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Allied generals (France)

Allied generals (France)

In summer 1918 year after four
war years is appropriate to present the military leaders of the Entente, what
most clearly manifested themselves in the First World.

We must start with the French
generals, because along with the Russian Empire it was France that carried the most
heavy load and it is on its territory, has launched a major battle on
western front.

The first commander of the time of WWI
was Joseph Joffre. He entered the senior military leadership of the country is still in 1911 year,
headed the General Staff. He commanded all the country's armed forces to
December 1916-th. Joffre - not a hereditary military unlike many generals
PMA. Was born in 1852 year in the vineyard owner's family. but, instead
Wine prefer to finish artillery engineering school in the military
Fontainebleau. FROM 1870 Joffre year - regular officer. He took part in the Franco-Prussian
war 1870-1871 years, namely as an artillery officer defended
Paris. In the capital Joffre remained until 1885 of the year, and after he was given the fate
curious. He served on the engineering side to the island of Formosa (now - Taiwan), at
Sudan, Senegal, the Nigerian Railway, Madagascar. AT 1894 year
He commanded a military expedition in what is now the Republic of Mali. Only
at 1901 He received a significant position in France itself - became the military governor
Lille fortress. Promoted to major general. Further Joffre Mota from one
extreme to the other. He served as director of the engineering department of the Military
Ministry, the command division and corps, then was elected to the Supreme Military
Conseil d'Etat, which is developing a new military doctrine.

The first success - a victory in the Battle of
Marne in 1914 year - brought Joffre honor of the national hero. Sam wins
was that, that was disrupted as a result of this strategic battle
the plan of the German command for the "blitzkrieg" on French soil.
Next Zhofrru lucky much less. The last blow has already become a Marshal of France
Joffre received at Verdun in 1916, lost in the months-long battle over
a third of a million people. Such loss was not forgiven the French parliament.
Joffre continued to serve as technical advisor of the Government, engaged
issues of military diplomacy. More than anything remarkable had not committed, if not
considered several scientific works on military affairs. In addition to the other awards I had
Russian Order communication. George II and III degree. He passed away in 1931 year.

About successor Joffre General Robert
Nivelle "Email field" told 11 May 2017 , in the article "The only battle
Commander Nivelle ". As Commander in Chief, General actually gave only one
battle, which with a bang lost. He was removed from his post in May 1917.

The name of Joseph Gallieni related
known story of the Parisian taxi drivers, dostavivših the Marne, directly on the position
Moroccan division, that it allowed to stop the German offensive on Paris. AT
many legendary stories openly. The soldier threw the front is not only
taxi drivers, but also 150 takosomotorov drivers, that with the beginning of hostilities
military commander of the capital, General Gallieni hired on a long term basis to
military service infrastructure of the city. Overall, men were taken to the front line
600 Car, among which were the trucks, and buses - at least 200 pcs.

Gallieni was born in a family of Italian
immigrants in 1851 year. Military occupation and consciously chose early.
He graduated from the Military College of La Fleche and the famous special school of Saint-Cyr, in which to
still nurture future military elite of France. I went into the army Jr.
Marine lieutenant in 1870,.
He took part in the Franco-Prussian War, He was captured. FROM 1873 by 1905 served
in the colonial troops. Gallieni seen more countries, than Joffre. Reunion island,
Senegal, Had, Niger, Martinique, Sudan, Indo-China. Past nine years
It was the military governor of Madagascar.

In Europe, the army took Gallieni
Corps and headed the military district of Lyons. AT 1911 he was offered to become
CINC, but he refused, and in the spring of 1914 he retired due to
deadly disease. Hardly the war began, General was appointed military
Paris commandant. The victory of the Marne is due largely to its activity
as chief formed to protect the 6th Army of the capital and those
tips, he gave Joffre.

AT 1915 year Gallieni was appointed
French Minister of War, but he left the post a few months
health. He died in May 1916 Year in Versailles. In 1921 he was made
marshals in France. It is necessary to recognize the unique case - the production of such rank
five years after death.

The next commander in chief after Nivelle
He became Henri Petain. He was born in the north, in the department of Pas-de-Calais 1856
year. Personality is so inconsistent,
it seems, if two people live in the world, that name and surname. One
- a graduate of Saint-Cyr, career officer, in late August 1914 , Brigadier
Gen.. Need to mark, that in the ranks of generals Pétain grew incredibly fast.
Starting PMA colonel it four years later with little became marshal of France.
And there were good reasons. Peten perfectly proved itself 1915 year
Battle of Artois. In 1916 successfully organized the defense of Verdun. cold-blooded,
seasoned, He was respected and the troops, and among the French political elite, from whose views
commanders were highly dependent. Victory over Germany in the 1918 year - is largely
the merit of the two French marshals - Chief of the Allied forces in the
Western Front Ferdinand Foch and the Chief of the French army, Henri
cock.

"Another Peten" - is
collaborator and traitor to the interests of France during World War II, when the Third Reich
first occupied the northern half of France, and in 1942 and the southern part. two
years earlier, 84-year-old prime minister has publicly urged the people to cooperate with the
occupiers, Hitler personally guaranteed the loyalty of the French
state, as named yesterday recognized the republic after Pétain
military defeat. In France, Marshal earned scornful nickname Pyuten, what
in modest means "woman of low social bar
responsibility ". After World War II it from Germany, where he fled, returned
To France. The trial took place, Petain recognized for a whole bunch of crimes,
including treason. He was sentenced to death, but the death penalty
commuted to life imprisonment, which he served in Normandy on the island
Yee. Shortly before his death in 1951 year, 95-year-old Marshal was transferred to the civil
hospital. curious, that despite all the sins, Petain was not deprived of the marshal
rod and awards. Including - the Russian Order of St.. George IV degree.

Peten is not very well get along with
Ferdinand Fošem. He is understandable - in 1918 , they were in the position of two
bears in one den. Formally Foch was on a post above, Petain had
submit. In fact, it came to cancel orders Pétain Foch. It was,
eg, during the Second Battle of the Marne. Anyway, but they won the war.
Most thick laurels went Foshu.

Ferdinand was born in 1851 in the south
France in the department of Pyrenees-Orientales in a prosperous family of bureaucratic. Studied
the Jesuit College, but in 1870 in connection with the impending war with France
the Prussians, He called up. I was in an infantry regiment. To continue the military
Career began his studies at the Polytechnic Military School, but due to the shortage
junior commanders was prematurely promoted to lieutenant and sent to
artillery regiment. In 1877-m graduated Foch at the General Staff Academy and since then
vplot to 1912 He has been engaged in research and teaching activities, at
1908-m led Academy. The next
metamorphosis maloponyatna. Known and respected military theorist sent
commanding an army corps, and in relation to the combat is very weak.
Foch had seen when people claimed, that he felt extremely insecure,
Clearly nervous. And what is surprising - Connection, He commanded
Professor, From the first days of the war found themselves in the thick of it. XX Infantry Corps
He survived the Battle of the Frontiers and fight for Lorraine in 1914, army group
'Disclosure', transformed into the 9th Army, He fought in the same year of the Marne, Group
armies "North" struggled for six months in 1916 on the Somme. Only in May 1917 Foch
withdrawn from active forces after the tragedy of the Somme was assigned far
from the front. He headed the General Staff. In November 1918 at Compiegne Forest
Foch in the train car they had signed an armistice with the Germans, put an end to World War I. Marshall was awarded
two Russian communication orders. George - II and IV degree.

After the war, Foch was engaged in military science. Proceedings of the military
stories, tactics and strategies still relevant. He died in 1929 year, on 15
years survived his only son Hermann, killed in action in Belgium
Early in the war.

Michael
BULLS,

specially
to "Field Post".

A source

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