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First aid for wounds

 

Wounds are called lesions of the skin and mucous membranes. Formally injury include thermal injury and (burns, frostbite).

Injuries are single and multiple, penetrating (in the cavity) and non-penetrating, surface (Only damaged skin) and deep (damaged subcutaneous tissue). At the injured have the inlet and outlet can be, that is injured may be through and blind. or tangents.

By birth injuries are divided into:

1) sliced. Inflicted by sliding a thin sharp object. Characterized by straight edges, shallow (flesh-wound). Most often it heals quickly and without complications.

2) chopped. Inflicted heavy sharp object. straight edge, the wound is very deep (to complete amputation, damage to internal organs, bones), wound "ziyaet» (the wound edges are disclosed).

3) scalp. The complete or nearly complete separation of skin graft. Most of these shallow wounds.

4) puncture. Inflicted a long object with a small cross-section. Long wound channel, often penetrating wound, with damage to internal organs. Risk of infection in the depth of the channel.

5) bruised. Arise due to contact with the object Limited (a rock) or unlimited (Earth) striking surface. Usually, shallow wounds. Have jagged edges and characterized subcutaneous hematomas, breaks subcutaneous fat or muscle, with the blood flow into the pockets of educated and zatoki. often the abscess, form scars.

6) torn. Arise due to distension or twisting of the skin, blow with a blunt heavy object. The wound edges are uneven. Often do not distinguish torn and bruised wounds, combining them into a tear-contused.

7) bite. The mechanism is similar to laceration, but on contact with saliva may of infection, rabies. Should consult a doctor to assign a course of rabies injections. However, if a week later, or you see an animal bites you, and signs of rabies it does not have, course can be stopped (in consultation with the doctor).

8) gunshot wounds. Divided into bullet and mine-explosive. The bullet is always non-sterile and, passing through tissue, carries infection. Creating a wound channel, bullet shakes the fabric, further damaging them. The inlet and outlet are not always located opposite each other. They may be accompanied by fractures to form a plurality of bone fragments, damage to internal organs. Almost always suppurate and difficult to treat, cause complications.

Mine explosive result from exploding an explosive agent in the solid shell striking or without, with submunitions or without. Material coobsçestva “Unfair Advantage”. They may be followed by contusions, margin of the limbs and internal organs, poisoning powder gases.

Any injury may be accompanied by suppuration. Pus, it is a product of processing of dead tissue. When cutting and other superficial wounds pus nowhere to flow, and it is easy to wash. If the damage is excessive and decaying tissue lot, there is a vast abscess.

With deep wounds (including bruised) pus may accumulate in the inner cavities, pockets. In this case
toxic substances and decomposition products are absorbed into the body and cause inflammation. These substances can be distributed along the muscles, under the skin and damage the entire limb (phlegmon). After contact with these products in the blood can develop sepsis (blood poisoning). Sepsis is characterized by inflammation in more than one specific organ, and throughout the body as a whole.

Help with injuries is reduced to stop bleeding and prevention of possible complications. To prevent complications need to solve two problems: provide disinfecting the wound itself and to exclude the possibility of further contact with wound infection. To disinfect the wound with antiseptic solution. By antiseptics are: iodine solution, brilliant green solution, Hydrogen peroxide solution, alcohol solution, solution of potassium permanganate, furacilin (yellow pills 4 item in a glass of water), chlorhexidine hydrochloride.

Directly into the wound possible casting solution furatsilina, chlorhexidine, 3% (not to be confused with 6%!) Hydrogen peroxide solution. The rest of this is too aggressive and they can only treat the skin around the wound, otherwise you can get a chemical burn, that will only worsen the situation. You can wash the wound with a sterile (freshly boiled) water. Irrigate be flow-exhaust method, ie the fluid must flow freely from the wound. You can not wash the penetrating injuries. Bleeding in itself is a good washing and in some cases it should not be stopped immediately. After washing, the wound edges are treated with an antiseptic solution and closed with a sterile bandage (bandage). The bandage should be tight (if it is not compressive bandage, stanch). It should allow the wound "breathe", but prevent the penetration of infection.

In case of inflammation makes the "toilet wounds". The order of the following procedures:

1) Treat your hands before opening the bandages.
2) Moisten the dressing with an antiseptic solution or sterile water to soften it.
3) Carefully cut or unwound the bandage (if necessary, the bandages can be washed and reused).
4) Delete (clean) visible pus with a cloth soaked in antiseptic. can be pressurized with a syringe, if necessary, wash the wound or evacuate pus.
5) Make a hypertonic solution (Saturated saline solution was boiled on water). This solution, permeated bandage, It draws pus from the wound (and other liquids). If there is, it is possible to use water-soluble ointment (not fat!) basis ('Levon', "Levorin", "Levomikol")or atraumatic dressings (voskopran, aktïvteks and the other).
6) The bandage should not squeeze the wound. Bandages need to be changed every few hours, focusing on the state of edema.
7) You can give antibiotics (amoxicillin).

If the wound is sticking foreign object is suspected, he went deep, then remove it should not be. Often the subject is the "cork" and its extraction can cause excessive internal and external bleeding, which can be extremely difficult to (or impossible) stop outside the operating room. Sticking an object is left in the wound, treated with an antiseptic, obkladyvaetsya bandages and bandage fixed.

In penetrating wounds of the chest into the pleural cavity air gets (pneumothorax). Material coobsçestva “Unfair Advantage”. In this case, the wound will bubble blood, Inspiratory air draws the wound, around the wound is rapidly spreading edema. The main objective in this case is, to seal the wound. At the first stage it is possible to make a palm. This will allow more time to assess the situation and prepare materials for applying occlusive dressing. The stacking order of the occlusal (sealed) dressing: treat the edges of the wound with antiseptic, cover the wound with a small cloth, napkins around the perimeter to apply any ointment (for leaks), top piece is put polyethylene (packaging from STI), then superimposed gauze or bandage. Then the bandage is fixed.

Penetrating wounds of the abdomen are sometimes accompanied by precipitation of the intestinal loops and omentum. Bowels are not processed antiseptic (in extreme cases wash water or Furacilinum ) and does not reduce a back (intestine may be damaged, may develop peritonitis). The precipitate intestine obkladyvaetsya bandages or other clean cloth. It is necessary to form around the bowels similarity donut. After which the wound is covered with a bandage free and the victim is transported to the hospital. The victim should lie. There are not to drink.

Stitching wounds in the field often bring more harm, than good. small, superficial wounds to sew is not required. They themselves well healed. Deep as the wound properly sew most likely will not work. skin will be pulled, and the cavity will remain in the depths, in which the infection will accumulate. Definitely can not sew up the tear-contused wound, since fester in them will go anyway. Sutured wounds in the operating room, where they are preprocessed, removed from the wound non-viable tissue and foreign bodies, the wound is disinfected. In the field, do it often impossible. Therefore, the pus in a closed wound will accumulate, which can lead to serious consequences, above.

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