so, in the last article We stopped just before World War I and we still had prior to her Russian-Japanese. Since the Russian-Japanese war had already been affected, and then dwell on it do not really want, For what it was interesting for us, I have already painted. It only remains to add / repeat, that the Russian-Japanese War became a place the debut of two overarching military life components. Namely canned and field kitchen.
With canned simple, OK, when they have, and very bad, when they are not. Here in the Far East, where fighting was going on, canned food was not. They just do not have time to fight, stuck in marshalling yards, passing in front of the ammunition and replenishment.
Alas, but it is so. Hundreds of thousands of cans left on the Trans-Siberian routes. But mess - it, as is known, normal army, so do not be surprised.
The second premiere - a field kitchen. And here I'll walk a little bit more in detail.
First, it was the army oven on wheels. It has since Napoleon went. Here's how it looked:
This German field oven. In other countries, it was just as well arranged. Oven on wheels, designed for baking bread and / or drying crackers.
It seems that the idea of the stove on wheels before, to put the judges in the furnace boiler - one step. But no, this step is to do more 100 years.
by the way, do not say nothing, that massive field kitchens first appeared in Russia. It is believed, that the first campaign using the kitchens took place in 1900 year, when Russian troops went to China to suppress the uprising.
Photos of this campaign is not actually preserved, but you, you are welcome, Earlier photos. they dated 1897 year, and clearly illustrate, that the imperial family and the other of the royal family already at that time were quite a mobile cooking centers.
In the photo captured clearly sprung kitchen with awning and mnogokonforochnoy stove for cooking various dishes.
The first media field kitchen in the Russian army began the kitchen Michael Bogolyubsky system.
I think, that this is the kitchen has become the first mass. In general, the primacy belongs to the kitchen, which was invented in the Julian Parchiko 1877 year, but the kitchen was released about a dozen. Kitchen Parichko used in the Russian-Turkish war 1877-1878 years, but have not been spread.
As a result, 1898 year for the supply of Russian army adopted the "marching home" Bogolyubsky system. The hearth was a pressure cooker with a pan-tight cover on screw locks, interlocked with the wood-burning furnace, and mounted on a one-horse buggy.
AT 1904 Bogolyubov, the kitchen has been upgraded Russian army colonel Turchaninov. Terrible thing happened, but the Russian Defense Ministry has taken very quickly adopted and launched a series of "Military field kitchen-samovar" Turchaninova.
Kitchen Turchaninova managed to war. And at this time the Russian Army was the only army of the world, equipped with field kitchens. It is only after the Russian-Japanese war began peredirat idea of someone in that much ...
Kitchen had Turchaninova first one boiler, but almost immediately was amended, and two boilers was. Here it is, «She will mess»!
The picture shows, that the kitchen two-boiler. Plus from the gig, she quickly became a four, acquired limber, where the box is located, where it is convenient to keep a stock of firewood, skimmers and other utility.
Kitchen Turchaninov, was so successful, ag to clapper 1941 , virtually unchanged. This was done Sormovskiy carload factory in St. Petersburg.
After the Russian-Japanese War kitchens began to acquire other army. Naturally, Japanese, who have received a certain amount of our kitchens as trophies. And the Germans, whose representatives visited the Manchurian front and brought out the rave reviews about this new product.
AT 1906 in Germany announced a competition for the best example of a camp kitchen, which won a specially purchased for the study of food Turchaninova.
but of course, to supply the German army one of his own designs was adopted. In contrast to the Russian cuisine, he had not two, and three boilers, and even a separate oven for baking.
German soldiers called this unit "gulyashkanone" - "goulash cannon" because of its resemblance to the artillery sled.
AT 1909 year their field kitchen, also trehkotlovuyu, We entered in the Austrian army.
Let no one be confused Russian soldiers near the kitchen. Kitchen of the Austro-Hungarian, on the front of the marking preserved. Just lend our. or pressed. Trophy, generally, turned.
And for the soldiers of all other European armies food in the field continued to cook on fires.
true, with the outbreak of World all rushed to catch up with clever, hastily erecting field kitchens. French people, Italians, British, Americans ...
And our meanwhile went further!
It quickly became clear, that the field kitchen has its drawbacks. Small bandwidth, eg, and bad weather, which prevented to cook.
It was designed and even passed the test kitchen on the basis of the railcar!
The kitchen has been tested, Yes, but overall it was not up to it. Although the idea was interesting.
At all, kitchens received much deserved attention. In the First World War they willingly photographed, because the kitchen is allowed leisurely cameras of the time, And the kitchen is not so often flies from the enemy.
Kitchens started to give instructions.
This is the Soviet manual, but nonetheless.
On the whole,, in the First World cuisine held, as an integral part of any kind of support troops.
Soldiers can be arbitrarily brave, trained, armed and equipped, but if it is barely on his feet worth of hunger - it cost a penny.
This is exactly what has proved a great war.
Let's talk about standards?
Basically, in comparison with the Russian-Japanese, allowance rules have not changed, and ordinary soldiers of the Russian army relied a daily diet:
700 grams or kilograms of rye bread rye bread;
100 grams of cereals (in the harsh conditions of Siberia and the North - 200 grams);
400 grams of fresh meat or 300 grams of canned meat;
20 grams of butter or lard;
17 podboltochnoy grams of flour;
6,4 grams of tea;
20 grams of sugar;
0,7 grams pepper;
250 grams of fresh or approximately 20 grams of dried vegetables.
A mixture of dried vegetables (cabbage, carrot, beet, beet, bow, celery and parsley), intended for soups.
Potatoes are also considered all the vegetable soup and was not distributed. Rice is still, as "securing" product, It was under a private interdiction and stood out very much as a last resort.
During religious fasts meat in the Russian army was replaced by fish (basically no sea, as today, and the river, often in the form of dried Snetkov) or fungi (in the soup), and butter - vegetable. In a post to 200 grammes increased cereal rations, and grains were added in the first meatless meals, despite the fact, What was it: cabbage or potato soup.
The total weight of all products, eaten on the day of a soldier, close to two kilograms, calorie - more 4300 kcal. It looks good now, it looked good, and in those years,.
for example, ration pulled only in the German army on 3500 kcal, but in the army of the British Empire - more than 4500.
In the context of the war rations soldiers were initially even more increased, in particular, Meat - up 615 grams per day, but when the war turned into a protracted phase, soldering rolled back to the previous level.
Furthermore, problems with the supplying of food to the same Galicia forced Russian quartermasters replace fresh corned beef uboinu.
It is worth noting, what, the numerous memoirs of participants of the First World War, actually prior to the revolutionary chaos 1917 year military authorities managed to maintain standards soldier power. Yes, quality deteriorates, This is true.
But a Rubicon - a 1915-th.
The point here was not so much in the devastation of the village and the food crisis, what happened with the Germans, even to remember it is not necessary, not what to compare. The main problems in the supply of steel are the same road, more precisely, their absence.
Quartermasters had to be customized to the front from Livonia to Bulgaria herd bulls and bring on potholes hundreds of thousands of tons of flour, vegetables and canned. The main problem was to find and prepare, and save and deliver.
Therefore, the situation, being trafficked like rotten meat on the battleship "Potemkin", phenomenon was frequent and not always just because of malicious intent and theft quartermasters.
It was not easy, even with the soldiers' bread, the product seems to be the simplest.
Recipe of bread was outrageously simple: flour, yeast, salt and water. no eggs, no oil. but, even in the Russian-Japanese war, it became clear, it is one thing - to supply troops with bread, are more or less inhabited parts of the world, and quite another - in the steppes of Manchuria.
As the deterioration of the supply to the stage again went cracker. And with it the usual already gastrointestinal diseases. Tasteless "rusk" life in the field somewhat brightened canned. Yet again, if they were taken to the soldiers. But were canned, and they were quite good.
For the purposes of industry Army produced some of their species in the "cans" of cylindrical shape: "Roast beef", "beef stew", "Soup with meat and porridge", "Peas with meat". And, quality "royal" stew differed in favorable direction from the Soviet, and even more so today preserves, what I wrote.
Generally, as the deterioration of affairs at the front and of the military department zabardachivaniya, deteriorated and the value of spider, and its quality. The energy value of the daily food garden lower rank dropped to 3150 calories, And since January, 1915 year until the end of the war, she was constantly decreasing.
The size of the meat rations, as the most important element of the diet, I was no exception. In the North-Western Front, for example, on orders from 17 May 1915 , the daily allowance established in 1/2 a pound of meat, a quarter pound of corned beef and all .... Yes, nobody canceled the possibility to buy more missing in the field and at their own expense, but because not all the bill was.
Although many memoirs of officers, who bought for their money supplies for the soldiers. But some officers have been ...
FROM 7 (20) April 1916 until the end of the war was the meat rations 1/2 a pound of meat, "And it was allowed to set off on account of meat fish, and meat waste ".
Generally, according outstanding historian M Theory. AT. Oskyna, it was already the bottom, for which would be inevitably followed the collapse of the army. what, generally, It happened. And any number can be accused Trotsky and his agitators, but 200 grams of meat waste - it, sorry, 200 meat waste grams.
With such rations not fight. With such rations losing.
- M Oskyn. AT., Russian army and the food crisis of 1914-1917.
- Armeev B., Soup and porridge - our food.