time, the creation of a full-fledged helicopter was impossible, and because Sikorsky has focused on the airplane category. AT 1911 , he trained as a pilot, and soon joined the Russian-Baltic carload factory Office. In the following years, the young designer was the founder of multi-engine aircraft - the first example of this kind was the airplane "Russian Vityaz".
I.I. Sikorski helicopter cockpit R-4 self-developed, 14 August 1944 g. Фото US Coast Guard
To 1917 year I.I. Sikorsky is developing new models of aircraft for different purposes and with different characteristics. A significant part of the project was brought to mass production in the interests of the Russian army and gave the most visible results. However, two of the revolution 1917 year put an end to these processes. In February 1918 , the outstanding designer left Russia and went to London, where it then went to Paris.
Sikorsky offered the command of the French assistance in the development of aviation. Soon there was a contract for the construction of several multi-engine bombers. However, a few months after it was signed an armistice, thereby to cancel the contract. Left without orders, Designer emigrant decided to move to the US.
In the first years in New York I.I. Sikorsky could not find their place in the aircraft industry, because of what has been forced to make private lessons. The new company Sikorsky Aero Engineering Corporation was established only in the mid-twenties. However, the first years of its existence, too, were not simple. The company engaged in the development and construction of small-scale aircraft of various classes and for different purposes. At various times, it was created biplanes and monoplanes, flying boats, etc.. - a total of over a dozen projects.
In the late thirties I.I. Sikorski returned to the subject of helicopters and started a full-fledged design of such equipment. In September of the same year, an experienced helicopter VS-300 first flew on, earmarked for the first tests. curious, that this machine was in many ways similar to the experimental sample 1909 years of aeronautic circle.
The real success of Sikorsky helicopters to come in 1942 year. At the beginning of the year the first flight of the new machine R-4 Hoverfly. This machine is able to take on passengers or cargo overboard, which allows its use in the army. In May of the same year R-4 have adopted and put into series. There were built more than 130 new helicopters. In this way, R-4 I.I. Sikorsky became the world's first production helicopter.
R-4 fast enough to show the real possibilities of helicopters in the context of military operation, and paved the way for new helicopters. In the future, the US Army ordered regularly develop new helicopters, corresponding to its requirements. In many of these contests won the company Sikorsky.
Company, based I.I. Sikorski, still exists and is one of the leaders in its industry. During its existence, it has developed and delivered in a series of nearly three dozen types of helicopters, not counting numerous modifications. Also active work was carried out to establish the experimental samples. The company is now owned by Lockheed Martin Corporation and continues to operate.
The events of recent decades, and the current situation suggest, that Igor Sikorsky was able to become the most successful, successful and famous aircraft designer-immigrant, started its activities in our country and will continue to work abroad.
airmen, designers, emigration
A significant contribution to the development of the US Air Force in the past has made the company Seversky Aircraft Company, Founded in the early thirties,. It was later transformed and renamed Republic Aviation Corporation, and then became part of Fairchild Aircraft (now abolished). The founder of this company was a Russian pilot and designer Alexander P. de Seversky (1894-1974). Realizing the difficulties of emigration, He tried to recruit their compatriots. Most famous for his employee was Alexander Mikhailovich Kartveli (1896-1974).
A. N. Alexander P. de Seversky SEV-in aircraft cabin 3M. Фото Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum / airandspace.si.edu
AT 1914 A year. Alexander P. de Seversky graduated from the Naval Cadet Corps, and soon came to Sevastopol flying school. curious, that before entering the future officer cadets had to learn the basics of piloting airplanes - his father taught. In July 1915 , a young specialist training completed and officially became a pilot. Unfortunately, year career did not last too long. During the sortie A. Alexander P. de Seversky was seriously wounded and left without legs. Nevertheless, airman found the strength to return to service.
A few months later Alexander P. de Seversky came to Petrograd factory 1st Russian partnership aeronautics, where he was asked to oversee the construction and testing technology. Soon, he began to work in the design bureau of the enterprise. The most famous of this period was the development of a special ski gear, ensuring operation of flying boats in the winter - from frozen ponds. Besides, Designer of all the forces trying to return to flight operations, and he eventually succeeded.
After the February Revolution AN. Alexander P. de Seversky was increased several times in rank and received awards. Within months, he was promoted to commander of the fighter aircraft of the Baltic Fleet. At the beginning 1918 year experienced pilot and an engineer was sent to work in the Russian Embassy in the US, which, but, soon ceased its activities. The famous pilot lost his job, without prospects and without the possibility to return to Russia.
Fortunately, Alexander P. de Seversky found support in the person of General Billy Mitchell, seeks to develop military aircraft of the United States. General gave a Russian specialist at the Defense Ministry to the post of advisor on aircraft. And in a few years. Alexander P. de Seversky became an American citizen and a rank of Air Force Major. Working in the Ministry of Defense, the pilot and the designer tried to establish his own aircraft company, but she quickly closed due to financial problems.
AM. Kartveli and fighter P-47. Photo Life magazine
A second attempt to enter the market took place in 1931 year, when it was founded by Seversky Aircraft Company. The company was not big, and because its founder was president, designer and test pilot at the same time. At the same time Alexander P. de Seversky did not appoint himself more and Chief Designer. A post he gave another engineer emigrant - AM. Kartlians.
In the future designer Kartveli the First World War served as a gunner. Acquainted with airplanes, he decided to engage in aviation, but for many years I had no such opportunity. AT 1919 A year. Kartveli and several other young professionals went to France for training as gunners. Already while studying future aircraft, Seeing the difficult situation at home, I decided not to return home and stay in Europe. Shortly thereafter, he joined the company of the famous Louis Bleriot.
In the late twenties Kartveli invited to the US. He accepted the offer and became an employee of the company Atlantic Aircraft Corporation. later AM. Kartveli met with AN. Prokofiev-Seversky and received a new proposal for changing jobs. AT 1931 he became chief designer of the Seversky Aircraft Company. This post remained behind him for a long time.
During his tenure in firms "Seversky" and "Ripablik" two aircraft manufacturer emigrants create a wide range of aviation equipment of various classes and types. The main specialization of the company is the production of military aircraft for tactical aviation, and in this area remarkable results have been obtained. So, fighter-bomber Republic P-47 Thunderbolt often referred to as the best aircraft in its class during the Second World War.
A. N. Alexander P. de Seversky and AM. Kartveli in Seversky P-35 fighter pilot cockpits. photo Alexanderkartveli.com
Until the end of life AN. Alexander P. de Seversky was a celebrity on a national scale and is considered one of America's leading experts in the field of aviation. He remained a consultant to the Pentagon, and has lectured at universities and participated in various thematic events. His companion about the company and emigration AM. Kartveli dedicated his life to the design work. For some reasons, he became famous, like Alexander P. de Seversky, but still it made the most significant contribution to the development of American aviation. His latest creation - attack aircraft Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II - still is in service.
In most cases, Russian aircraft designers went abroad and did not return home from trips due to rejection of the new authorities. However, there have been other cases, of particular interest. So, constructor Ivan Mahoning (1885-1973) not only I went to France at his own request. He was sent to a special order of the leadership in order to develop new projects.
I.I. Maxonin, 1928 g.
Shortly before the outbreak of World War I.I. Mahoning graduated from the Polytechnic Institute in St. Petersburg. Shortly thereafter, he founded his own design office, whose main area of activity was varied aircraft weapon - from guns to bombs. This work continued until 1919 of the year, when there are new offers in other areas. Designer interested railway theme, and could be interested in his new government proposals.
In the same 1919 year of the project and. Makhonina built several locomotives with low-powered diesel engines. Soon there was a project of the battery electric locomotive. Actually locomotive supplemented by special tender, in which there were several hundred battery. The source of the necessary spare parts have become old submarine. In the new "electric" test I got from Petrograd to Moscow for 12 hours with one intermediate recharging.
At the same time an enthusiastic designer proposed a draft having massive airship, able to take on board 60 thousand. tons of cargo (order 960 t). Such airship would be to equip the multi-storey gondola with a freight and passenger compartments on 1000 human. The concept of a large cargo and passenger airship interested persons responsible, but the offer immediately faced serious difficulties. The young Soviet state lacked the technology and materials, necessary for the construction of such equipment.
AT 1921 year and. Maxonin, obtaining necessary permits and certain support, He left from Soviet Russia to France. Designer emigrant to maintain good relations with the authorities and colleagues. Thereby, in particular, his work appeared regularly in the national media profile.
In France, the Russian specialist has pursued various ideas and solutions, part of which has been brought to production. So, to the mid-twenties, his company La Compagnie des Carburants Makhonine beginning TN Issue. distilled fuel, derived from coal. It was intended for motor vehicle internal combustion, ships and aircraft. However, at 1927 , the French authorities ordered the closure of production due to the negative impact on the environment.
Before and after moving to France I.I. Mahoning took a special interest in aviation, and regularly offers new ideas. Firstly, were studied creative solutions, to improve the basic characteristics of equipment. The first major result of this work appeared in 1929 year. It was a prototype Mak.10 with variable geometry wing. Subsequently, this prototype has been finalized and was called Mak.101.
The prototype Mak.10, wing console pushed to the maximum range. Flight magazine photos
Experimental aircraft received a special wing with movable consoles. At the command of the pilot, they can be pulled out or being sucked into the center section, changing the magnitude and area of the wing. The increased scope of improved takeoff and landing characteristics of the aircraft, and shortened so you can optimize speed flight. Tests have confirmed these features art, however, led to the identification of a number of problems.
AT 1940 , Nazi Germany occupied France, and experienced Mak.101 was in its possession. the machine was soon lost. According to one version, French test pilot, attracted Germans to the test flight, deliberately broke it. According to another version, the prototype was destroyed by Allied bombing. Anyway, Germans were not able to fully explore the interesting and trophy, respectively, borrow design solutions.
AT 1947 year and. Mahoning built a prototype Mak.123, It is a further development of the prewar sample. One of the main difference was a long cab Multi, which could also be used as gruzootseke. Mak.123 was tested, but went further. Because of the war constructor I lost a few years, and during this time, piston aircraft with straight wings had morally outdated. Mak.123 had no real prospects.
Mak.123 project became the latest development I.I. Makhonina aviation. In the future, Russian emigre designer and his colleagues have been addressing the issue of creating new kinds of fuel and the development of internal combustion engines. Some of the achievements of these projects subsequently found application in various fields. maybe, projects I.I. Makhonina affected the development of the French aircraft industry, but the aircraft remained an interesting experiment with no real future.
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The events of the distant past have affected a great many lives. Many people, including specialists of the aviation industry, We were forced to leave our country or failed to return home from trips abroad. Some of them in the new place could continue to work on the basic specialty, and even achieve some success. Such people, how I.I. Sikorski, A. N. Alexander P. de Seversky or I.I. Mahoning able to realize themselves as designers, but the contribution they are still made in a foreign aviation industry.