military experts
EnglishРусский
 Edit Translation

The war in the mountains: equipment, movement, tactics

Equipment

The conduct of hostilities in the mountains requires a very serious approach to the selection of equipment. Domestic army gear does not hold water, so fighters mountain infantry divisions, if they are going to seriously fight, you need to buy it yourself.

so, it takes.

tent. Should be resistant to wind, and this is achieved by selecting the right material for the frame. Suitable frame of anodized aluminum with a minimum thickness 8,5 mm, preferably 9-11 mm with the location of the arcs crosswise, and third semiarc, as stiffeners. Fit and dyuropol - durable carbon fiber, reinforced tape of carbon and Kevlar. Fiberglass is not suitable because of the great fragility. Waterproof tent awning should be not less than 4.000-5.000 mm water column, which guarantees protection from moisture and precipitation.

In the tent should be two entrances and two vestibules, to put it in the backpack and boots resting. by the way, removing shoes at the time of sleep, instead they need to wear shoes with laces tied weakly. Otherwise, you can be alerted barefoot. The bottom of the tent should be waterproof polyester 5.000 — 10.000 mm water column. Reinforced polyethylene undesirable - it can crack. Quality tents manufactured by Satewa, Vauda, Tramp. He Berry Holiday, Campus, Highpeak.
Backpack for mountain should be a volume of 110-130 liters. The most affordable and practical backpack is the company "Fusion" in volume 130 liters, with frame and ventilated back of a heavy-duty non-combustible «Cordura 2000" tissue. As practice shows, backpacks over time begin to get wet, therefore need a backpack waterproof cover.
Sleeping bag. It should provide comfort at a temperature of - 15 to +15 degrees. More resistant to cold bag is heavier and more, which is inconvenient for the soldier.

Penopropilenovy mat (karimat) weighs very little, but it allows you to sleep without problems on any surface in a sleeping bag.
clothing. From it are directly dependent on the health and combat capability of the soldier in extreme conditions.

Worn next to the skin underwear. For summer activities necessary potootvodyaschee thermal underwear made of synthetic fabrics, superior natural materials with properties. It removes sweat from the body, ensuring that it is dry. A good material for such thermolinen – Coolmax. Recommended company Millcte, Guahoo, Bask. Winter thermal underwear should be sogrevayusche-potootvodyaschee, bilayer. The bottom layer is always a synthetic, better Coolmax. The upper layer of Merino wool, but in any case not made of cotton. Cotton collects the pot! Recommended company Guahoo, Hunter.

At low temperatures, it is necessary to use a hoodie and pants «Polarteck 200" fabric. It weighs nothing, perfectly warm even when wet, It dries very quickly. There are its modifications to the membrane Windstopperi Stormwoll. Such sweatshirt not blown by the wind and is capable in combination with winter you Termoveļa provide comfort at the temperature up to -10 ° without jacket. Woolen or cotton clothes, in front of, first gather with you the entire pot, and then, when you stop, This pot has cooled down and help you earn pneumonia.

Top should be a jacket and pants with membrane. The membrane is moisture outside, but all the sweat and perspiration out without hindrance, leaving the body dry. The membrane is waterproof (in mm water column) and an indicator of breathing (output in liters of liquid per square. meters per day). Withdrawal must be greater than, all the better, but not less 5 l / m per day. At Gore-Tex performance 30.000 mm water column and 13 n / q. m / day. It's the best, what is. Membranes provide Powertex Featherweight 20.000 mm water column and 20 l / m / day. A good membrane Simpatex, but it is less common.

Shoes in the mountains need the army with Gore-Tex, but not domestic production! You can wear special mountain boots, but always with the membrane. Otherwise you will walk with wet feet: morning, evening and night – Dew, and in the afternoon – river, streams.

Socks. Only recommended thermal socks from Coolmax fiber or the like. It collects and removes sweat from the foot, and then outputs it through the shoe membrane. firm: Can, Jluvi, Tucklend.
Gloves have thin well of Stormwoll palm Kevlar plus three-fingered gloves with insulation Tensulitei Kevlar palm. Good gloves Loop, Salewa, Baski the like.
Points required. The fourth degree of protection from ultraviolet radiation with blinders on the edges.

At the head fit knitted hat wool merino, but should definitely have a mask of Stormwoll on the cold case and frost in highlands.
Primus 95-m gasoline is not bad, but in the midlands best fit the gas with a 220-gram bottles of domestic standards. Such a balloon at any time can be detached and attached to the burner. The remaining standards, until used up, without disconnecting - Gas will. Less than + 2 ° butane in the cylinder thickens and becomes unfit, but it can warm up in the bosom.

Cats on shoes should be for everyone. Sometimes at a height 2.000 meters of the road block the icy languages. Without cats have nothing to do there.
It does not interfere, as a pole of wood the size of your growth. He will provide you with invaluable help when lifting, and especially during the descent. With the help of the pole can be run with a steep height of a maximum rate scree, not afraid to fall. Using it as a brake, you can descend the steep cliffs of up to 75 ° without insurance confident enough. Glacier zasun'te it horizontally under the backpack, and it will save you, if you end up in a crack. Crossing the river with a sixth also easy. Work them as a brake, and for you will carry.

Food needs light, but caloric. The basis of the diet - stew of rascheta1 bank 1 person per day. Half the banks have eaten for dinner, half - in the morning. Enough for lunch 1 tridtsatigrammovogo bag of peanuts. Supplement diet chocolate bars - one for day. More than enough. You will have no food. In an extreme case,, in the mountains enough game.

Movement.

Before going out into the mountains, the commander must examine and identify traffic route, determine the steepness of slopes, the difficulty of overcoming them. The route should be routed so, to avoid ice and other hazards.
Rhythmic step and breath even saves power on the march. However, specifically think about it is not necessary - in two or three days all will come to the movement itself. Recommended pace: 50 minutes movement, 10 minutes of rest.
At first sight, the most favorable route for the traffic passes through the top of the ridge. This makes it possible in the event of an armed clash to take a favorable position. But knows about it and the enemy. The tops of the ridges, usually, bald, and they. who goes on them, very clearly visible from the neighboring heights and ridges. Commanders of armed groups do not want to contact your local group, that they have prepared a surprise for you. At best, it will PMN-2, at worst – MON-50 or PRM-72. All your next steps will be reduced to evacuate the wounded. It is necessary to be nominated as, to anyone and would not come, you go there. Best route – along the ridge, on one of its sides, closer to the top, under the guise of "green stuff". it's hard, but not fatal. But mine is not to run against, you can not see, and if seen, the one hand.

Do not go to the glaciers. With all the stress and your arms would be pointless climbing dangerous, It takes a long time and all the time you'll be in full view of the enemy.

Movement of grassy slopes carried zigzagged.
Can descend vertically downwards, if there is a trail, or zigzag.
The movement of scree made zigzag or straight - down with the weight of the stones, with the speed of its movement, periodically shifting towards, to skip past large rocks.

Overcoming the rocky areas requires special training. It is necessary to carefully examine the rock and to plan a route, having the highest number of points of support. When climbing the rock must have three points of support. Before you load a foothold, you must first inspection to determine its reliability, then check the strength of the hand. Every foothold we must try to use a lot of times for different grips and stops. The main weight of the body to try to keep on his feet, And if underfoot support unreliable, to carry the load on hands. If possible, engage different muscle groups by alternately end-on grips and stops. You need to climb gradually, without jerks, each pivot point has to be easy reach, better to make two small steps, than one long, but risky. The body must be kept upright, not clinging to the rock, but not leaning on it. After the gear of rise rises on the ropes.

Walk on the snowy slopes easier early in the morning: Snow night gets frozen and securely held until noon. For driving on snowy slopes should not prefer the shortest path, and easiest. To maintain the desired rate of movement should be changed periodically guide, as he spends more forces.

The mountains are dangerous places stone gathering, mudflow, avalanche. They can determine the following features.
Stone-fall position differs accumulating stones, the presence of stones on the slope, scratches on trees, furrows in the earth.
Mudflow place give mud ducts, sharp break slope with the presence of earth and clay soil.

Avalanche area is characterized by overhanging snow cornices. On trees avalanche paths are practically no, They rarely grow, a large number of stones.

Cause an avalanche or rockfall can be like an earthquake, wind, rain, and shooting, grenade explosions, sometimes even cry.
If necessary, crossing the river is necessary to determine the degree of danger. This is done simply. The river you can go at any flow rate, if the depth is missing you to ass. If the above - it's suicide. In crossing send two fighters ahead. One, most experienced, cross over to the other side and will stretch over a rope. On it will move all other, one. Do not cross the group! At this point, you are an excellent goal.

We need to ensure outposts around the crossing point, so that the enemy did not find the group in an uncomfortable position for battle.

The choice of weapons and battle tactics.

When it comes to the war in the mountains, It refers to the war in the foothills, and glaciers Medium to border. The glaciers neither a gang will not last more than a few days, and bearded know it. No matter how prepared a person may, he can not remain long on the glacier, particularly under air strikes and artillery. The more that the Highlands, usually, It does not apply to the immediate area of ​​active combat actions, and by a sabotage groups Extension and withdrawal, convenient place reconnaissance and "driven hunt on aviation". Accordingly, the platoon as a combat unit loses its quality. The main thing here is not the number, and stealth and maneuverability. Platoon must act according to the divisions, collecting necessary to strike. 25 man stretched on the rise in long-chain, and stragglers will be difficult to control. A Hit one compartment ambushed, the rest will have a chance to hit the enemy in the flank or in the rear. Medium is covered with dense forest, and firing the contact distance is small, so it's more convenient to use the RPG-7 RPG-26. Each, except gunners and radio operators, can carry in a backpack on 2-3 pieces (two sides, under the cross ties, and the third under the top flap backpack, from there you can get faster). The Mountain branch is advisable to have four snipers: three with SVD-C or AC-SVD, better SVU-AS with the magazine 20 rounds (Standard rifle too long, it uncomfortable to wear in the bush, vines and fir) and one with BCC. Why, it will become clear below.

It is desirable to have two gun "Pecheneg" or PKM. Plus to this - two AKM with grenade launcher. In any case, it is necessary to have silencers complete.
why AKM, instead of AK-74? Primarily small bullet 5,45 mm with a soft nose when hit by a branch or leaves, It changes the trajectory and leaves aside. Put a standard the growth target for the bush and landed in her shop (not armor-piercing bullets) with 100 m. In the best case will 2-3 hit. Now imagine, that is fight night, you shell-shocked, and you only have 3 магази­на. The result of all convince you, than the cost of war.
In contrast to the AK-74, AKM has a more powerful cartridge and heavy bullet. Through the branches of it passes, as an awl, can get the enemy behind a thick tree.

USE ONLY piercing bullet!!! DO NOT USE tracer!!!

Tracer bullet away 200 m does not break the standard army helmet. Moreover, it is rapidly losing mass due to the combustion of phosphorus in it and its trajectory falls sharply. As a result of 30 issued bullets you 10 fly to, where you sent them, a 20 – above the target by half a meter. Zeroed their weapons on ammunition type, which will use: they all have different masses and flight path. This will help the sniper, familiar with the ballistics.

Each sniper must be Rangefinder. Without it will be a lot of misses. The air in the mountains clean and transparent, so objects appear closer. By objectives 800 m, as you think, what 500. You put your sight on SVD 5, and your bullet will pass below the target in the 4 m! At ACM, this figure would be about 10 m. Good rangefinder Bushnell. It works to 800 meters of dark objects, and the windows, puddles, and the warm glow from Lakes to 1.999 m. It is not cheap, but if you are a professional, you will understand, the accuracy and health is much more expensive. In the highlands there is no forest, only rocks, ice and scree. Firing range here is paramount. Do not forget, that climbing air becomes more sparse. and the pressure is reduced. This greatly affects the bullet ballistics.

Adjust its height Weapon. weapon, adjust day at 30 ° degrees, night at 0 ° will nizit. In winter, the temperature fluctuations can be expressed stiffer during cooling and thawing. Refer to the tables, and let the snipers teach you all the details. Before leaving for a business trip purchase optics in a hunting store. Now a lot of samples of optical sights, but the most optimal for the mountains and our weapons option JI modernization – 6×42, preferably 8x42. If you do not, you will get the most ancient and not entirely successful modification 4×24.
The sight can be placed on the machine, after which he will have very different properties. It will allow you to shoot at night without pain, more precisely aim, to do without binoculars.

Be careful with hand grenades! Around will be a lot of trees, and a chance to stress get straight into the barrel is too large.
From the minute is better to take MON-50, they are easy and effective. MON-90 – too cool thing, but heavy, and can carry the PWS-50 each.

tactics.

Before leaving you must carefully examine the area of ​​operations. At first, estimate the area, choose a route, define orientations for the movement. Secondly, assign places halts, overnight, to identify possible areas for helicopter landing. Should be brought to every soldier, how he will act when meeting with the enemy.

Defense. Occupation commanding heights of strategic importance. With all of them can be seen and sweep, but it is from shells, mortars and anti-tank. And from small arms 700 m, no more. In the mountains, a very strong wind, that blows in different directions, is intensifying, the verse. The exact shot over long distances can be no question. It should occupy the high ground, how you will cover the artillery and aviation. We were not familiar with it, because our army was not very long ago took part in the war with the enemy air force and artillery at full power. But it is not far off. First of all dig in, but, that it was not noticeable from the outside. Breed – one stone, so sometimes it is more convenient to build a shelter of large stones. Pay particular attention to, to you searched 360 °. The most dangerous areas are mining. Sets the direction and place mines stretching from the foot of the mountain on the fishing line 0.4 mm. Consider escape routes. Keep in mind while shooting down undershoots.

In the case of the shelling of the safest place – the pinnacle. Projectiles or do not reach, or fly. And you can hide from aviation is the one, then on the other side of the ridge.

Practice single fire. Prystrelyaytes. It is necessary to determine the order of the personnel of fire: one of the soldiers firing a single lamp, and who - automatic. To do this, tommy calculated in numerical order. Even numbers shoot bursts, odd - single. When the even-numbered rounds and will spend will be recharged, odd move to fire bursts, covering them. Then even numbers odd cover, reloading weapons. This creates the illusion of a large enemy units, It increases the efficiency of the fire and reduces the consumption of ammunition.

Remember flanks! Militants very like to use detours and coverage. Usually, if sounded "Allahu akbar!», expect bypass. According to the commander of the militants phrase refers to its position relative to the center of our divisions. Enemy, knowing the position of the center of the defending, He tries to enter the flanks or rear.
seize the high ground. Про­тивник, entrenched at the height, It is in front of you a distinct advantage. He has a good overview, position are prepared, he had sighted. To avoid losses, better use of ATGM with nearby mountain, but the luxury. usually, no.

At first, necessary to produce intelligence to determine the safest approach. If the mountain has a rounded top, It is located at the opponent does not see, that he is in front of the nose. It is necessary to use. Better to attack from different sides, get closer by gullies and circuses. Success depends on, how close you crept unnoticed. Better to wait once again. During one of the operations in Afghanistan, when riot police took a cave in the mountains, 5 kilometers they crawled over 7 day!!! Day + 40 °, cold night. When I run out of water, We drank urine. They served their purpose. All "spirits" in the cave were destroyed. Similar caution and endurance are critical. This tactic snipers, which is why they should be polvzvoda. It is their element.
Before the rescue request airstrike, it potrepet enemy. Themselves are at a safe distance. Sturm must begin from different sides shots from RPG. It will make a commotion in the ranks of the enemy for a few seconds. After a sharp attack should follow, in extreme cases - with short stops. Train your staff to run a steep hill at full speed. Sturm must be 4 times more, than defending. The machine-gunners and snipers cover the top with a comfortable position. Actively use the RPG – it is the key to success. With the explosion except fragments will fly a lot of stones – it is in your favor. Snipers also have to cut all the enemy's attempts to use the RPG. Aim it at no more need 2 seconds. This good sniper is also quite.

The main danger – grenades. Ору­жие. from whom in this situation, there is no salvation. We can not allow the enemy to start to throw grenades. Do not stay in one place. If the enemy has mortars, He will take advantage of them.

For the destruction of the columns need to act suddenly. Often the route extension enemy columns were combing reconnaissance. Your aim – pass because, that before the column left the minimum time. Time column approach must be based on intelligence. It is necessary to have time to locate people and give them the necessary instructions. The preferred ambush at the crossroads, по­воротах, ascents (particularly steep), but rather in the most inappropriate places for it - no one will be waiting for the attack. Perfect option – when one side of the road chasm, and on the other – otvesnaya rock. In the shelling of the enemy simply have nowhere to go. In this case it is better to use anti-tank from the opposite slope of the gorge. You can beat the top down with grenade launchers, and infantry throw grenades.

Consider the example. column of 5 BTR, W BMP and two tanks moving along the serpentine. They must be destroyed. This requires one platoon, in which the composition has a sapper, which lay a powerful bomb, calculation of anti-tank and 2 calculation of MANPADS. When the column fits to the prepared site, patrol vehicle, usually, BTR, skipped for rotation. Passing 100 m, she "sits" on the two anti-tank mines, not less. The second car is undermined in the radio-controlled land mine so, her to stay in the same place. At the same time on the opposite side of the gorge to be shot from a tank guided missile system. Chance to hit 0,95, and the likelihood of its destruction by one shot 0,5. In any case, then he will not go, it undermined machine. The column stops, All the soldiers are hiding behind technology and to shoot, where it was launched ATGM. But everything is already in shelters. At this point, the impact of the group 20 че­ловек, entrenched over the column, It should hit all existing RPG. Each of 2-3 RPG-26. In such a situation is obtained by 3 shot at each unit of equipment, a second volley - thinning of the first infantry. Likely, both will burn down all the machines at once 90% пехо­ты. finish shell-shocked – business snipers. All takes less than half a minute. they, who were in the column, not even realize, what happened.
The advantage is obvious from the top shooting. At first, the enemy can not see you before, until you started shooting. Secondly, top is easier to penetrate the armor of even the most protected tanks. Thirdly, Many examples of military equipment are limited angle of elevation when fired up.
important factor! Flanks must be mined! The rear is covered with machine guns. On the surrounding heights must be 2 MANPADS calculating a kilometer from each other.

The second option. In the same column head landmine compromised machine. Immediately followed by a shot of anti-tank or 2-3 shot from an RPG at closing machine. Infantry hiding behind appliances and shoots towards the attackers, but they are in the shelter. And behind them undermined chain of MES-50. All infantry destroyed. After that equipment freely seeking RPG shock fuppoy top, The whole operation takes less than a minute. Here we must point uchestvazhny. Mines should be directed downwards so, to slaughter elements covered only column. If a mine strapped to a tree, remember, that after the explosion of a tree falls in the opposite direction, ie. right at you. At best, fire closes sector. Absolutely can not use the radio near the mines laid! Cover necessarily MANPADS.
The above schemes are familiar special forces, but they, who rides the column, of them have a very superficial understanding. Ottogo and loss.

Moving on tracks, remember, that there, ambushed simple, as simply and hit a mine. Avoid roads and trails, river banks and bottom of the gorges. It is better to put forward more slowly, but safer. If you were ambushed, it is necessary to immediately attack! So you will have a chance to fight back. It is advisable to move offices at a distance 100 meters each. If under attack aimed mines hit one compartment, the rest will remain intact and will be able to go to the flank of the enemy. Front and rear of the group should go watch, by 2 soldier in every. If you allow the size of the group, you need to put protection, and the side. Sentinel send to a range of line of sight. Patrols must move at least 50 meters apart. This will help early detection of ambush.
The commander must be able to determine the tactical characteristics of the map area.
There have been occasions when military equipment was determined movement route, on which it could not pass. Or caused the helicopter to the place, where he was nowhere to sit.

Communication is vital for small units. This fire support, evacuation, and ultimately - life. However, in the mountains of the connection is extremely unstable. At one point, it can be, and through the meter chasm. On commanding heights communicate better.
On the march the radio antenna should not be lifted up. The antenna is best to bend and attach to the equipment. In the event of a collision with an opponent one of the main goals is to signaller. The unit must be a few people, able to work on communications and knowledgeable negotiating table, call letters.

The unit also requires freelance doctors. About training fighters additional military specialties commander should take care in advance.

(On articles D. Dubrovsky, AT. Ivashchenko in the journal "Soldier of Fortune")

 

Comments