"Relight" - the lead ship of a series of three slightly different from each other battleships, built at the turn of XIX-XX centuries in the Baltic region and intended primarily for cruising activities in the ocean.
The appearance in the Russian fleet this ship, It associated with the creation of the Arctic Ocean flotilla. In January 1916 year negotiations began, about the possibility of Russian purchases in Japan several warships, once built for the Russian Imperial Navy and lost during the Russian-Japanese War. The Japanese side agreed to sell two battleships - “Tango” (former "Poltava") and "Sagami" ("Relight"), as well as protected cruisers "Soya" (former "Varyag"). Wherein – return "of former enemy ships, and now an ally, there were a fairly large sum, so for “Sagami” invited 7 million yen (about 715 thousand pounds)
battleship “Relight” in Algeria
22 Martha 1916 of the year, upon return of the Russian fleet, armadillo “Sagami” not only regained its former name, but was reclassified as an armored cruiser. This has been officially recognized "cruising" the ship's destination, whose development began almost 20 years before the shots in Sarajevo.
17 November 1894 year preliminary draft intended for the Pacific was discussed at the meeting of the admirals and commanders of the Baltic Fleet 10 500 t ship, modeled on the British battleship 2nd class “Barfler”. The ship was supposed to be a light artillery major caliber (254-mm guns instead of 305-mm). By saving weight, to improve navigability and, the main thing, artillery to act in a strong emotion, on the battleship planned to install the missing on the British prototype high forecastle, bringing guns fore towers were located in 9 m above the water surface. The only matter of dispute among the Russian sailors was the issue of medium-caliber guns - eighteen extremely rapid-fire 120-mm guns,, or twelve 152-mm shells, having a heavy shell. As a result,, as requiring fewer people, won second embodiment.
Battleship "Relight" is preparing for an expedition to the Far East, 1901 year.
Further development of the project, work continued most of the 1895 of the year, They were associated with attempts to increase the speed. The calculation showed, even achieving 17 knots will be difficult for the original version of the draft. therefore, to accommodate larger capacity machines, it was decided to increase the displacement. Then it began redrawing armor protection - instead of a single battery for medium-caliber guns, it was decided to put some dungeons. Since it was believed, that due to the addition of the sublime nose turret ship will not be able to fire directly on the nose at a distance closer, than 15 cables, and this at a time, when the distance "decisive battle" was two to three times less, a proposal was made to establish in the nose 152 mm "chase guns", which also added problems. As a result, the number of 152-mm shells decreased to eleven, wherein, as in "Russia" and cruisers “Thunderous”, "Pursuit" weapon could not participate in the broadside.
For the projected ship from the very beginning we tried to combine two purposes - to be in the ranks of the Navy battleship, quite powerful book, the thickness of plates in the middle of the housing is comparable with a conventional "battleships, enough heavy artillery, comparable in weight of the projectile with a 280-mm cannons German armadillo and only slightly weaker than 274 mm French guns, and maintain a cruising war, seaworthiness, huge stock of coal, to 2120 t, availability of antifouling hull wooden and copper plating underwater.
Often ships such as "Relight" compared with the then under construction for the Japanese Navy armored cruiser of the "Asama", adapted to act as part of a squadron, or even consider conceptual predecessors battlecruisers. The latter view is quite wrong because of the relatively low speed of the Russian "cruisers, battleships", hardly exceeds that of the classic battleships those years. That is to serve high-speed wing fleet, these ships could not be.
It is more difficult to compare them with the "Asama". Formally “Relight” almost nothing inferior to the Japanese opponent in anything. The Russian ship was more powerful weapons. and, because of the primitive ammunition supply, a larger number of medium-caliber guns on the Japanese cruiser can not be considered as an advantage, comparable book, on Japanese ships had an armored belt at the bow and stern, in Russian - it was thicker armor in the middle part. Even high speed "Asama" in practice turned out to be not so important - in the battles of the main naval forces Russian-Japanese War the cruiser followed armadillos. But the cruiser type “asama” We were on 4000 plus tons less than the Japanese battleships and cost, minimum, a quarter cheaper. And the smaller the crew reduced the costs of maintenance of the ship. "Pereseet" same cost as a normal armadillo (10,54 million rubles, that is about 1,11 million pounds) and I had the same number of crew, thus yielding the "ordinary" battleship in the fighting qualities.
"Pereseet" was the first in the Russian Navy ship with a well-designed personal defense weapons. In addition it, the world's first, a drainage system has been installed with the individual pumping of each compartment, without the main pipe has become one of the causes of death of the battleship "Hanko". A novelty was electric and the towers of the main fire, why the ships was the most powerful generators of those years. six units with a total capacity 555 kW. At the same time grabbing and disadvantages. But the main trouble proved to the general course of the Russian-Japanese war in which all three ships of this series have been lost, and the two have become the spoils of the enemy.
In the domestic literature armadillos "Pereseet" type, first of all, accepted blame for the lack of bookings and lack of armor belt in the extremities, which allegedly caused the rapid death in the Tsushima battle of the battleship "Oslabya". This assertion is controversial. The basis of the vehicle security armor was waist-high 2,4 m of 178-229 mm Harvey armor, Thinning the bottom edge to 127 mm. Belt closed the 178-mm traverse, and further in the bow and stern deck was karpasnaya thickness 45-70 mm. With regard to the extremities of the belt are not covered, then the length of the belt 95 m. he covered 77% the length of the waterline, that was more than the British battleships such as "Ma-zhestik" and Japanese type “Fudzi”. Wherein, because of the rather sharp contours at the bow and stern, not protected bronepoyasom volume was less than 15% of the total. Much attention was paid to the "local protection" - even mine 75-mm guns were separated by 19 mm Ballistic bulkheads. On “Pereseete” had two conning tower - nose, thickness 152 mm, and 102 mm aft.
true, due to sharply increase freeboard (ocean seaworthiness), this book came from a much larger "target area" and therefore the relative security of the ship's most consistent armored cruiser. Adds to the problems and construction overload, because of which the "Pereseete", at normal displacement, the upper edge of the belt was in 0,4 m above the water instead of 0,91 of the project. And at full displacement 14 790 so the main zone "Peresvet" on 30 see left under water, and all hope remained for 102-mm top chord (57,3×2.2 m). In addition all superimposed on the poor quality of attachment of armor plates - in the Tsushima battle on "Oslabya", perhaps, happened not break through the armor of the tower near the bow, and disruption of armor plates with fasteners to damage outside board, which led to uncontrolled flooding and loss of ship.
Cruising qualities and consistent three-shaft power plant. And although in 1890 the year for ships, intended for long voyages, such a setting and provide certain advantages, Economic progress only under the middle car, on "Relight" these benefits could not be realized. The reason for that were boilers. For ease of use, water tube boilers Belleville, thirty pieces in three boiler rooms, They were deprived separate boiler water heating system (economizers), that the examples on 25% reduced fuel consumption. for example, 12-node go "armadillo cruiser" “Relight” expended on 100 to 114 tons of coal per day, a battleship "Tsarevich" - 76 t. The result of the project in the cruising range 6200 10 miles sites progress and has not been reached. Actually 2060 m missed full stock of coal by about 5000 miles, what. true, However, it was an excellent result. Combat ships career has developed unsuccessfully - "Peresvet" and "Victory" were sunk by fire 280-mm Japanese siege guns, and then began Japanese "Sagami" and "Suvo", and "Oslabya" became the first Russian ship, who died in the Battle of Tsushima.
In Japan “Sagami” It was the refurbishment. From the ship removed 152mm chase guns and small-caliber artillery all abundant, They cut off part of the housing designs, and with masts heavy combat Marsi were removed. Five 381-mm torpedo tubes have been replaced by two standard for the Japanese fleet 457-mm underwater. As mine guns were installed 16×76,2-mm guns. Also armament of the ship replenished with four machine guns. As a result of repair and rework ship tonnage decreased, According to various sources, on 600-800 t. FROM 28 September 1912 armadillo, the two were considered as the Japanese navy as a coastal defense ships of the 1st class. With the outbreak of World War II ships took an active part in the operations of the Japanese navy against the German naval base of Qingdao, which he was repeatedly shelling enemy positions
The return of the Russian fleet “Relight” I was in very poor condition. worn bulkhead, steam boilers, machinery – all require immediate repair. In fact, the Japanese exploited the ship "the wear". When working sixteen boilers course does not exceed 10 knots, that is, when all the expected rate of only about 13-14 knots. The guns of the main fire, except one, which the Japanese perestvolili, We had a limit wear trunks, towers and mechanisms needed to be repaired. Partially faulty valves were armstrongovskih 76.2-mm guns, where the ship remained only twelve. Repairs after running aground cost more in 740 thousand. rubles.
The fate of the ship Relight
After carrying out urgent works 10 May the flag of the commander of a detachment of ships of Rear Admiral A. AND. Bestuzhev-Ryumin "Relight", He commanded by Captain 1 grade D. D. Zabotkin, It was submitted for testing. It acted a little more than half of the boilers - 16 pcs. When pressure 10,5-12,5 atm machine shown 45-60 rev / min, which corresponds to the speed 10 with. During the tests revealed numerous defects. So, He showed a knock on the spools, bearings and cylinders, slack in the compounds of the scenes, hanging rods, rocker air pump. In the middle of the car showed up a knock in all Motylev bearings, especially high pressure cylinder, and left the car the same bearings noticeably heated.
Start rescue. Left behind “Relight” battleship “fountain”, case – icebreaker “Reliable”. May 1916 of the year
When you return to Vladivostok ship in the fog leaped aground and was damaged. Diving inspection was found, nose to the 10th frame sits on a stone slab; the bottom is damaged during 22,8 m, and a vertical fin - 34,8 m. Get off the shoals has neither its own power, either via the battleship "Chesma" and harbor tugs. As a result, I had to ask for help from the Japanese. Ship to unload (took off conning tower, armor nose turret and partially armor casemates, artillery piece), holes filled with cement, summed the pontoons and barges, water is pumped. After surfacing ship (this happened 25 June) it was towed to Vladivostok and made emergency repairs in dock. At this time, had been replaced by the commander - in place of D. D. Zabotkina he was appointed to the. P. Ivanov-thirteenth, engage in combat 1 August 1904 g. the cruiser "Rurik". They were replaced by a senior officer and senior navigator of the ship. In July, after the elimination of the minimum damage "Relight" moved in Maizuru, which it has been renovated more thoroughly. However, the quality of work carried out is not too high; in addition, body was deformed due to poor fit keel blocks, which set the ship in dock. Rescue and repair cost in 740 thousand. rubles, but, Despite these costs, "Relight" still needed a thorough renovation - apparently, it was going to take place in England.
19 October ship came out of Maizuru and headed to European waters. Visiting on the way Hong Kong, Singapore, Aden and Suez, 6 December, he arrived in Port Said. 22 December "Relight", accompanied by an English destroyer came out of Port Said in the Mediterranean Sea. Fearing submarines, ships went zigzag. AT 17.30 "Relight" blown the bow and stern at two mines, while the roof was ripped off the nose turret. considering, that the ship attacked by submarine, calculations mine artillery opened fire on the water. However, the ship sinking fast, and the commander ordered his team to escape. Drain had only one steam launch. AT 17.47 "Relight" capsized and sank in 10 miles to the north-east of 24 ° from Port Said at a depth of about 45 m. English destroyer and had approached the French trawlers within four hours, raised out of the water 557 people from the Russian crew, but nine of them died from their wounds and hypothermia. On the ship were killed 252 man. 28 Martha 1917 year "Relight" was officially expelled from the Navy list. later it was learned, that the ship was lost in the minefield, the exposed German submarine U-73.
AT 1955 year in Port Said on the grave of sailors from the "Relight" on the Ministry of Defense of the USSR means a monument was erected.
The performance characteristics of the battleship Peresvet
– Manufacturer: Baltic plant
– Construction started: 9 November 1895 g. (Article. c.)
– Launched: 7 May 1898 g. (Article. c.)
– Commissioned: 6 August 1901 g. (Article. c.)
– Withdrawn from the fleet: 22.12.1916 g. (Article. c.)
– Status: He is blown up by a mine and sank
Displacement battleship Peresvet
– design normal: 12 674 tonnes.
– The actual: normal 13 810 t, full 14 790 tonnes.
Dimensions battleship Peresvet
– Length: 132,4 m
– Width: 21,8 m
– Draft: 8,43 m
Reservation battleship Peresvet
– Main belt 229-178 mm, top chord 102 mm, deck to 82,6 mm, tower 229 mm, barbettes 203 mm, casemates 127 or 127/51 mm, cuttings 152 and 102 mm
Engines armadillos Peresvet
– 3 vertical triple expansion steam engines, 30 boilers Belleville
– Power: 13 775 l. from.
– Dvizhitely: 3
– speed: 18,64 host
– Cruising range: 6200 nautical miles
– Crew: 769 officers and men
The armament of the battleship Peresvet
– 4 × 254 mm / 45,
– 11 × 152 mm / 45,
– 20 × 75mm / 50,
– 20 × 47mm / 43,
– 6 × 37mm guns,
– 2 x 63 mm cannon amphibious
– Mining torpednoe vooruzhenie: Five 381-mm torpedo tubes, 50 min
Photo battleship Peresvet
battleship “Relight”. Fok-mast, nasal and middle tube
battleship “Relight” In the open sea
battleship “Relight” passes Suez
battleship “Relight”. View from the stern to the port side
battleship “Relight”. The view from the stern starboard. Clearly visible rudiya Hotchkiss on the bridge and on Mars.
Armadillo "Peresvet" before descending to water, 7 May 1898 of the year.
Battleship "Relight" in the Far East 1902 g.
Damage battleship “Relight” after a battle in the Yellow Sea. Penetration below the right 152 mm gun
Damage battleship “Relight” after a battle in the Yellow Sea
battleship “Relight” under fire from the Japanese siege artillery
Burning battleship “Relight”
Battleship "Relight" submerged in the Western basin of Port Arthur in December 1904 g.
Flooded battleship “Relight”
Blasted turret battleship "Peresvet"
Zatoplennыy armadillo “Relight”. The photo was taken in the early 1905 of the year
Zatoplennыy armadillo “Relight”. Lifting the ship work. The photo was taken in the early 1905 of the year
"Relight" The ship goes from Vladivostok in October 1916 g.
battleship “Relight” in Toulon