History is not brought to us the name of the designer grenade F-1. Developed before the First World War, it still proved to be the cheapest in the production and the worst in combat use. In Russia, Germany and Poland, it was called "pineapple", in France and in England – "Ananasovkoy", in the Balkans – "Tortoise".
The grenade was developed on the basis of the French fragmentation grenade F-1 model 1915 g. (not to be confused with the modern F1 model with a plastic housing and a semi-fragments) English and grenades Lemon system (terochnыm with enthusiasm), Distributed in Russia during the First World War. here – designation F-1 and the nickname "grenade". On the arms of the Red Army adopted the grenade with a remote detonator ("Light") Koveshnikova. Ignition of the primer composition of the remote – mechanism of action of the firing pin. AT 1939 g. It was upgraded F.I. Hrameevym. AT 1941 g. instead sunk Koveshnikova adopted a more easy to manufacture and handle the fuse UZRG EM system. Witzel. In addition to the troops grenade "pineapples" was dubbed as "fenyushey".
With the advent of rifle and grenade launchers nastvolnymi art of fighting with hand grenades began to be forgotten. And in vain. The action of the target malooskolochnyh rifle grenades do not go to any comparison with the work of manual fragmentation grenades F-1, known and military, and civilians under the code name "pineapple". With minor structural changes, this garnet is produced in different countries of the world already 80 years. "Pineapple" is the most powerful of all the hand grenades at slaughter action splinters and very easy to handle. The fins on its body – turtle – there is not to be divided into fragments, as they think, and for "uhvatyvaemosti" in the palm of your hand, for easy retention and binding capabilities to something when setting stretching as mines. Housing grenades F-1 is cast from so-called "dry" cast iron, that the explosion blasting (blunt) charge breaks into fragments ranging in size from a pea to match head, irregular ragged shape with ragged sharp edges. Total number of such fragments formed to four (!). Hull form grenades chose this not only for the convenience of retention. Until now, no one can explain why, but the explosion of "pineapples" on the surface of the fragments expansion occurs mainly in side and very little – up. At the same grass "mown" completely within a radius 3 meters from the blast site, continuous lesion growth targets provided in a radius of 5 m, at a distance 10 m rostovaja goal affected 5-7 fragments, at 15 m – two or three.
Therefore, at a close distance from the explosion will not save the body armor – cut down by shrapnel hands, legs, face.
Even a small fragment, caught in a neck, It is tantamount to a death sentence. Penetrating lethal action to retain small pieces 100 m, big – to 250 m. In enclosed spaces in addition to the weight rebounding disorderly fragments shock wave of this powerful grenade itself causes concussion and incapacitates. Body armor while also useless.
In the infantry for all these reasons grenade F-1 is used as a defensive. As SWAT – as a powerful tool of suppression, when a small force is necessary to achieve real results in specific circumstances, cruel. The outcome of the special operations in the conduct of hostilities in non-standard situations very often depends on the application of practical fighting techniques, not designated statutes and regulations armchair. Ruthless force "pineapples" provides a turn of events in favor of the initiative and inventive, but only when it is the skillful use of.
During the Second World War, officers of SMERSH ("death to Spies" – Soviet military counterintelligence during the war) the implementation of operational fire contacts, shooting at moving with one hand from the gun, held in another, raised on a hand grenade at the head as a counterbalance to the smooth running of. Grenade hurled out of this situation without swing, instantly, if necessary, dramatically increasing their firepower this. But methane is not just. At close range combat operational "point-blank", when a sudden collision with the enemy group, Grenade is thrown over the back of the enemy. It harbored throwing away their own debris. The enemy in this case is "sandwiched" between the small fire "at close range" and a grenade from behind.
In practice, melee combat this simple techniques can not be overestimated. It is especially valuable in street battles, when by the sudden appearance of the enemy close threaten grenade was no time or can not be cramped room.
Without swing a grenade can be thrown quite far and accurately, never taking his eyes off the goal or intuitively in the dark. But you need to develop the joints and muscles of the throwing arm – at least right, though left. With such a development should be: holding with the hand grenade total weight training (filled with sand), swing it, imitating the swing and toss, all the time, increasing the amplitude of the swing, and gradually distancing ago starter barrier cast. From the start barrier grenade sent forward sharply strengthen not only your hands, but also shoulder muscles, the chest and abdomen, but do not throw a grenade! Swing back and forth until it stops, gradually pushing the boundary of this stop! This method is used if required cast throw grenade into the narrow loophole, above human growth.
Grenade can be thrown quite far and accurately from a belt or directly from Grenade bags with or without swing swing bottom forward. This method is very fast and is valuable, that the enemy often do not have time to understand, that pomegranate "went" to him. The enemy used to seeing the cast with swing top. Training and development of ligaments and muscles is made similarly to roll without swing top with gradual receding of the starting barrier. On a roll from the bottom without swing the same way, as well as at the "upper" roll, includes sharp, explosive efforts shoulder muscles, the chest and abdomen. The method is unusual, but under certain training range and accuracy of the throw quickly progressing. Also, according to circumstances, garnet is sometimes easier to "roll up" the enemy (eg, through low disposed slits) in this way. Throw bottom practical for operational combat in buildings, when there is no need to send a grenade far, but, It happens, I need to throw a few grenades quickly one after the other.
When throwing the grenade out of the vertical cover (from the corner), that the fighting in various types of labyrinths happens all the time, preferably not protrude from the angle and, not substitute for backfire. The goal in this case is determined intuitively or hard of hearing. Such a method makes it possible to throw a grenade throwing fast, far and exactly the, who are trained to throw a grenade from the bottom, belt, no attempt, both right, and left-handed, for here involves the same muscle groups, which is produced the same way as the development of.
If necessary throw grenade lying on a horizontal slit-embrasure its drop from the belt, possibly putting themselves in front of a stone, duffel bag, etc.. d., that there is at hand, as a temporary cover for protection from its own fragments.
If you need to throw a grenade on, They do it from the "knee". To do this, from a prone position strongly repelled from the ground arms, filed tulovysche and pelvis back so, to the legs bent at the knees. accelerating movement, up on the left knee, focusing on the right foot. This will make a backswing for a throw. plummet after the cast and "to press" in the ground. For the development of this technique all of the above movements are processed multiple times "in vain", not letting go of the hand grenade training, making a wide swing, more and more increasing the amplitude sweep, gradually, As in the previously described methods throwing, "Pushing" back starting barrier cast. When throwing a knee sharply, explosively includes all the same muscles throwing hand, shoulder and especially the housing. As natrenirovannosti necessary to achieve fusion, simultaneity and speed of movements. Everything is done almost instantly.
If you throw a grenade in such a way because of some kind of shelter (bugorka, heap of rubble, etc.. d.), knees should not move from the spot. If you pull the swing one leg forward, as do newcomers, slow motion, throwing a involuntarily move forward and after a throw can not fall for shelter, and on the breast shelter. We need to learn, sharply rising from the ground, throwing a grenade, plummet, before, than the opponent will be able to react and shoot. The method described above at all times enjoyed scouts and soldiers assault groups, when it was impossible to creep up to the enemy close quietly.
In a similar manner and used for, to throw a grenade into a horizontal slit, gun port, located above the ground at waist level. But at the same time throw a grenade, making the swing side of the horizon.
This is the most difficult in the performance target for granatometaniya. Training of the shoulder joint and the "drop-out" shoulder muscles and body are made as, as in the case, described earlier.
After throwing grenades have to retreat to the shelter and clung to him. No need to be curious, how to work your grenade – it works without your participation. Do not fall under its fragments. Note the direction of their possible ricochets. After the grenade attack, count in your mind, "twenty-two, twenty two" – it will be two seconds, for which the pieces go away or subside, and do, that you need for setting – leap in the right direction, shooting with a machine gun in dark corners, and so on. d. In particular assault situation applies not only grenades F-1. antitank grenade – the time of the last war, and especially modern cumulative – They have a terrible destructive force and indispensable in the assault of multi-storey buildings, pillboxes, bins, etc.. d. But they immediately triggered when meeting with any obstacle, and need to make sure when they cast, that the time to hide behind cover and cover his ears before, than pomegranate reach the goal. In training, it is set by the sound of falling training grenades. For the above reason, it is necessary to develop a habit to follow, that in any case, do not touch the backswing grenade for anything, on the way to her flight was not the bushes, branches, wires, etc.. d.
As a special forces assault grenades and subversive groups SMERSH used mines from 82-mm Soviet mortar. They were four times heavier than the F-1 grenades, and so they throw required great physical strength and additional training. But the effect of their use was terrible and surpassed all expectations.
Having mastered the above techniques throwing grenades from different positions: lying, knee, no attempt etc.. d., It should urgently train not only in the accuracy of hitting the target, but also to achieve the utmost speed shots, that in a combat situation does not fall under accurate fire, or a stray bullet. To this end, practicing granatometanii, should count in your mind 2 seconds (About myself – "twenty two, twenty two") from the beginning of the reception, trying to release a grenade and fall of the shelter before, than the end of this time,. Instructor, train beginners, after these two seconds firing a blank cartridge, simulating enemy shot.
If the situation allows, Grenades can be thrown with a strong swing of the head and even a running – This significantly increases throwing distance. In this case, throwing grenades carried out the most natural movement, that each of us had to throw stones. exercising, learn to make a free swing and invest in the roll force of muscles not only hands, but the whole body. When throwing a standing set aside the right foot back and to focus on it – it will increase the throwing distance. The highest range is obtained, if the grenade is released at an angle of 45-50 °. To do this, try to throw a grenade more upside, than forward. Grenade can and should learn to throw long distances. exercising regularly, it is safe to "get" "pineapple" distance 50 m and further. Record range grenades F-1, established in 1951 year, was 87 m.
Strong fragmentation F1 need to throw tactically. If it is impossible to "get" the enemy's direct throw, Grenade thrown "on the rebound" because, so that it bounced off something and fell close to the enemy, located behind cover. Very difficult goal in the discus – a trench parapet. For its defeat grenade thrown only half way, or that she fell into the trench, or rolled it on the parapet. Throw a grenade at the same time is not so much in advance, up much, and force a throw to count so, that the grenade was on the decline and fall almost vertically from top to bottom. As it is necessary to throw grenades and enemy troops, located openly. Upav of vertical zemlyu, grenade rolled back to the side less.
In the mountains, Wherever the enemy about you – above or below, Grenade methane thus, it fell to the enemy above and rolled him into the trench and caused a rockfall, "Nakroyuschy" enemy. On the open rocky areas, if circumstances permit, better throw a grenade up the hill is not directly in front of him, and at an angle, most to be on the side of the reverse rolling grenades and direction of possible debris stones. In this case, you must consider the safety of comrades, side are.
Throwing grenades in the woods requires greater precision, than on open ground. Forest Specificity determines throws grenades at a distance "in focus" battlefield. When working with the hide behind a tree enemy grenade thrown so, that it exploded behind him. To "get" or zalegshego entrenched behind a tree, the enemy, Grenade thrown up, in the trees, where it branches and delayed, falling straight down on the enemy, bursting in air or close to it (this nasty invention of German Jaegers, spent in the fight against the guerrillas). On wetlands grenade thrown on an island, bump or shallow spot. Water column significantly reduces the lethality of the fragments.
When throwing a grenade at a vertical high goals (windows) we must take higher, the upper edge of the target, since garnet loses speed and gradually deflected downwards.
For purposes of running a grenade thrown proactively, in front of goal, in accordance with the speed of its motion in such a way, so they fell down before the enemy, and it accumulates on them at the moment of explosion. It should be noted, that during the combustion ignitor (4 seconds) enemy, running with a velocity average 3-3,5 m / s, will run 12-15 m.
therefore, ready to repel attack, better to identify abroad, on reaching the enemy which should be made granatometanie. This line should be at 15-20 m on that line, to which you can throw the grenade, given its rollout after falling. grenades, rushing before advancing chain, forced the survivors to stop and lie down.
Similarly act, when the enemy is running away from you (during detention). Likewise, should proceed with the retreating enemy.
Throw grenades in special forces soldier darkness falls perhaps more often, than the day.
The night is never dark – she alternates bursts of shots, artillery breaks, flares. Finding such a flare at the goal, It recommended to immediately fix the direction and distance to it, tied to any landmark, eg, bright star, stand out against a tall tree or building. Throw respectively specific to the target distance is provided spatial orientation-effort, friends of the cast at the same distance in the afternoon. Roll on muscle "dark" memory. This is the only way to throw a grenade at a given distance, and the better you can not do.
Trust your friends and spent sensations – they have never let you down. Operating time of such sensations and muscle-spatial memory occurs very simple method.