Heavy tank T-10M, in the Great Patriotic War museum, Kiev.
At the end 1954 of the year, before the completion of the tests, "the object 267 sp.1 "with odnoploskostnaya stabilizer, work began on the second phase of a stabilized weapons - two-plane stabilization, which was to offset the impact on the guidance of weapons, not only vertical movements, but also the yaw rate of the tank. As a result, work on the project, received cipher "Thunder", at 1955 was developed "object 267 sp.2 » (second specification).
Mirror stabilized in a vertical, and the second - in the horizontal plane, and this ensures stabilization of the visual field in both planes. Cannon Drive vertically borrowed from tank "object 267 sp.1 ». But when choosing the type of drive of the tower on the horizon there were serious disagreements in the group of designers. Existing electromechanical drive of the tower did not meet the new requirements. Therefore, it required or create a new one for him, quite bulky gear with a high gear ratio, or move to a hydraulic drive with a high-torque hydraulic motor. In the latter case, it was necessary to create a special hydraulic system with a hydraulic pump, tank and pipelines. Due to the lack of consensus of experts on this issue, Zh.Kotin decided to develop, manufacture and testing of two experimental samples actuator - hydraulic and electromechanical. According to the results of this work, performed in an extremely short time - less than two months, preference was given to the hydraulic drive.
The high pace of work has made it possible to 1956 year, t. it is. in less than two years, bring a new regulator to transfer into series production. And in 1957 year was adopted by the new modification of the tank - the T-10B ("Object 730B) a double plate "Thunder" stabilizer Puotila-2 and stabilized sight T2S-29-14, which was launched into production in Chelyabinsk. T-10B produced short-lived, only one year, during this time it was built 130 machines, true, 20 of them although I think the T-10B, but they were manned odnoploskostnaya stabilizer "Hurricane". AT 1957 year T-10B in production changed comprehensively modernized "ten" - T-10M.
AT 1957 year on the basis of the T-10B has been designed and command tank T-10BK, which differed from the base of the machine by the presence of an additional radio station and charger unit.
Another modification of T-10 began to be developed in accordance with the decision of the plenum Scientific and Technical Committee of the Main Control armored, held 14 December 1954 of the year, which discussed the comprehensive modernization of the T-10 and which were issued in February 1955 accordingly, the Government Resolution. The new car was given the site-room - "Object 272". Initially, it was appointed as the lead engineer A.Shneydman, and then guide the work handed P.Mihaylovu.
Modernization touched first tank weapons - 122 mm gun D-25T, which is more than ten years ago, began to set on the tanks IS-2, finally it sent to rest. Instead, the new modification established a much more powerful tool M-62T2S (2A17) the same caliber.
Cannon M-62 was developed KB №172 plant in Perm (while and the city, Plant and bore the name Molotov) under the leadership of M.Tsirulnikova. The first prototype of the M-62 was tested in 1953 year. In comparison with the D-25T new instrument was significantly better ballistic performance. So, initial velocity armor-piercing projectile was 950 m / s (at D-25, it does not exceed 795 m / s), respectively was better armor and shells - 225 mm at a distance 1000 m (in D-25 - 145 mm), Besides, M-62 and had a number of operational advantages. A characteristic feature of the outer M-62 was muzzle brake trench type (on the D-25 - two-chamber), absorbs up 70% force recoil.
In fact, testing of the installation of guns-62 tank began vOKTB even before the Decree of the Government of the comprehensive modernization of T-10 and was conducted on the prototype "object 264" and "object 265" (by the way, lead designer of the latter was P.Isakov, who later became the chief designer of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant). Three samples of the "object 265", manufactured by December 1954 of the year, It has been successfully tested on the test site near Leningrad Rzhevsky. According to their results, a decision was made about the possibility of installing tools on the M-62 tank T-10 during its subsequent modernization.
Tank T-10M sectional
In summer 1955 year has passed factory testing prototype tools, stabilized in two planes, received index M 62T2S. The first three guns M-62T2S stabilizers 2E12 "Rain" were sent to the LB 1 November 1955 of the year. Here they were installed on the "Object 272" with the gunner's sight T2S-29-14 with independent stabilization of the field of view and a maximum effective range 4000 m. Ammunition of the tank did not change and amounted to 30 rounds of separate loading.
In addition to the main armament on the "object 272" has been updated and accessories - machine gun - armed. Place DShK took more powerful guns KPVT (caliber 14,5 mm) - paired with a gun and antiaircraft. Coaxial machine gun could be used as included adjustment, at ranges up to 2000 m. His guidance was carried out with the help of sight T2S29, which for this purpose it had a special sighting range. The anti-aircraft gun was placed on the tower, directly on the loader's hatch pursuit (from 1959 , only every fifth tank is equipped with anti-aircraft machine gun), its maximum aiming range was 1000 m. If necessary, the fire could lead and ground targets. Anti-aircraft machine gun was equipped with a red-dot sight VC-4, and for firing at ground targets with an optical sight PU-1. Shooting led loader, from the open hatch, standing on the seat.
All crew members, except for charging, We have night vision devices: PIC - so-called 1T-, gunner - TPN-1-29-14 "Luna" (infrared sight makes it possible to deliver fire at night with a maximum range 1150 m), a driver - TVN-2T.
It was strengthened booking turret, altered as a form of bookings sights and observation devices, and their placement on the tower. Also changed the design of the lid driver's hatch and the roof of the power pack.
On the "Object 272" installed a more powerful diesel engine B-12-6, power 750 HP. at 2100 rev / min, which is different from the B-12-5 crankcase structure, crankshaft, pistons of cylinders, etc..
We were put foot brake pedal and the new final drives, in which the planetary gear set housed within the drive wheel. To improve the smooth progress of the number of hydraulic shock absorbers was increased to 6, and the dynamic course of track roller rose from 144 mm 172 mm.
Margin transportable fuel was increased by 400 l through the installation of two fuel tanks in the stern of the hull.
The tank was anti-nuclear defense system (GROOVE) termodymovuyu and equipment (TDA) for the smoke screen. As used radio communication means 133 and the P-tank intercom (TPU) P-120.
As a result of all these changes, weight increased tank, reaching 51,5 t.
Tank T-10M received a new 122 mm cannon M-68T2S with plane stabilizer "Rain"
State tests of the "object 272" ended vdekabre 1956 of the year, and based on their results the tank was recommended for serial production.
Tank T-10M with established OPVT, prepared to overcome the water hazard on the bottom
For the first time since the beginning of production of T-10 to the production of its new modification was to connect and LB. Prior to that, the tanks T-10, T-10A and T-10B made only CHKZ. but, despite all efforts, application designers and industry leadership (recall, eg, group travel on CHKZ Leningrad designers to design a T-joint 10), to achieve complete unification machines, It has been produced at these two plants, and failed.
26 September 1957 by order of the USSR Minister of Defense under the designation T-10M was taken into service immediately two tanks: "Object 272", Produced in Leningrad, and "object 734", Manufactured in Chelyabinsk. Chelyabinsk Plant Machinery different structural changes in the transmission control actuators, Final Drive, Fuel supply system. Although this situation was at odds with the requirements of standardization and unification of arms and military equipment, nevertheless tanks with these structural differences are in mass production until 1962 of the year. This year the production of T-10M was completed in Chelyabinsk, and in Leningrad, it was not until the end 1965 of the year.
FROM 1959 in Leningrad and began production of the commander of the machine based on the T-10M, designed for communication with a higher unit commander of the command and staffs. T-10MK ("Object 272K") characterized by the additional presence of short wave radio R-112 and a gasoline charge unit. Ammunition for the gun has been reduced by 8 shots for extra radio and was 22 shot. The communication range when operating with a 10-meter antenna parked in telegraph mode was 100 km, by telephone - 40 km. all with 1959 by 1964 year was built 100 T-10MK (they are produced only in Leningrad).
In the production process of T-10M design make various changes. So, December 1962 year on the T-10M installed more simple in design and manufacture of mechanical transmission, originally developed as a backup option. She was 507 kg lighter than the previous, and had a much smaller size, It has additionally placed in the reserved amount 100 l fuel. The structure of the transmission included: main clutch, six-speed manual gearbox, steering gear type "LC" and final drives. However, the presence in the main transmission clutch dry friction somewhat reduced its maintainability.
FROM 1963 year T-10M were produced with OPVT system (Equipment underwater tank driving), allowing the tank to cross water obstacles along the bottom to a depth of 5 m width without limiting their on conditions of engine operation.
FROM 1964 year TCO introduced automatic system with a more efficient extinguishing agent "3.5".
Another tank was connected with modernization of its weaponry. Progress in tank is not standing still, and if in the 50 years of the 122-mm Soviet tank guns without problems pierced his armor-piercing projectiles caliber armor of any NATO tanks, in the 60 years the situation has changed. Gun running during this period the production of the American M-60 (caliber weapon 105 mm) and the British "Chieftain" (caliber weapon 120 mm) all real shooting ranges pierced the armor of the T-10M, At the same time, staff caliber armor-piercing projectiles guns M-62 frontal armor of these tanks did not take.
A typical external difference T-10M was muzzle brake slotted design tools
In this situation, on the instructions of the Ministry of Defense and GKOT (The State Committee for Defense Technology) It was begun work to create a 122-mm subcaliber projectiles cumulative and non-rotating tools for M-62T2S. Shot with the cumulative projectile, directs vertically disposed armor plate thickness 450 mm, It was adopted by the Order of the Ministry of Defense 30 November 1964 of the year. And 1967 at Ammo T-10M has been inserted and armor-piercing projectiles with an initial velocity 1600 m / s, Punches 320 mm at a distance of armor 2000 m.
AT 1963 , a small number of T-10M was further armed antitank guided missiles (PTUR) such as "Baby" (such as anti-tank at the time tried dovooruzhit and medium tanks T-55). Launcher for three missile "Baby", It is a tubular frame with three guide, placed outside on top of the rear part of the tower in a special housing. The launcher was equipped with a mechanism with electric lift. Missile guidance was carried out with the help of a regular tank sight. Using a servo motor drive system osuschestvlyalossoglasovanie pointing angles of the launcher and aiming line staff Gunner. The structure consisted of ammunition 6 PTUR. but, Considering, that effectively conduct anti-tank fire could only stops, these weapons on the tanks did not stick.
On the basis of the T-10 quite a lot of different machines have been developed. Also in 1956 year on the basis of T-10 designed the ACS "object 268", armed 152mm tool M-64 with separate loading. To place it, the housing T-10 set large armor felling, wherein the armor thickness in the front portion was 187 mm. The initial velocity of the projectile guns M-64 was 720 m / s. To facilitate the process of loading 50-kilogram shells on the "object 268" was provided for its mechanization. Shells upright fixed in special carriages closed chain conveyor. transporter, located on the rear wall of the self-propelled cutting tools, optionally charging filed the required type of projectile, delivering it to the height of his elbow. After that, the charging should unfasten the locks, securing the projectile, to shift it to the tray loading rod, who filed a projectile into the bolt gun. Then manually fixed from getting any boeukladki sleeve, He rose to the height of the tray and placed it. Rammer shall be sent after the sleeve shell.
On the roof of the cabin was mounted anti-aircraft machine gun KPVT (14,5 mm), here on a rotary commander's cupola located rangefinder TKD-09. The self-propelled gun ammunition consisted 35 shots for the gun and 500 ammunition for the machine gun.
The vehicle had a combat weight 50 tons and a crew of 4 human. "Object 268" was tested, but remained only in the prototype - to adopt self-propelled gun was not adopted.
Using the chassis of the T-10 and propulsion elements were designed and much more powerful guns propelled, capable of firing nuclear tactical charges. The caliber of the guns was determined by atomic lobbyists, which at that time could not accommodate the atomic charge in the projectile body diameter less 400 mm, and their firing range should exceed 25 km.
Constructors led the development of ACS crawler since 1954 of the year. As a result, two prototypes were built: "Object 273" with mortars 420 mm and "object 271" with a big gun caliber 406 mm. The decision to adopt one of them adopted supposed to take on the results of comparative tests.
To accommodate such powerful artillery system was designed vosmikatkovaya chassis with dipping sloth and hydraulic shock absorbers, which have been partially absorb the recoil energy. Motor-powerplant completely borrowed from T-10. Initially, a huge force recoil caused damage to numerous tests: destroyed sloths, frustrated with gearbox mountings, falling apart equipment, but, eventually, testers and designers managed to make the car to be reliable.
AT 1957 year both cars have been at the military parade on Red Square, aroused great interest among the foreign military. However, both guns were too heavy, They require lengthy preparation position and special equipment for loading spetsboepripasov. All this reduces their tactical characteristics, especially considering the short duration of the alleged military operations, requiring high mobility. Therefore, these systems are seen as temporary, be replaced with the improvement of nuclear weapons. As a result, it was built on all four settings 2A3 (installation with 406 mm gun) and 2B1 (420-mm mortar).
tank guns Mask T-10M. Clearly visible trunk coaxial machine gun KPVT, next to him Regiment mounting infrared illuminator L-2 ("Luna 2"), illuminator itself is not
The front part of the tower, Right from the gun mask visible window T2S-29 periscope sight
Several prototypes were developed, and on the basis of the T-10 self-propelled launching installations for tactical missiles.
AT 1961 OKBT, the designers have created prototypes starting units ("an object 815 sp.1 "and" object 815 sp.2 ») for the complex medium with a missile range of RT-15 (8K-96) development of OKB-1 Korolev. Weight "object 815" was 42 t.
AT 1963-1965 years projects have been developed in OKBT and prototypes of transport-erector ("Object 820") and launcher ("Object 821") for a missile system with RT-20 intercontinental ballistic missile (8K99) development of OKB-586 M.K.Yangelya. These machines are based on the nodes of the T-10M and had a mass in running order 78 and 79 t respectively. To ensure the normal functioning of the machine is equipped with temperature control missile systems. Despite, that both of these machines existed only in test samples, through its participation in several military parades on Red Square they become truly international fame.
Rapid development in the postwar years has contributed to anti-tank, what in 1957 OKBT year, work began on proektomtyazhelogo tank with rocket weapons on the basis of T-10 ("Object 282").
In the development of its layout scheme designers have tried in the first instance to provide increased protection of the crew from the shelling and damaging factors of nuclear weapons. The car has received an original look - on shortened to six road wheels crawler T-10 has high housing, on a completely flat roof which stands only a small commander's cupola. Frontal book is a structure of the armor plate thickness 150 mm (tilt angle 640 ), Backed by a 30-mm rear wall of armor. Formed between the outer wall and the reservation compartment intended for fuel, which was supposed to enhance the protection of protivokumulyativnymi.
Fighting compartment occupies the central part of the housing. The crew was placed in the center of the machine, I am sitting in front of a driver, and behind him in the light of a rotating turret - the commander-operator with an eye and arms control. In two side compartments was taken Missiles. Two independent turret launchers installed in the aft part of the tank. Their loading was done using a special loading rod of laying drum.
Although the car had a lot of 45 t, but it set a new 1000 horsepower diesel engine A-7. Compared with T-10 cooling system and the engine exhaust has been improved - instead of two bead ejectors placed aft single. Due to the increased height of the housing, in the roof of the engine compartment on the tank for the first time placed a tapeless cyclone air cleaner with the original seal of its connection to the engine air intake (mobile self-raising device automatically compacts the connection with the roof closed).
In the middle 1958 , the "object 282" referred to the test, but in the series it does not run.
FROM 1961 at OKBT developing other missile tank. It was a T-10M, on which you install the tower with the "object 775" instead of the built towers (KB CHKZ developer, Chief Designer P.Isakov). Tower "object 775" was equipped with a 125-mm rifled cannon launcher D-126 (developed in OKB-9), shoot ATGM "Rubin". This ATGM, development of MSC, I had a semi-automatic guidance system with transmission by radio beam teams. From the launcher D-126 could also fire 125-mm unguided rocket-active high-explosive projectiles "Bor". The machine has been constructed and was tested to 1965 of the year, but after ATGM "Rubin" considered unpromising, they were stopped.
AT 1957 , commissioned by the Ministry of Medium Machine Building chassis was created in OKBT for mobile nuclear power plant, which received the designation "Object 27". A senior engineer of the project was assigned P.Tarapatin. The chassis is created based on heavy tank T-10 node. Since the total weight of the car had to be about 90 t, the chassis of the T-10 had to lengthen. To provide an acceptable specific ground pressure machine has received ten pairs of rollers and significantly broadened caterpillar. On the chassis placed rectangular housing body,, reminiscent of the size of a railroad car, which establishes station equipment. The mobile nuclear power plant was successfully tested and, according to some reports, I operated on the Kolyma, Chukotka and other regions of the Far North.
Heavy tank T-10M, in the Great Patriotic War museum, Kiev.
FROM 1959 in Chelyabinsk SKB-200 on the basis of the T-10M was developed engineering minesweeper (IMT), intended for laying wide passages in minefields. On CTZ design group was established, which is in close contact with specialists SKB-200 is the basic machine design for minesweeper. With the T-10M removed turret and gun, inside the body removed and all boeukladku, that was associated with weapons. Closed turret opening leaf tridtsatimillimetrovoy armor, in which two holes cut out for the hatches commander and operator. Each crew member received a tank intercom, the left side of the body established radio, had anti-nuclear defense system.
In total, since the tank was removed 13 tonnes, whereas the weight of the installed equipment tralyaschego combined type (and roller-blade sweeps) was only 9,5 tonnes. As a result, BMI got good mobility and can move along a dirt road at the rolled up 40 km / h. In the stowed position trawling equipment transported on the roof of the car body, and in working - it falls to the ground by means of hydraulic cylinders, placed in niches in the sides. Back to the stowed position trawl winch up or using the arm lifting mechanism when driving the car in reverse. The main equipment is the single-row tralyaschim Katkov trawl of ten individually suspended rollers, kinematically interconnected Wire-block system. Before caterpillars settled Section trawl knife with four blades.
By the end 1961 , two basic chassis was manufactured, and in the spring 1962 , the prototype of minesweeper with Katkov and knife equipment was transported to the landfill Urals Military District for factory test. In general, the test car was a success, providing nearly a 100% quality trawling. However, the removal of identified deficiencies finishing work much delayed, and by the time they complete the production of tanks T-10M was on CHKZ Discontinued.
Separate tanks T-10 and used as experimental machines. So, at 1955 Institute, during 100 examined the feasibility of the horizontal guidance weapon at the target turning the hull (Fixed installation gun in a horizontal plane). These works were carried out well before the advent of the famous Swedish turretless tank Strv-103 («S» tank). base and armament were used to test the T-10. Rotating machines are manufactured using a special motor, which via an additional gear set in motion transmission native tank. 122-mm rifled gun M-62T2 placed in a stationary armored wheelhouse, aft of which were placed one after the other two conveyor loading mechanism - for shells and liners.
T-10M - well visible infrared spotlights, mounted on the mask and gun commander's hatch
The tests showed high accuracy of this method of aiming guns, facilitate and automate the loading process. On the other hand, complicated mechanism for turning the tank structure (It was necessary auxiliary motor), and maneuver the fire was determined maneuverability. A very significant drawback found and the impossibility of firing on the move. Therefore, the use of such a method aiming primary weapon was not considered necessary and further work in this direction ceased.
T-10M drives into caponier, front mudguards reclined, to avoid damage to the soil. Anti-aircraft gun mounted in the stowed position and the cover closed. At the stern of the tower is fixed roll from overcoat cover
AT 1959 year at LB was prepared and was tested prototype T-10M with a radar rangefinder, but in the series, he also did not go.
Giving an overall assessment of the T-10, it can be argued, that he was quite successful machine, in which organically combined the powerful armor protection, high-performance armament and good maneuverability. The simplicity of the device, convenient operation, high permeability distinguishes it from other Soviet and foreign heavy tanks. At the time of the development of the T-10 (the beginning of the 50s) heavy tanks of their own design, except the USSR, They were armed with only the US - M103 (1956 year) and Britain - "Konkэror» (1954 year), but they are both inferior to the T-10 in its combat characteristics. And «Englishman», and "American" were taller and heavier than the T-10, had a small maximum speed and because, that were equipped with petrol engines - low fuel range. "Conqueror tank" arming 120mm rifled gun (which proved to be extremely cumbersome), but could only boast odnoploskostnaya (vertical) stabilizer, and M-103 do not have such. Recall, that has the T-10A (1956 year) odnoploskostnaya equipped with stabilizer, and T-10B - two-plane.
On foreign tanks lacked anti-nuclear defense system, as they were unable to overcome water obstacles on the bottom. And although the Soviet tank was somewhat inferior to foreigners on the armor protection of the hull front, but much superior to their mobility and terrain. Overall tank T-10 meets the basic tactical and technical requirements, Criteria for heavy tanks of the period.
For a long time, Western experts considered, that was built in the Soviet Union more 8 thousand. T-10 all modifications, and therefore they called it the most massive heavy tank in world history. The reality was much more modest. According to the latest published data, from 1953 by 1965 It was released just a year 1439 T-10 all modifications. These machines are mainly directed to heavy armament armored divisions, started to take shape 1954 of the year.
In this period, in the revision of methods of combat operations under conditions of use of nuclear weapons and troops entering the new equipment, activities have been launched to change the organization of regular troops. In order to improve the survivability of troops in their structure dramatically increased the number of tanks, armored vehicles, antiaircraft. So, of new staff, adopted in 1954 year, in a tank division the number of tanks in a tank regiment was 105 machines (previously 65). Besides, of the division was included mechanized regiment. In the same year it was decided to form a heavy armored divisions, intended to break the fortified enemy defenses, which it is composed of three heavy tank regiments, armed 195 heavy tanks. It is in them, and began to be transferred to enter the army tanks T-10.
The first two heavy armored divisions in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany have been deployed (GSVG). It was the 13th Guards Bobruisk-Berlin Red Banner Order of Suvorov and the 25th Guards Red Banner Division. Later they were joined by the 5th Korsun Krasnoznamennaya and 34th Dnieper Order of Suvorov heavy armored divisions from the Belarusian Military District, and the 14th Guards BAKHMACH Twice Red Banner Order of Suvorov heavy armored division of the Kiev Military District. For their formation used by the personnel and materiel of disbanded in 1956 year twenty-three separate regiments heavy tankosamohodnyh. Heavy tank divisions existed within the Land Forces until the early 70-ies, when they were rearmed with the main tank and renamed the tank.
In subsequent years, whenever the troops are more basic T-64, T-72 and, finally, T-80, that in its combat characteristics superior to heavy T-10, the past is gradually transferred to the long-term storage, They were transferred to the fortifications on the Soviet-Chinese border, or go for a showdown, a breaker. Officially, Like many other Soviet armored vehicles, heavy tanks T-10 were retired only 1993 year, already in the Russian Army (CA successor).
T-10 can not boast of any bright military career. To export the heavy tanks never delivered, so they never had the opportunity to excel, eg, in the fighting in the Middle East, where the fighting took place, most run-Soviet tank technology (T-54, T-55, T-62, T-72, PT-76).
The only major military operation, bypassed, thank God, without blood, which was attended by the T-10, was "Operation Danube" - enter the countries of the Organization of the Warsaw Treaty on the territory of Czechoslovakia, "in order to combat the counter-revolution in Eastern Europe". In this operation, the main role was played by tank formations and units of the 1st Guards Tank Army from the GSVG under the command of Lieutenant-General tank troops K.Kozhanova, which included a 13th TTD. (renamed 1965 year in the 9 th td.), on arms which were T-10. On the part of the German Democratic Republic in Czechoslovakia were introduced part of the 20th Guards Red Banner Army Lieutenant General tank troops I.Velichko, in its 25 th Red Banner Division, which had also tanks T-10. Just five hours after the border crossing a few thousand tanks appeared on the streets of Prague, marking an end to the "Prague Spring" ...