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The conduct of hostilities in the village

rapid urbanization, inherent in general the majority of states, It makes to pay special attention to the training of the army and special units for combat operations in populated areas. Neglect of such training the Russian army was worth unreasonably large losses during the fighting in g. Grozny in winter 1995 of the year. Familiar combined arms tactics deployed units to conduct offensive in the field was not ready to battle in the city. Obtaining the necessary skills went immediately into practice, richly paid for with blood and caused Russian strategists to reflect on the desirability of revising the program of combat training.

The main reasons for unavailability of federal forces to the effective assault on Grozny (most vivid, but not the only one sad example) were the:

underestimation of resistance fighters, of arming and training, including engineering;overestimation of its own forces. for example, the role of armored vehicles, aircraft and artillery during the assault on the city;lack of a unified strategy and heterogeneous group management system;disgusting coordination and communication between departments;poor training of personnel: overall, Special and psychological.

This list can be continued, but the purpose of this chapter is not a comprehensive analysis of the war in Chechnya, in particular its political and ideological aspects. The important thing - the city was taken only thanks to the courage of Russian soldiers. But even more importantly: there was a need to draw lessons, in this case tactical.

One of the reasons, that the majority of Russian troops to the mid-90s was not ready to urban battles, It lies in the fact, that we in this otno-shenii gave little experience in Afghanistan. There's more to come study the experience of defense of Stalingrad during the Second World War. But now you can not complain about the lack of experience of combat operations in populated areas.

certainly, the city is the most difficult theater of war. Fight in the village quickly absorbs the forces, often impacting on the success of. Dense buildings limits the mobility of the attackers units, It makes it difficult to maneuver with the purpose of focusing on the right areas, It limits the action of intelligence, complicates management units in the battlefield and target acquisition, reduces the effectiveness of radio link resources, limits shelling, overview, limits and modifies the use of various types of weapons, etc.. P. Without a doubt, in the village is much more preferable to keep the defense, than storm. Especially if you have the opportunity to prepare in advance the position.

For the assault units of major complicating factors can be:

lack of detailed schemes of village (NP) and reliable intelligence about the enemy, and his system of defense;the extensive network of underground utilities;presence in the civilian population, whose fate is not indifferent to the assault forces;the presence of NP historical and architectural monuments, as well as other structures, the conservation of which is important for the attackers.

In this chapter, the assault of the village seen from the point of view of regular troops.

Before the storm troops of the village you need to surround it and to stop all contact with the outside world besieged (which was not done in the capture of Grozny 1995 year). Attempts to take it in stride can lead to big losses for the attackers. This tactic can be effective, if you have accurate intelligence on the enemy's weak defense.

In Chechnya, Russian forces engaged the militants before the assault of the village first announced its intention to conduct an invasion and offered voluntarily extremists to lay down their arms and surrender, and the civilians to leave the corridor provided by the danger zone. Experience has shown, that in most cases no one does not give up and not all civilians are leaving town. Some forcibly detained militants, hiding behind them as hostages. Some refused to leave themselves. Many are actively assisting the extremists, that does not allow them to give a definition of "civilians". However, the use of such practices can significantly reduce losses among the civilian population, and among the attackers units.

At the exit of the village before the battle disguised as civilians are almost always trying to infiltrate militants. This is done with a different purpose, including the provision of the forces besieging Dezin-formation. Therefore inspection and search of all persons coming out of the environment required.

In contrast to the long-term tactics, exhausting siege of past centuries, when the garrison was brought to exhaustion, in modern war, such acts are excluded.

At first, long siege cause political complications.

Secondly, defending typically have sufficient food reserves to prolonged stay in isolation.

Thirdly, so small garrison can bind a large group.

Fourth, the besieged have time to prepare engineering defensive lines. Sturm village Pervomayskoye in Chechnya in January 1996 He has shown, that missing a few days for everything good positions.

Bombing and shelling of the village do not cause significant damage to the defending, especially in a city with high-rise buildings and the network of underground utilities. More effective action helicopters, causing a blow aimed at the positions of the garrison. Wanton destruction of buildings normally does not cause the desired damage to the defending, but later may hinder promotion of storming groups, as together with the rest of the buildings creates favorable conditions for sheltering and defending their military equipment, well-equipped facilities in engineering terms strongholds, defense areas and resistance nodes. Besides, after the end of hostilities, perhaps, will have to recover, and the remaining homeless residents will be another headache, impending humanitarian catastrophe. The destruction of buildings is not excluded, often it is necessary to. But such actions (as, however, and other actions in the war) You must be justified and be meaningful.

Upon entering the village troops rapidly, but gently moving on the planned areas in the city and in its suburbs, capturing position and secured to them. Developing the rate of movement, attacking group must not rip apart. This creates the risk, that the enemy, having hidden, will cut storming divisions, surrounded them and will destroy, using positional advantage. The most obvious example of this tactic - the January assault on Mr.. Terrible in 1995 year. Running armored column, fighters began to cut them off from the main forces and destroy. Military equipment was not able to effectively counter rocket launcher at close range.

Affected and ignorance of the city by the federal forces.

Fast paced offensive at times fraught with disregard to the danger of possible mining routes probable promotion. It is recommended to get a strong defensive strongholds, which are difficult to capture a frontal attack. Should develop the offensive in those areas, where the enemy's defense is weaker. later, After isolation of the most difficult for the assault defense units and their surroundings, attackers can use the advantage obtained. For breaking resistance of the reference points on the defensive weaknesses grope. For their capture can also be used aviation, armored vehicles and artillery. Moreover, the greatest benefit will bring artillery direct fire.

When you need to focus on a certain direction, or to capture important objects attackers may be planted with tactical air assault helicopters. However, such a landing is risky. In most cases, losses are inevitable among helicopters, and among the landing.

Storming of the village is characterized by the, that in its implementation is extremely high role of small units, and each soldier. The German charter "Driving Forces" 1933 year battle in the village is characterized as follows:: "He played at close range, and starting it usually depends on the independent action junior officers ". Therefore, the attacking group is divided into assault groups numbering from platoon to battalion. such groups (detachments) may increase tank, artillery and engineering units.

It is mandatory to have a significant mobile reserve, which puts a variety of tasks. Provision may be directed to the aid of the assault units, who met insurmountable resistance or suffered significant loss. At the attackers may need the help of specific expertise - snipers, deminers, flamethrower, grenade, signalers and other. Therefore, no provision has to be multifunctional and able to meet any needs.

Provision may also be made for the development of the offensive, when the retardation rate of advancement of a riot in a certain direction. If advanced attacking units can advance successfully with a good tempo, without encountering stiff resistance, reserve can go to the second wave, conducting a thorough check of the occupied territories and objects for the presence of mines and hidden enemies. Besides, captured in large houses and other buildings should be left a few soldiers, which will protect it and control the rear space. This will protect the advanced unit from shocks in the rear leaked or hidden enemies. A prerequisite for such a cover groups are choice positions, providing the best observation, and a connection with basic groups. Are assigned to cover a group of soldiers typically reserve.

As the attacking group is divided into storm troops, and the overall offensive plan is broken into pieces. That is, the capture of the village or part of it consists of mastering individual sections of the troops: neighborhoods, neighborhoods, streets, areas, parks, of enterprises, houses, etc.. d.

Each storm troopers are put out their tasks, and end current. for example, the ultimate goal is to reach for the battalion to the bridge and the organization there is a strong point. To achieve this battalion is necessary to pass these three quarters, in which you must master certain buildings and clear the area from the enemy. mastering the problem of separate buildings and distributed between rotami platoons battalion.

To successfully complete this difficult task commanders of assault units must have a map or chart of the village, know the tasks and have a reliable connection to the operations control center and to each other.

The best orientation in the village are large-scale maps (containing the names of streets, areas, the numbering of houses, and so on. P.) and multi-color scale plans 1:10 000 or 1:15 000. it's desirable, so that they are fresh. More information will provide additional useful aerial photographs of defense facilities (planned and prospective). A good addition to the above documents may be: schemes and other underground communications; description of the city and its suburbs; other information, giving an idea about the features of this settlement as a whole and of individual objects. In future, undoubtedly, Special units will be more use of electronic cards in combination with satellite navigation devices, which not only help to navigate the city, but also provide data on the situation of their troops with high precision and speed.

The command must always be aware of the course of the offensive, and to coordinate the actions of all groups, because under the conditions of the city, each unit is forced to operate almost independently. Combat experience shows, that the enemy can use the inconsistency and unevenness promotion between departments and seep into the joints between the units. Calculate in advance the promotion of uniformity can only be approximately. Therefore, it is important to make frequent adjustments in the course of the operation.

another danger, characteristic urban battles, is the risk of falling under the fire of the neighboring friendly units. At the beginning of operation to shot g. Grozny in January 1995 , gunmen used such tactics. using the, assault that led many disparate divisions, which usually do not have any direct connection with each other, single co-mandovaniya, and coordination issues were a long time, they provoked various units of the federal forces in the firing contact with each other. for example, taking advantage of local knowledge and with no signs of belonging to gangs, fighter making his way between the two posts of the federal forces and opened fire with small arms (usually it was a compact submachine gun Chechen production "Wolf") in the side of each post. After that, the gunman left that place, often hiding weapons and become "civilians". At first, the soldiers at checkpoints opened hurricane unsighted fire on fire, i.e, in fact, in the direction of a neighboring post. these im, naturally, meet fire. However, this tactic did not cause much loss as part of the federal forces and was quickly exposed.

Armored moves through the streets in synchronism with the advancing infantry. Advancing storm troopers is fraught with the destruction of its equipment. Otbivshiesya by covering the tanks, Infantry fighting vehicles and armored personnel carriers are easy prey grenade. Armored vehicles firing over open sights. Her gun suppress enemy firing points, destroy heavy weapons, destroy obstacles and doing a passage in the wall. Armored also covers a movement infantry.

Artillery, tactical and army aviation may be involved for the destruction of specific objects, creating a fire and suppress the enemy defended in plants. However, due to the fact, that in the village opposing sides are at a short distance, there is a significant risk, that under this fire get their units.

To avoid this,, to artillery and air strikes sighting applied only on the team commanders, guiding the actions of assault, after matching the time and place strike. Naturally, this interaction assumes the availability of reliable communication channels. In Grozny in winter 1995 of the year, According to various estimates, losses from the "friendly" fire ranged from 40 to 60%.

Infantry movement is carried out not only on the streets, but also in the yards, park, underground Utilities, wall outlet, the roofs of houses. In moving to avoid accumulation of equipment and personnel.

The assault groups must be engineers, which are search and neutralization of mines and minlovushek, blasting is performed in order to breaching the walls or other barriers and fences, as well as to clear the barricades, rubble and destruction.

group tactics

Now directly on tactics, which is used for small groups storming.

Action in pairs - the basis of combat coordination…

For the best interaction, mutual control and mutual, and to facilitate the control unit as a whole group split into pairs or threes. Fighters in pairs or threes (then simply pairs) They are in close contact with each other, They are always within line of sight and support voice communication. They should regularly monitor their comrades on the principle of "everyone is responsible for everyone". To effectively operate such pairs and had a high level of understanding, necessary to form them in advance, still in the process of preparation. In this way, in men will develop not only friendships, but also a sense of understanding and foresight fellow actions. When the pair of joint training will go the exchange of experiences and develop a common strategy of action, even develop their language of communication. The same system, eg, acts in the French Foreign Legion, where military personnel are divided into pairs (binomials). However, snipers, Heavies, grenade throwers, etc.. and so operate in pairs in a normal manner.

It is also important interactions between pairs. If implemented in the course of the assault kakihlibo movement for safety reasons, to organize mutual protection. One group covers, second - makes the maneuver. And vice versa.

Infantry movement produced a short throw from cover to cover. Between fighters and groups at movement must always maintain a distance of four to seven meters. Even in the absence of the enemy's fire fighters should be careful not to stay in the open areas for more than two or three seconds,. Inspection of potentially dangerous areas (window, lofts, prolomov) It must be continuous.

Main cover units carry Heavies, snipers and grenade throwers. And the Gunners can conduct a "disturbing" fire on suspicious places, in which the enemy may be. Snipers and grenade throwers same firing on identified enemy positions. After passing the progressive divisions of the next turn is fixed to the engaged position and provides covering band approach, which is tightened to new positions.

When foot units moving along the streets of the order as a cover used armored vehicles. Between infantry combat vehicles and distance to be maintained and eliminated ridging. The infantry moving along the walls, distributing the pre-control of all areas, especially the opposite side of the street. In this way, when driving on streets with tall buildings, two foot tower control environment of each other.

The movement of the columns only on the streets is the wrong tactic, which, likely, lead units to large losses, or even the complete destruction. Advancing with gaps in combat formations allows the defender to go to the rear and the flanks of the advancing and deliver effective blows on them. In this case it breaks the whole strategy of attack, which turns into a chaotic battle, which is difficult to manage. Entrenched in the houses defending receive positional advantage, and troops, Caught in the street, will be at a disadvantage. They will shoot at the top and throwing hand grenades. Besides, we should not forget about the dangers of mining streets.

To maintain a single line of attack adjacent units should be between a permanent connection and coordinate their actions. The audited buildings left guard (This was discussed above).

storming

Storm the big building, which keeps the enemy's defense, - the right way to unreasonably large losses. First you need to take up positions in front of him, and if possible, and around. It should be possible to identify the firing point and the defending estimate the optimal traffic routes assault teams. Least preferred routes are the most natural occurrence.

Before directly entering the building, we must try to kill the maximum number of enemies. This task falls mainly on the snipers, Heavies, grenade launcher and flamethrower. They do not stop their actions and after stormtroopers entering the building. However, we can not allow, to the latest hit by "friendly" fire. Therefore, as you move up the infantry covering fire is transferred to the upper floors and are shooting sighting. The machine-gunners cease fire watered the expected place of the enemy finding.

Grenade launcher and flamethrower must be particularly careful. The greatest benefit can bring snipers. To achieve such conditions, and reliable communication between the consistency group and attack aircraft cover desirable, but in a real fight it is very difficult.

To fight the enemy firing points can also be actively involved in armored vehicles and artillery, which are direct fire. However, the fire is stopped before the onset of stormtroopers. Under certain conditions, the commander may decide to attack without artillery preparation building. This happens when, when the commander relies on surprise and stealth assault began.

Penetration into the building by natural and predictable ways, through windows and doors, It is associated with a greater risk.

At first, these paths are often mined, Secondly, in most cases they are in the sights of the defenders. Therefore, penetration must go through the gaps made. They pierce the firing of guns, rocket-propelled grenades and anti-tank. To achieve greater surprise, ground attack can penetrate into the openings immediately after breaking. In this case, the defenders do not have time to reorganize their orders. However, it is important to, to assault units were not damaged at the time of breaking, so the initial position for them to be placed at a safe distance.

infiltration tactics immediately after the formation of the break is not always used. Often safer to first make a few breaks and only after that to attack. If the enemy aimed fire does not come close to storming assault object, the attack can be taken after a smoke screen.

Haste in the storming of the building leads to large losses. Out on the starting line, assault force necessary to regroup, look around. The commander of the order of plans for further action and communicate it to their subordinates.

certainly, most successful and least losses will reach the unit, are being trained for combat in urban environments. Every fighter and each pair must fulfill various options so, to every man did his job without a team and was ready to replace the incapacitated comrades. After all, to manage all the soldiers commander can not, especially since the provision of each soldier of the Russian army personalized radio station - an impossible dream.

Keeping before the assault on radio talks, on the forthcoming attack, permitted only, if you are using the closed radio.

After the capture of the building need to check it carefully and, if necessary, neutralize all explosive devices found. Now, this building becomes the starting line for a further offensive. Commander, received a report, that the building is cleaned, inspects personnel, determined with killed or wounded, defensive action plans and reports to headquarters. The first steps are being taken to a circular defense, since the enemy may try to launch a counterattack to retake lost ground. Particularly high this probability, if the building is beneficial from a tactical point of view,.

Lower approaches possible blocked engineering methods. Particular attention should be paid to the various cellars and underground passages. When storming g. Grozny, Federal troops did not dare to go underground, because it threatened large losses. Therefore, all the outputs are filled up to the surface and are often mined. However, the laying of mines in the building, which is used as a line of defense, - risky practice. Quite possibly, that in the bustle of any of his soldiers could undermine them.

Assault Group allocates positions on different floors and fire sectors. The commander is dealing with prisoners (if they are) and plans to further advance. In this way, assault team moves from building to building, leaving the captured group to protect, unless this function assumes no reserve.

The experience of the defense of Stalingrad, in which, as is known, were some of the heaviest street fighting of World War II.

For the assault of an object stand out assault groups, Group consolidation and reserve. Designed to perform a single task, they constituted a single assault group of urban combat. force, composition and arm-set of each group may vary depending on the object and task.

The main EFP entire group of attackers were a group of six to eight people in each. Of the total composition of the assault group of urban warfare they were about 30%. They first broke into the building, pillboxes and self-fought inside the object. Each group had its own specific task (lot).

The rest gives strength, which included soldiers of various specialties, ensure the promotion of the attacking groups, on-site development of the offensive and consolidation. consolidation group also divided into several subgroups, who broke into the building from different directions after the attack groups of the signal commander. Penetrating into the building and destroying gun emplacements, They immediately began to create its own defense and to discourage all attempts to fight off the enemy building or come to the aid of the attacked garrison.

The reserve was used to replenish and strengthen the attacking groups, to counteract a possible counter-attacks from the flanks and rear. In case of necessity or for large losses from the reserve can be quickly formed and put into a new fight, additional attack group.

Sturm conducted as a pre artillery preparation, and without it counting on surprise.

The experience of recent wars shows, that the more successful assault groups seeking after a preliminary artillery strike. The example of the 76th Airborne Division, wherein during regiment 2,5 hours could not get a foothold militants on the western outskirts of Grozny. After application of the artillery strike point was taken as the 10 minutes with minimal losses.

Now that, as for assault operations at night. If the attacker has enough manpower, the preservation of which do not need to take special care, night attack could have significant success. Most of the storming of the building groups have a very rough idea of ​​its layout and defending enemy. Especially those "surprises", that the enemy has prepared the building. Therefore, there is a risk of large losses in the assault on the night.

This does not mean, in the dark you can not even storm the building. But with the greatest chance of success and minimal losses (or none at all) Night capture of a building can only hold a well-prepared, professional division. In this case, it must have good intelligence about the enemy's defenses. Besides, all the men and the group as a whole should have modern equipment and armament: individual night vision devices, flashlights, fastened to the weapon, silent weapon, means of remote listening, etc.. P.

Elite anti-terrorist and sabotage unit may well carry out such operations, it has been repeatedly proven in practice. But what can we say about the chances of success of conventional Russian motorized infantry platoon, where all of one night vision binoculars, and a flashlight at the best one on the branch!

The darkness may be used to accumulate before storm forces and pull at the closest distance to the object, to launch an attack at dawn, since the new positions.

At night should be paid great attention to the protection of their positions. Particularly at risk of attack are exposed to artillery positions.

defense of the city

The defense of the village is organized not only for the purpose of retention, but also to achieve superiority over the enemy by taking advantage of built-up, local knowledge and prior preparation of defense. Garrison small even in the absence of heavy weapons may bleed significantly greater number of arms and power Sturm grouping.

If there is time to prepare for the defense of the garrison equips position. These can be randomly distributed pockets of resistance, which are located in the most convenient places for protection. But in most cases, the construction of the defense is organized, systemic nature with a single command, and linking the actions of all groups.

Most often, the city is divided into milestones, strongholds, of resistance (merge several strong points), which are so arranged, to the terrain and building best suited to defensive action and strongly hindered offensive. Naturally, It considers the possibility to provide garrison defenses firepower and personnel. In many cases, the defenders take only the forefront and if you can not keep them fade into the next frontier. In such cases, the reserve is allocated, which is directed to the weak portions or breakthrough in place.

If the garrison strong enough to cover all areas of, it builds defenses. But in this case, placed at the forefront of most of the personnel. In the second tier may be up 30% oboronyayuschyhsya. Reserve forces or second tier generally directed to close or break counter for. for example, to return the captured enemy advantageous position.

It is considered to be a tactical mistake, if the best defensive line coincides with the outskirts of the village. Takeaway line of defense before the settlement was practiced at the beginning of the XX century, but with the modern means of weapons is a recipe for defeat. Most preferred is location of the defensive line near the margin.

When planning a defense garrison is divided into divisions. unit, in its turn, assigned to the directions, sites, sectors, strongholds. When choosing the location of the position, It takes into account not only the favorable conditions for engineering, but also the way the probable promotion storming enemy groups.

When placing the artillery fire on the edge of being on the advancing troops in the village using traditional field of battle. If guns and armored vehicles are located in the back of the village, they should focus on direct fire. Usually, the most likely direction for conducting artillery fire - along the streets. Moreover, the calculations are guided by shooting at close targets: armored vehicles and other vehicles. competent storm tactic does not involve clusters of infantry in open spaces. But, if any structure is seen or suspected cluster of manpower, Artillery can fire with the aim of building collapse.

Also tank fire, BMP guns and can be used to suppress the enemy firing points. But the possibility of the use of such tactics is limited, because in a real fight with dense buildings clashes distances are very short. Firing point generally opposing sides are no further 100 meters apart. Fire on the upper floors of high-rise buildings of tanks and artillery can not. The great advantage of this situation are in BMP. But it was heavy weaponry would be the first targets for the attacking enemy. Therefore artillery should focus on meeting the enemy fire immediately when he appeared on the distant approaches. We must not forget, that maneuver defensive armor and artillery is not only limited, but it is often not possible at all. Therefore, to reduce the probability of destruction armor desirably buried in the ground, driven into caponiers or use engineering structures for shelter. for example, low stone fences.

Defending forces can successfully use mortars for firing indirect fire on closely spaced targets and partially compensate for limitations in the use of field artillery guns. Mortar fire could be concentrated and barrage. Concentrated fire conducted by area possible (or known) concentration of enemy manpower and equipment, and defensive - to cover the open areas of defense. Mortars and convenient in terms of the possibility of operational maneuver.

When preparing to storm the settlement garrison actively using mining. The most promising for the bookmarks is, naturally, carriageway. Its mining can be done in different types of explosive devices. Besides, the planning of mining is necessary to calculate the most likely path and direction storming groups (gardens, flowerbeds, etc.. P.). Promising for laying explosive devices in the premises are also suitable for items of equipment locations and sites of alleged accumulation of enemy forces. They are most commonly used anti-money, established with elements of "surprise".

Powerful landmines laid in buildings so, that at undermining cause the collapse of structures. Methods for initiation of such charges may be different, but preferably a radio control. In this case, reducing the likelihood of its operation with minimum effect or achieved the charge detection. However, the radio-controlled undermine may be complicated by a limited review and certain other factors. Also mining defenders can arrange artificial engineering barriers, impairs the operation of advancing. Such fences also desirable Mining.

Since the fight against armored vehicles and other major targets of the enemy is paramount, for the defending forces it is important to properly allocate firepower for their defeat: grenade launchers, ATGM launchers, flame throwers and others. Their position must meet certain requirements. They should allow to conduct the review, and the fire in a given sector, that is, in places most likely emergence of enemy equipment, possible to hide and protect the position and be able to quickly change it.

In order to organize a powerful and "viscous" defense garrison should be used as efficiently as possible position - as natural, and the suit-sstvennye. For items of equipment it is recommended to use a building with basement and basement, providing WHO possibility of firing at a location nearby. Despite the fact that the offensive is expected in a particular direction, they are preparing for all-round defense with overlapping sectors of fire and observation.

For departing best suited underground utilities. For traveling-tion Corps, the removal of the wounded and the ammunition tray through the open space easy-relivaemoe prepare communication trenches. Defensive positions in general should give an opportunity to frequently move from one to the other loopholes. Especially important is the change of positions for snipers, pulemetchi-ing, flamethrower and grenade. For the latter, it is also important to have space behind them for a smooth exit jet.

In multi-storey buildings emplacements are located not only in the depth, but also on the floors, creating a multi-tiered system for the simultaneous firing of the enemy from the upper and lower floors. A large part of the firing means located in the lower floors and basements of buildings. The buildings, preventing fire, can be destroyed in advance. Firing positions are usually prepared for the stone fences and walls. For firing not only windows are used as embrasures buildings, but disguised artificial breaks. This position is more difficult to detect the enemy and hit.

Individual steps in

We have already mentioned, that in conditions of urban warfare considerably WHO-greater role not only small units, but each individual salt-date. This chapter provides recommendations on the management of individual actions under the conditions of urban warfare.

Before entering the city (village, village, etc.. P.), must, something to every soldier had an idea of ​​the layout, if not the entire inhabited-foot point, then at least the part, in which he will have to act. Not a secret, that when storming g. Grozny in January 1995 Voice, federal-ka had a very vague idea of ​​its layout and, especially, SIS-topic defense. And this despite the fact, that Mr.. Terrible was their, Russian city, rather than the territory of another State. Especially that before the assault him thrown scouts from among Chechens, supported the federal government. But at the time of the assault units of the federal forces have insufficient fresh maps and charts and guides, among them were fighters, previously lived in Grozny.

equipment features

Outfitting and equipment for urban warfare differ slightly from the usual. simple soldier (machine gunner) It requires an increased supply of hand grenades. Also, consumption of grenades for grenade launcher to be upgraded, since its role in the village weightier, than in the field or the woods. Besides fragmentation grenades handy stun and tear (if it is necessary to take someone alive), and the smoke grenades.

At short distances the role and the possibility of additional weapons - pistols, knives. They can be useful when it is impossible to fire a primary weapon (It does not matter the reason). But from the secondary weapon will benefit only, when it is available for quick outcrop and is ready for immediate use. Therefore, the soldier must think in advance about its location and work out in the Quick Draw.

Wearing body armor - a moot point. He is covered in chapter, Dedicated-gap of an individual gear. Most fighters wear it only when driving vehicles or to perform a specific job. Armed helms wearing justifiably.

Each department and each fighter, acting in, They may be cut off from the main force and will be forced to act sa long time mostoyatelno. When storming g. Formidable gangs in August 1996 , the unit of federal forces, It was surrounded by "thanking" the betrayal of the high command, We were forced to fight a month. Many of them did not receive help from any of the main forces of ammunition, our proviziey, any personnel. Therefore, before the performance necessary to get a reasonable supply of food, spare batteries on the devices used, etc.. P.

One must have a flashlight, even if the act to be in the daytime.

If the shape of the external enemy has similarities with uniforms storming, you must enter all of their soldiers uniform system of visual identification. Each fighter must have the sign, is not characteristic of the traditional form of clothing, clearly distinguishable from a distance. for example, when storming g. Grozny in January 1995 , federal troops were worn on the left sleeve white bandage. If the operation is delayed for a long time, The identification system may periodically change, because it can take advantage of an opponent. It is important at the same time to bring change to all soldiers.

Not recommended in wear sneakers or other light shoes with soft soles. Under your feet is a large amount of broken glass, boards with nails and other sharp and dangerous items. Besides, Movement on the stairs and just an uneven surface is fraught with a dislocated ankle. What would reduce the likelihood of such an injury, it is necessary to wear shoes with high tibia-mi and firmly tighten the laces. It is useful to be knee and elbow pads, special gloves, dustproof goggles. During the battle a lot of dust and crumbs building rises among buildings, which make it difficult to not only observe, but breathing. Therefore, it may be useful respirator.

Movement

When driving in the village meeting with the enemy can happen at any moment. Shooting in this case will be conducted in a very short dis-Dancing, and often in abutment. Therefore, weapons must be ready for use Nemedia-lennomu.

The machine must be charged, Unlocking and have a round in the chamber. To be prepared for the immediate opening of aimed fire, should move, not taking his rifle butt on the shoulder, wherein the trunk is lowered down slightly. When moving between the buildings barrel rises, controlling window. Another method for retaining - bearing against the butt-set in the elbow bend. Barrel thus directed upwards. This method also has its adherents. The barrel is rotated in the same direction, which looks a fighter.

The village is placed on the machine sight 100 m, Fuse - to conduct firing in single-player mode. Firing bursts effective only in some cases. for example, a sudden meeting of a group of enemies at close range. In most situations, reasonable to shoot single shots. The effect is no less, and significant savings cartridges.

Firing a machine gun, You do not need to wait for the complete emptying store. If the store is partially empty and there was a pause in the battle, You can change the shop. And it is possible to finish the missing cartridges. To do this, you need to wear loose cartridges in a special pocket, that securely fastens. The shooter was able to control the flow of ammunition, starting to equip shop, you need to insert three tracer cartridge. All of them can not shoot. Once I flew at least one tracer, We need to change the Shop.

Better, If the remaining cartridge in the chamber, in this case do not have to spend time on the shutter distortion. However, in the heat of battle is doubtful, the soldier thought about such trifles, as counting emitted rounds. In any case it is better to change is not completely consumed Store, than at the critical moment to waste time reloading.

If you throw away the empty shops, have problems. But in a tense situation it is better not to lose time on their premises in the Vest or pouch. Especially in the heat of battle, you can mix up the empty and full of shops. When firing from a stationary position empty shops must be rejected in one place. In the event of break they need to equip and put on themselves.

Rocket-propelled grenade (reusable) It must also be ready for immediate use. However, you can not always use it in the place, where there was a need. This is due to the danger, posed jet stream at a shot from behind grenade. Therefore, the thrower must not only be attentive to the choice of position, but also when moving constantly be aware of the possibility of immediate firing. After the shot coming from behind may suffer comrades. In the rain on the grenade is put package, not interfering shooting.

Underbarrel launcher must also be ready for rapid application, that is to be charged. On his guard (at least Russian SE-25) You do not need to put, as for the shot, and so it requires considerable effort, virtually eliminating the possibility of accidental discharge. should not fire from the SE-25 closer than 40 m, because in this case the pomegranate may not be able to get up on the combat platoon. It is dangerous to shoot at the windows of high-rise building, standing at its foot, because when slip garnet ricochet and drop back.

All actions must be carried out in pairs (threes). The members of the couple have to constantly see each other and to know, where other comrades are. Such statistics do, but many men died from the bullets of their own comrades, mix them with the enemy. However, it is impossible to assemble groups, endangering others.

Can not be fixed in the open. You must either move, or hide. Movement occurs quickly short dashes from cover to cover. Thus it is impossible to lose orientation in space. Always remember, which side their, how - strangers. In a dense housing and the promotion of non-uniformity of different groups and individual fighters situation is changing very rapidly. therefore, if you shoot around, that moves and suddenly appears, you can get into their.

For confident orientation often need to stop (under cover) and inspected. Movements should be scheduled, not chaotic.

before, they escape, you need to clearly understand the direction and purpose, with achievements-SRI is a fighter should again take a protected position. Only in the case of exposure to the sudden enemy fire should immediately occupy near shelter. Dense fire, and generally to reduce the risk and increase stealth, movement can be performed by crawling on all fours, or. You need to move along the walls, bushes, debris and other items, not running out onto the open spaces. To overcome the dangerous space is often used smoke. It saves on the impact of fire.

Any movement must take place under the guise of a mutual. Cover is carried out not only when traveling, but also in the event of pauses for various reasons: Giving help, recharge, etc.. P. At the same time should be maintained voice contact. If necessary, get out of active combat this it is necessary to inform the partner.

When promoting an unfamiliar locality need to remember the way, since there was little hope of conductors.

Passing under the windows, you need to bend down, and the windows, below the waist level, jump. Moving indoors, You should also avoid the appearance in front of windows and breaks. The enemy can strike fire from another building or another external position.

It is necessary to focus on the "right-hand rule". It is, that person physiologically easier and faster to transfer the fire to the left. This is true for right-handers. For left-handed all the way around. That is, the movement of weapons outside, be it a gun or automatic, less natural and comfortable. The transfer of fire and maintenance of the right of aimed fire (for right-handed) or left (for left-handers) It is associated with the need to rotate the body. The exception is the firing of the gun with one hand. This rule implies much, and then it will still be referred to.

When choosing a firing position or under the supervision necessary (then everything for right-handers) peek and fire right side of the object, behind which you hide. In this way, It will be protected almost the entire body, with the exception of the right shoulder and arm, as well as the right side of the head. When shooting arrows to the left of the obstacles have to be fully disclosed. The appearance of the head of the subject of protection at all is unacceptable. The closer to the ground will be the head, the less it will be evident to the enemy. Better, if there is a mirror (better on the bar), with which you can conduct surveillance without exposing himself.

However, the mirror can give glare, to unmask the position. Therefore, when you use it you need to consider, where the sun. In general, given the choice, better direction to go out of the sun, that it blinded the enemy, not you.

In case of need to fire the left of protective barriers, better to shift the machine to the left arm. Although it is uncomfortable and unusual, but it is much safer. The same applies to a gun shooting.

When rounding the move kakogolibo obstacles (eg, corner of the building), you must do it right. In the event of a sudden meeting with the enemy and the need to immediately open fire weapons will be immediately directed to the enemy with a minimum of "openness" fighter housing. For rounding the corner to the left is also necessary to shift the machine to the left arm. Should not be afraid of inconvenience, because at such short distances to miss with a machine gun, even an awkward situation difficult. Or it is necessary to send forward lefty.

Getting around corners, you need to stay away from them. Then the panorama will be opened gradually and surprises will be revealed in time. Rounding need to produce slow. In this case, the fighter has to be ready both to open fire, and to fast the bounce back.

In general, the movement should be slow and cautious. In addition to the front direction danger is posed by various dormer windows, breaks and openings, which may be arranged as above, so below. Find in them the presence of the enemy is very difficult, while he himself will not give. Besides, always the danger of falling in the mines. In the conditions of the buildings is mainly stretching and various "surprises". Stretching can be delivered to all, anything. Very often mined doors and various valuables (eg, recorders, TVs). The greatest risk are subjects, the movement of which is a logical and predictable. Mines are being laid in the ground, the most convenient position for firing. Often mined piles of various objects and dead bodies. Since this is usually done in a hurry, is able to select the most simple. Under the corpse is placed grenade without a ring.

The displacement of the body releases the trigger. The calculation is, what, seeing his friend, lie motionless, the first reaction will be to check, he injured or killed.

All suspicious objects are hooked anchor-cat on a rope and move. It should be in the shelter, since an explosion may be high power. In the absence of a rope one can apply thread a long pole or board. Closed doors are undermined or fires back lock (otherwise the locking device). It is necessary to observe safety measures. And not only individual. We must not forget the comrades, which may be in the affected area or by ricochet of blast effects.

For the prevention of flash is not out of place at all the door a few shots. For the same reason you can not stand in front of the door itself. A metal door should be cautious, since there is a risk of rebound, especially from small-caliber bullets and low penetration. Knocking doors kicked quite risky.

Modern ammunition has a very high penetrating ability and allow the enemy to strike, located within the walls of certain materials and other, at first sight, durable construction. Often the soldiers psychologically accept for safe shelter is easy to sweep things. Remember that you need to, not just hiding from the enemy, but trying to hit it through cover. Striking fire can be maintained even after a wooden floor or stairs.

before, you enter the room or go around the corner, you need to throw a grenade. Should throw a grenade with the slowing. That is, after the release of the trigger to survive two seconds, then throw. Such actions require composure, but you do not throw it back. After slowing down in three or four seconds - enough time to take countermeasures or shelter from the splinter. If the affected area will be companions, Some experts recommend to prevent them shout "Grenade!"Or" shards!». However, this shout warned enemies. Besides, there is no guarantee, that the companions heard a cry or have time to react to it in a timely manner.

Therefore, it is wise to throw a grenade, certainly know, that none of their not suffer. Yet conditional cries are necessary also in case, when a grenade throws pro-adversaries. All, who sees, We have a loud cry to warn her about it. In this case, it is necessary to jump into the nearest shelter or duck around the corner and open his mouth, to from the blast has not damaged ba slave membrane.

Many trainers recommend just throwing all suspicious places "pocket artillery". Theoretically, it should be. But one fighter is unlikely to take a greater 15-20 Garnet. At the same time still need to put banners and leave a few pieces to continue the fight. Therefore, the total allowable granatometanie at short-storming, after which it will be able to refill.

Throw tear gas grenades widespread in a combat situation does not find. After all, it not only affects the enemy, but does not guarantee, that the enemy is not able to resist. In addition, the enemy may have gas masks, a facial, in a state of alcoholic or drug intoxication, usually not affected by tear gas.

Besides, by storming need to take individual measures to protect the. It is also difficult to predict, as a "lead" itself a gas cloud. The greatest effect of the tear gas grenades is achieved if necessary force enemies, are indoors, surrender or leave. Stun grenades produce a stunning effect in the explosion and are applied in cases, when the enemy should be taken alive.

Immediately after the explosion of a grenade need to break into the premises. It should be remembered, that the explosion does not guarantee complete defeat. The enemy can hide behind some solid object or hide in another room. Therefore, the calculation is done not only on the striking effect grenades, but also to oglušenie, stun the enemy. Bursting into the room, you must be prepared for the immediate opening fire. In a large room can be opened preventive fire on the enemy places a possible hiding place. But indiscriminate shooting in all directions, can lead to the defeat of their own combatants ricocheted. The fire can be conducted without penetrating into the room through a doorway.

Acces is quick, without delay on the opening background. The movement goes diagonally to the wall.

All affected enemies must be checked. You can not move on, not convinced of the death of all the enemies and do not search them. maybe, during a search of the necessary information is found. for example, maps of minefields, radio, tuned to the frequency of the enemy, Defense and T plans. P.

moving forward, can not be left behind untested objects. Proven facilities can be marked by conventional signs (usually chalk) for going back units and for themselves, since then traversed the room, perhaps, have to return. Discovered mines in the absence of sappers designated. In simple cases, the explosive device can attempt to disarm yourself using "cat" or eliminated by detonating an explosive device or another to shoot from a safe distance. But it is still risky.

When driving on the building in the absence of loud background noise need to listen to outside noise. Accordingly, the fighters themselves have to be moved as quietly as possible. For the introduction of a possible enemy misleading need to actively apply distracting noises. At the same time we need to be critical of suspicious sounds. Not so difficult to distinguish the sound of a stone thrown from the crunchy underfoot broken glass.

Storming of the building must be prepared in such a way, to make it on the first try. practice shows, that the unsuccessful assault strengthens the will of the defenders and undermining the morale of the attackers. And tactically enemy can anticipate further attack methods and ways and accordingly regroup. Therefore, after the onset of action is no longer possible to stop. Even with significant losses. Otherwise, they then will increase many times, how during the retreat, and at the second attempt.

The clash with the enemy at close range

soldier gets often under fire, Not understanding, where fires. At this point it is important to hide, to escape the line of fire. To do this you need to quickly jump into the nearest shelter. In order not to waste time looking for him, even when driving on the road should be celebrated suitable locations and move between shelters with short throws. In any case it is impossible to escape, although many of the most natural, instinctive movement. In this case, the enemy quietly shoot a fleeing in the back.

In the literature and various articles, dedicated to urban combat, It can often be found at the recommendation of a sudden meeting with the enemy move left (the right of the enemy). Thus there is a link to the "left-hand rule" mentioned above.

When you read such recommendations, doubts arise not only in the presence of the author of the relevant combat experience, but also in its theoretical training. Such advice can really work at a meeting with the enemy, armed with a pistol. But for troop clashes, wherein the main weapon is a machine, everything is different.

Yes, 'Left hand rule "acts, but besides him there are other factors, proves, that mindless copying each other is not always helpful.

At first, for most people is the most natural movement (kuvırok) to the right.

Secondly, for "left-hand rule" carrying the fire to the right (for right-handed) difficult and unnatural, than left. But, putting the opponent in an awkward position, you put in the same position and of itself. And standing opponent has the ability to transfer the right of the weapon itself by turning the whole body, and you, on the move, unlikely to be able to do it without acrobatic training.

Thirdly, we can not forget about the inherent properties of automatic weapons. What makes the enemy, I met you in the short run? The most likely and dangerous his reaction - to send you automatic trunk and immediately open fire burst. What will make the machine? Sending the first bullet in the direction of the initial direction, begins to withdraw his trunk right and up. Just in the wrong direction, which recommends to escape some theorists. Of course, the enemy can keep the adjustment of fire in the course of your movement, but these professionals - a unit. The vast majority will shoot exactly, as described above. Especially we must not forget, it all happens in a matter of moments.

So the first, what should be done, - to rush for cover. If you can shoot on the move towards the enemy - it is remarkable. In this sighting did not need to shoot, as this will slow down the movement of. The machine does not leaps for aiming, fire is at once from the initial position. It is important to knock down enemy with a brain, startle, make them think about their safety. If the fire has not turned, nothing wrong. The main thing - to survive the first few seconds. Actively use peripheral vision.

Those "theorists" recommend to throw grenades at the enemy on the move. You can also try, if you are ready to roll. But it is doubtful. It is unlikely that anyone will simultaneously seek shelter, go to him, transfer machine and get grenades, prepare them to throw and throw. All movements should be easy. But they need to work out in advance. Not a single person in this situation would not think and remember, that it was written in the books. For it will think and act in his body.

Anyway, in any surroundings should immediately withdraw from the firing line. Even drop to the floor can be saved from defeat, because the fire is usually carried out at chest level. Opening fire without leaving aside inadmissible, because the enemy might have an advantage in time and start shooting the first. But even without this there is always a high risk of suffering from bullets even wounded enemy.

In the reverse situation, when the enemy team gets under your fire, you must immediately prioritize goals in defeat. First destroy the enemy, ready for immediate use of weapons (open it) or throw grenades. Secondly - the explicit commanders, grenade throwers, snipers, Heavies. The last thing destroyed fleeing enemies. With the destruction of the group, it is desirable to start from the back. Then, the front did not immediately understand, they found, and did not immediately take adequate measures. The ambient noise of battle your shots may not be recognized immediately. Especially if you are using silent weapons. If the kill running ahead, the rear, seeing him fall, immediately react to it.

If comrade was wounded while driving group, it must catch running near, pull into the shelter and provide emergency assistance or just to pass the orderlies, if present. If the target was hit in open areas, shot through the enemy, when moving to the shelter should not rush to his rescue at once, otherwise you can get under the most fire. Chechen snipers widely used such tactics. They are specially wounded soldier in such a way, that he could not walk. Since time immemorial Russian soldier life companion was no less valuable, than his own, injured immediately rushed to rescue. snipers (sniper) wounded and those soldiers. When the rest of the comrades understood, that run to the aid of pointless, Snipers still finished off the wounded.

Therefore, in order to save a wounded comrade should immediately establish a smokescreen. snipers, grenade throwers and machine gunners should try to identify the sniper positions enemy and crush them. Better to pull out a wounded by a rope thrown to him.

Snipers in general are the most dangerous enemies. In preparation for the battle they choose (if necessary, equip) for several positions: for monitoring, and shooting. Snipers can act alone, but more often with a partner, or under cover of a few machine gunners. It can also run a group of snipers.

Tactics suppression sniper points the enemy barrage of indiscriminate fire is not justified. After a shot from deep space sniper position changes and usually remains invulnerable. To neutralize need to calculate its position and destroy the appearance. It is best to cope with this task snipers and grenade throwers. If the enemy sniper does not act on the territory under its control, his search takes a small search parties. When confronted with them a couple of sniper (the most common practice) it is very difficult to resist the assault team.

Actions in the dark

In the dark, you can not act cavalry assaults. Promotion is carried out slowly and carefully. You can not go into a dark room, until his eyes adapted to the darkness. To accelerate the habituation used this technique. A few minutes before entering the dark room one eye opened and closed in the dark.

If there are lights, task easier. In fact, no one is better in the darkness not come. If there is an opportunity to highlight the room from a safe place from the outside - it is necessary to use. for example, one soldier will illuminate the room (compliance with security measures) through the dormer window and distract the attention of. At this time, other soldiers will carry out penetration. They themselves will be in the dark, but the bulk of the room will be illuminated. If it is required to enter, lamp should be kept away at arm's length.

This issue is now quite controversial. for example, some American police trainers recommend keeping a lantern in his hand, crossed at the wrist with a hand, holding a gun. In this way, flashlight beam is always directed to, where and gun barrel. it, certainly, OK. However, you can not always and easy to fire with two hands. Hold the gun with both hands several constrains and limits the movement of spatial freedom (The term is not official). But the main drawback of this method of retention - the provocation of the enemy lurking on the fire on the light source, ie directly by owner lantern.

statement, that "now all criminals are educated and know, that you need to shoot is not for the light source, and next ", not hold water. Indeed, in such a situation, firing, rather, It will not be carried out on the knowledge, and by instinct. This technique involves the use of a gun, because automatic weapons abroad have long been equipped with special lights. However, Russian soldiers may be offered only by improvising with the adaptation of conventional lanterns.

When driving in the dark, you can improvise. for example, take a seat, holding up the lantern at arm's length. Or to put it, or throw as, so that it covered the alleged direction of the enemy's shelter, and make the most silent maneuver. In this case, you can use distractions.

The most primitive - cast aside any subject. Can include periodically lantern, confusing and blinding enemy. However, with such flares is possible and very disoriented. And for such actions lamp to be switched on by pressing the button, instead of the slider or, especially, turning the "head". After each flash it is necessary to change position. This technique is very effective and less dangerous, than going with permanently active light source. Some illuminated areas can be overcome with a jerk. When driving in the dark do not need to make unnecessary noise, smoke and detect its presence and location of the senseless shooting.

Proceeding from the above, it can be concluded about the requirements, placed on the lantern. Naturally, it should be compact, reliable, powerful and durable. Its inclusion should be carried out as a button (sve-tit only when its holding), and toggle constant light. Of course, lamp must be shockproof.

The best solution would be to use devices and night vision goggles. But we must not forget, PNV that give light, detectable optics enemy.

The use of small arms, not provided with flame arresters or devices noiseless and flameless firing, also strongly unmasks shooters positions in dark conditions.

In the variety of developments of the village and places of the enemy's position under the influence of dozens of different factors there is a lot of different situations, each of which is unique. The conduct of hostilities in the village requires a special pre-treatment: combat, physical and tactical. However, the soldier, who can not think, improvise and to act in difficult situations, It will be hard even if you have special training. But far worse is his comrades, because in the interaction between soldiers and units is particularly important.

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