"Varyag" - protected cruisers of the 1st rank 1 st Pacific Squadron Russia in 1901-1904. Famous throughout the world to accept the decision of an unequal battle with Chemulpo against the superior forces of the Imperial Japanese Navy.
AT 1895 and 1896 Japan's two shipbuilding programs were adopted, according to which a 1905 It was envisaged to build a fleet, superior naval forces of Russia in the Far East. AT 1897 year shipbuilding program were revised to strengthen the linear force. The stake was made, first of all, of bronenostsы and bronenosnыe kreysera, developed in advanced European shipbuilding companies. Financing programs have been designed to 1905 of the year.
In April 1900 year in Japan were carried out on an unprecedented scale naval exercises. They were attended by all the ships of the first line – over 53 units in the first stage and above 47 on the second. The main aim of the maneuvers was to test the overall plan to mobilize the forces of the fleet and coastal defenses. In addition to the exercises 2734 People personal fleet was involved over 4000 human, called up from reserve. The maneuvers went on for months.
In parallel with the implementation of the Japanese shipbuilding programs do not pay less attention to the technical equipment of ports and bases for the fleet, construction of modern dockside, shipyards, coal plants, arsenals and other infrastructures, providing performance linear naval forces combat missions. Besides, along the coast of Japan set up observation posts, who had immediately telegraphed to report the appearance of suspicious vessels at sea.
In Russia at that time also did not sit idly by. The militarization of Japan was noticed. AT 1895 by Emperor Nicholas II was presented analytical note “On the current state of the Russian fleet and its immediate tasks”. The author of the document was MI. Say it. The author in his work reasonably argued about how to move the center of gravity of the operations of the fleet from the West to the Far East Theater. The king agreed with the conclusions of Qazi, and they significantly affected the plans of the Ministry of Marine.
At that time there was a realization of the shipbuilding program of strengthening of the navy, accepted 1895 year. But it is clearly not consistent with the rate of growth of the Japanese fleet. Therefore, 1897 , the additional program has been developed “for the needs of the Far East”. Her, as Japanese program, to be completed in 1905 year. By that time, Russia was planning to be in the Far East 10 battleships, 4 bronenosnыh kreysera, 8 protected cruisers 1 rank, 5 protected cruisers 2 rank, 7 gunboats, 2 mine transport, 67 torpedo type, 2 mine and 2 auxiliary cruiser. Due to the workload of domestic factories of the ships had been ordered abroad: in USA, in France and Germany.
protected cruisers 1 programs rank “for the needs of the Far East”, the head of which became “Varangian”, wondered how “long-range reconnaissance squadron at”. According to the developed MTC “program for the design of the cruiser” (in modern language – terms of reference), they had to have a displacement of 6000 t, speed 23 host, arms from 12 152-mm 12 75-mm guns, and 6 torpedo tubes. Orders for three cruisers of this type (future “Varangian”, “Askold” and “hero”) placed at various private companies in the US and Germany; later on another ship (“Knight”) laid down by the German project in St. Petersburg.
The main contractor in the construction of the Japanese fleet was Great Britain – while the recognized leader in the field of military shipbuilding. As a result of the rising sun country largely completed its shipbuilding program already in 1903 year, two years ahead of schedule. Russian same program “for the needs of the Far East”, conversely, was lagging. As a result, Japan was able to go to war at a time, when the ratio of sea power was clearly in her favor.
Construction and testing
The order for two ship shipbuilding program “for the needs of the Far East” – Battleship and protected cruisers (future “Retvizan” and “Varangian”) – that serves the United States was in the factory of the company “The William Cramp & Sons Ship and Engine Building Company”. This company has managed to outperform its competitors and, avoiding participation in the announced the Naval Technical Committee of the International Competition, sign contract 11 April 1898 of the year, that was “imperially” already approved 20 April. By its terms,, displacement cruiser 6000 t (order №301) I had to be prepared by 20 months after arriving at the factory observing committee of Russia. The cost of the ship without weapons was estimated at 2 138 000 US $ (4 233 240 rub.). Due to the absence at the time of detailed design contract specifically provides, that the final specification of the cruiser to be confirmed in the process of building the mutual coordination of emerging issues.
152-mm / 45 instrument Kane "Variag" system
Observing commission arrived at the plant 13 July 1898 of the year, it was headed by Captain 1 grade MA. Danylevskyy. The commission consisted of experts in all major superintendence of the ship under construction. Immediately upon arrival, the members of the committee had to come to grips with the head of the company – BUT. Crump, which the, taking advantage of discrepancies, arising from the translation of the documents signed in the English language, I began to challenge many of the requirements, – in his opinion, they were not feasible or entailed additional costs. In particular, Kramp ë, that in the terms of reference displacement cruiser underestimated, and therefore urged removing the ship two 152-mm guns and reducing carbon stock in 400 t. As a result of the displacement of the compromise was allowed to increase to 6500 t. To execute the item to ensure that the contractual rate 23 Crump site suggested that the draft technical project opportunity in forced blast furnaces. The Commission does not agree. Therefore, to guarantee the achievement of progress in 23 It hosts the US firm had designed the machine with excess capacity – 20 000 l. from. instead of project 18 000 l. from.
As for the main caliber artillery, the initial project it was planned to be dispersed throughout the ship – same, as the cellars of artillery shells. As a result, the company had serious problems in the placement of cellars, especially in the boiler and engine rooms. Space is clearly not enough, and Crump suggested grouping tools in the extremities. This enabled compactly accommodate the cellar, providing them with the best protection from enemy fire in the battle. The Commission considered the proposal acceptable and agreed on changes.
As a prototype for the construction of a new ship Crump offered to Japanese protected cruisers “Kasagi”, MTC but insisted on cruiser “Diana”, We build the program 1895 of the year. In this case, the contract provides for the installation on the ship is well-proven in the Russian Navy Belleville boilers. Although they were heavy, but, compared with Niklossa boilers, distinguished more reliably. Kramp, contrary to the requirements of the customer, persistently suggested last, refusing, otherwise, guarantee the achievement of the contractual rate. Alas, We supported him in St. Petersburg (in the person of General Admiral and Head of GUKiS VP. Verhovskoho), finally decided the dispute in favor of a construction company. It should be noted, that the representatives of the observing commission often found themselves in a difficult situation because of the intervention of different MTC officials from St. Petersburg and Washington, in particular, Naval agent DF. Mertvago. Especially getting the commission chairman. Kramp, as expected, I enjoyed this. Finally, because of the conflict between Danilevsky and Mertvago, December 1898 , the new chairman of the commission was appointed – captain 1 rank E.N. Shtenenovich, the future commander of the battleship “Retvizan”
View of the bridge of the nose
11 January 1899 , the will of the emperor and the order of the maritime authorities being built cruiser was named “Varangian” – in honor of the eponymous sailing screw corvette, member “American expedition” 1863 of the year. The new commander was appointed captain of the cruiser 1 grade VI. Bride.
And on the stocks at the time the work was in full swing vengeance. In difficult “battles”, sometimes going beyond the limits of decency, each of the parties to defend their interests. The ongoing debate about, what will be the shape of cruiser. As a result, main pipe was excluded; is enlarged conning tower, Besides, to improve visibility it lifted; We got armor protection terminal torpedo, chimney hoods, elevators ammunition supply, skylight engine room. I managed to convince the board to increase the height Crump keels cruiser with 0,45 to 0,61 m. Undoubted victory of the commission was to provide electric drives auxiliary machinery – kneading until the galley. But it was not without obvious mistakes. So, It has not been established gun shields for fear of overloading. And because of the uncertainty wording “weaponry” Crump had to pay extra for the manufacture of auxiliary systems and mechanisms, providing guns shooting – fire control dials, elevators, monorails and other ammunition feed device.
After laying ceremony, held 10 May 1899 of the year, work continued: brackets of propeller shafts were installed, stern tubes, sea cock, Kingston and other fittings. Because of delays MTC officials (Besides “Varangian”, at the MTC there were more 70 orders) constantly arise misunderstandings, inevitably leads to a delay in work, and sometimes reworking of already completed.
Neozhydanno voznykla problem with orders bronevыh plates for ship. Despite, that MTC and watch the commission insisted on the use of monolithic armor plates “ekstramyagkoy nikelevoy Stalin”, Crump ordered the counterparty normal shipbuilding steel. Thus he rightly referred to the imprecise wording once again in “program for the design of the cruiser”. The conflict was settled only after, as a supplement for the company promised installation nickel steel. A lot of controversy has arisen around the structure armored deck. Due to the slowness of officials of the commission MTC quickly had to take the armor installation scheme, proposed by the: composite horizontal armor, riveted two plates.
View from the poop on the aft bridge of the cruiser "Varyag"
Although the construction of the ship and went fairly rapidly, term descent cruiser constantly moved away. So, out-of strikes in Augusta 1899 , the plant, followed by a general strike in the country, it was postponed for October. Finally,19 October rainy afternoon in the presence of the Russian ambassador to the United States of Count AP. Cassini and other officials of the two countries cruiser “Varangian” launched on. The descent went smoothly. Immediately after the descent tugs took the ship's hull to outfitting wall.
29 December steamer arrived from Russia “Vladimir Savin” with weapons. TO 1 January 1900 , almost completed the installation of the main equipment inside the case and began assembling weapons on the upper deck. Although the works were continuously, even I had to remove the workers from being built battleship “Retvizan”, it was clear, what “Varangian” to the contractual terms – 29 June 1900 of the year – I will not put. ITC began to prepare documents on hold with a firm penalty. In response Crump led his counter-arguments – long approval drawings in Russia, Multiple alterations already assembled units, as well as strikes and strikes, hire in the USA. The last reason for the delay of construction in St. Petersburg felt good and did not penalize Crump.
By early May, finally chimneys were installed, Mast and arms. By mid-month, the company started to mooring ispytaniyam.16 day of the ship with a factory team first went to sea. When sampling cruiser machines developed in the course of 22,5 host. Despite the excessive heating of bearings, tests deemed successful. This gave hope, that the contract speed is reached. Simultaneously conducted artillery fire, including both side. Breakages and deformations of the housing was not detected. true, when shooting at the nose of the guns №3 and №4 shock wave with №1 and №2 tank shells ripped muzzle covers. The same thing happened during the shooting of the fodder – №9 and №10. In this regard, on the forecastle from both sides of the guns №3 and №4 established extended bulwarks (much later, even during cruiser service in Japan, such bulwarks have appeared over the guns №5 and №6).
Meanwhile, I passed deadline cruiser, and the ship was still not ready even for sea trials. Finally, 2 July “Varangian” We put in the dock for painting underwater July chasti.12 ship, Having upset the nose 5,8 m, and stern 6 m, I went into the ocean on measuring mile for progressive sea trials. The day was overcast: it was raining, a strong wind blew, Sea excitement to the beginning of the test was three points, and by the end has reached four. advanced tests were conducted at a distance 10 miles: three runs at a speed of 16 and two nodes at a rate of 18,21 and 23 host. By the end of the test with a head wind “Varangian” I hit rate 24,59 host (when power machines 16198 l. from. and steam pressure 15,5 atm).
The cruiser "Varyag" and the battleship "Poltava" in Port Arthur – 1902 – 1903 G. G.
15 beginning of July, the 12-hour continuous testing underway. All started well. The ship was under way for the eighth hour, when suddenly knocked cover CVP left cars. Tests were forced to stop; repair mechanism continues until mid-September. Before the 12-hour test decided to hold a 24-hour, economic progress in 10 knots. They passed without comment. As a result, the actual performance of specified power installation cruiser: desalination capacity was 38,8 tons of fresh water per day compared to the project 37 t; coal consumption – 52,8 tons per day. In this way, at full capacity in the coal pits 1350 t cruising range is equal to 6136 miles, which greatly exceed the design value. The power of the left and right machine was 576 and 600 l. from. respectively; propellers speed 61,7 and 62 rev / min.
21 September morning began the 12-hour progressive testing underway. Deepening the cruiser was on an even keel 5,94 m; heaving – 2 points; the wind force in the lateral direction – 3 points. In general, the test went well, only one of the boilers ruptured pipe. An average speed – 23,18 host – exceeded the value of the contract. Machinery developed power 14 157 l. from. at a steam pressure 17,5 atm. shaft rotational speed is equal to the average 150 rev / min.
22 September Crump passed a ship in excess of the basic characteristics. Department differed. members of the commission, in front of, They were restrained in emotions, although they were satisfied with the test results. Upon delivery of a lot of minor bugs have been identified, who continued to be repaired until the departure of the cruiser in Russia.
Housing and booking
In accordance with the provisional specification, body weight given fittings had to be 2900 t. The housing of the cruiser was carried out with the forecastle, which improved combat and driving performance in a stormy sea. The basis was the keel housing, concluded between the bronze shtevnyami. Keel going on exposed Keelblock of simple elements: sheets and profiles. First stacked sheets and rivet keel, in this construction process were fixed using fixing sheets vertical fin. Then joined sheets reinforced by transverse set to this assembly – flora. On top of this construction flooring sheets second bottom, which stretches the entire length of the ship. On the second floor deck installed the foundations of all the mechanisms and the main machine. On specially prepared sites installed masonry foundations 30 boilers Niklossa. Housing cruiser consisted of stiffened skin, longitudinal and lateral force set, nastilov deck, armored deck, shtevney and other structural elements, providing a retention mechanism, boilers and machinery. The height of the ship's hull was equal 10,46 m.
protected cruisers “Varangian” on the Baltic Sea
All vital mechanisms, cars, boilers and cellars were covered by an armored deck “ekstramyagkoy nikelevoy Stalin”, stretching from shtevnya to shtevnyu at height 6,48 m from the main line. Above the machine room deck is raised to a height 7,1 m; to the sides of it ramps down below the waterline about 1,1 m. Armor has been riveted of 19 mm and 38.1 mm slabs; the total thickness of the horizontal deck and bevels are respectively 38 and 76 mm. The width of the plate is equal to 3,74 m. Viscosity forced projectile armor material in contact with it at an acute angle to ricochet. All armor plates supplied by “Carnegie style COMPANY”, located in Pittsburgh. In the middle of the deck along the centreline of the boiler department were arranged holes for chimneys, above the engine room – under the skylight. along the boards, above and below the bevel in the area of engine and boiler rooms, located coal pit. In addition to its direct purpose they served, and protective functions, forming a parapet around the vital mechanisms and vehicle systems.
In the area of coal pits, adjacent to the outer skin of the bead, cofferdam compartments were wide 0,76 m and height 2,28 m for placement cellulose. But because of the fragility of the pulp compartments it is not filled. around chimneys, skylight, steering actuators, Ammunition feed elevators and other devices, prohodyvshyh through armor deck, It was installed armor cover. Enhanced protection and had the muzzle of the torpedo. manhole covers in the armored deck could be opened both from the inside, and on the outside.
Under the armored deck, at the bottom of the second all the basic units were located, machinery and ship machinery. Here in the fore and aft ends were cellars with ammunition, summarized in two groups of nine rooms, which simplified their protection.
On an armored deck located compartments fore and aft torpedo tubes, All business premises, on the bevel on the sides – coal pit. Above the armored deck was living deck, designed to accommodate the crew. Team Kubrick were also in the space under the forecastle.
Photos of the cruiser Varyag
The armament of the cruiser Varyag
originally, in accordance with “design program for cruisers”, It was supposed to install two 203-mm on the ship, Ten 152mm, Twelve 75 mm, six 47-mm guns and 6 torpedo tubes, two of the past – underwater. The amount allotted to the artillery armament 440,5 t; actually it was almost 30 ie heavier. From this mass 150,4 T allotted to the 152 mm cannon, 134 t on torpedo-mine armament, of them 26 t – on underwater TA.
In the final version of the draft “shestitыsяchniki” (“Varangian”, “Askold” and “hero”) had 12 152/45-mm, 12 75/50-mm, 8 47/43-mm (two of them with removable machine tools), 2 37/23-mm; 2 63,5/19-Baranovsky mm guns; 6 381-mm TA and 2 7,62-mm machine gun. Besides, to be installed removable TA for boats, and mine fences, Exhibiting from special rafts.
“Varangian” It was equipped with all these numerous armed. Unlike other cruisers, it all TAs were placed over water. Despite, that in all the reference and technical literature refers to 381-mm torpedo tubes, there is reason to believe, that virtually “Varangian” they had the caliber 450 mm. This assumption is based on measurements of the dimensions of TA and torpedoes, shown in the drawings authentic plant Crump, and is indirectly confirmed by the available photos on the cruiser torpedoes.
Large artillery cruiser (152-mm and 75 mm cannons) united in the three batteries. The first input 6 152-mm guns, located in the bow, second – 6 feed 152mm shells; in the third – 12 75-mm guns.
All guns cruiser, including small-caliber, We had a through numbering, and were the odd numbers on the right side, and the left – even. numbering – from the nose to the stern:
– 152-mm guns sample Kane 1891 of the year. forecastle – № 1 and number 2. The upper deck – guns with № 3 by number 12;
– 75-mm guns sample Kane 1891 year on the machines Moeller. On the upper deck № 13 – № 22; on a residential deck cabin commander – № 23 and number 24;
– 47-mm guns sample Hotchkiss 1896 of the year. On the forecastle on the sponson guns number 5 and number 6 – gun number 27 and number 28. cannon number 25 and number 26 They were installed on portable machines, boats intended for steam, № 29 and number 30 – Mars foremast, № 31 and number 32 – aloft the mainmast;
– 37-mm guns sample Hotchkiss 1896 of the year. Both guns number 33 and number 34 installed at the site of the aft bridge;
– 63,5-Baranowski landing mm sample cannon 1882 of the year. cannon number 35 and number 36 They were on the forecastle under the wings of the nose bridge. Wheeled carriages for them stored separately - under the nose bridge of the conning tower;
Machine guns were mounted on special brackets, located on around bulwarks conning. Before shooting calculation threw back a special area, I stood on it and produced fire. Exactly the site have been prepared in the aft part of the ship under the whaleboat. If desired, the same bracket can be fitted removable 47mm guns № 25 and number 26.
As mentioned, All torpedo the cruiser were surface. Two of them were located in shtevnyah in the extremities of the ship in a fixed position; four – on the sides: two indoor and two ship of the church in the mess. Airborne units were turning; their guidance carried out by a ball device. In the stowed position they were in exploded; before the shot they had to collect. Shooting from the airborne apparatuses made by the energy of the propellant gases, and from the nose, because of the danger of flooding water, – compressed air.
Besides, on the ship were 254-mm torpedo tubes for steam boats weapons. In the stowed position, they were fixed under the floor of the longitudinal bridge next to the boats /
Ammunition was stored in the cruiser 18 funeral. Initially cellars were placed on the sides around the ship (similarly “Askold”), but because of tightness, especially in the boiler and engine rooms, and the inability to ensure adequate protection in the final version they have focused on nine cellars of the extremities. They were shells of all calibres, as well as torpedoes, throwing mines, mine fences and bullets for machine guns and small arms. For the main battery used in armor-piercing, explosive, iron and segmental shells; for the shooting of the 75-mm guns – Only armor and iron. According to the state housed in the cellars 2388 rounds (charges in the cartridges) and shells for 152-mm shells (by 199 shots on the barrel), 3000 unitary cartridges for guns 75 mm (by 250 the barrel), 5000 unitary rounds of 47-mm guns (by 625 the barrel), 2584 unitary cartridge for 37mm guns (by 1292 the barrel), 1490 unitary rounds of 63.5-mm guns (by 745 an instrument), 12 torpedoes caliber 381 (or 450) mm, Six minutes caliber projectile 254 mm 35 minefields (according to other sources – 22).
Filing for ammunition of all calibres carried elevators with electric and manual actuators. Shells and bullets were served upstairs in the gazebo on four shots in each, and on special monorail arbor drive up to the guns and there disembarked on the tarp, spread out on the deck. Monorails have been laid all the guns, arranged on the upper deck,; They were in all the cellars. To the gun number 1 and number 2 shells and cartridges (liner) delivered via folding monorails or tray elevators manually directly from. By guns, set on Mars, shots were fed using elevators, disposed within macht.152 mm guns serviced 12 elevators (one elevator per gun); 75-mm guns – three; 47-mm guns – two; remaining elevators intended for 37mm guns and guns Baranowski. Lifting speed electric arbors 0,8 – 0,9 m / s, manually – 0,2 – 0,4 m / s. .
protected cruisers “Varangian” in Inch'on. 27 January 1904 of the year
The cruiser was introduced remote electrical fire control system by means of special signs, set at the guns and in the cellars. Data on the shooting parameters and the type of shells were transferred directly from the conning tower by cables, laid over the ship. The total length of the network cable fire control system was equal 1730 m. The system consisted of a step-down transformer (supply voltage from 100 to 23 volt, power conductors to 25 A), cable network, defining and host devices.
The transfer of command from the conning tower was carried out by turning the handle of the master unit, which is carried out on the principle of synchros rotate by the same angle in the receiving unit implements, indicating a value azimuth, a kind used for firing projectiles or information on the type performed by shooting. Receiving devices were installed not only in the batteries, but also in the cellars (8 of shell dials), issues a command to supply to the guns of various shells.
Determining the distances to the target by six stations of the ranging, equipped with the ranging keys. Keys included in the ranging station set, representing a column mounted with micrometer-Lyuzholya Myakisheva. Using a micrometer, determine the distance to the target and passed on the dials of the conning tower and guns. To ensure the accuracy of the transmitted distance of the station there was a control dial.
In the central office, and two given two combat dial has been found, to them four keys and two of shell defining dial. Here, electrical appliances have been installed, control parameters in the network.
Captain cabin cruiser "Varyag"
The main mechanisms
Steam engines of triple expansion capacity 20 000 l. from. arranged in two adjacent engine rooms and had a height together with the foundation 4,5 m. Their excess capacity, revealed during tests on full speed, It is like a “dead weight”, because she could not be implemented with the existing steam boiler efficiency.
The four-car cruisers had one cylinder high (14 atm), secondary (8,4 atm) and two low (3,5 atm) pressure. Accordingly, their diameters are equal 1,02; 1,58 and 1,73 m. The piston stroke was 0,91 m. Maximum angular shaft speed – 160 rev / min. Piston rods were made of nickel steel forged hollow. Steel shafts are the main machines – also forged. Crankshaft machine consisted of four tribes. Thrust shaft in its structure had 14 rings, It is a key element, sensing a pushing force from the propeller. This force is perceived 14 podkovoobraznыmi skobami, attached to the body of the thrust bearing. Rubbing of the brackets were filled with white metal. This entire construction was cooled in rotation with tap water. On the ship were two shafts, respectively, two screws. Shafts through the stern lines derived overboard.
In accordance with the design drawings, on “Varangian” It supposed to install two propeller with detachable blades with a diameter 4,4 m. However, during the construction they were replaced by two three-blade propeller with fixed blades and a standard step 5,6 m. For turning shafts used auxiliary two-cylinder machine.
During the motion of the ship at full speed (in the US trials) temperature in engine rooms reached 3 F and 43 ° – respectively on the lower and upper platforms.
Command “Stop” full speed ahead until the machine stops performed for 10 – 75-mm gun; 11 – boat, 12 – shlyupbalka; 13 – trial boat; 14 – longitudinal deck bridge, 15 – chimney casing; 16 – skylight; 17 – upper deck planking. Graphic arts: AT. Kataev
15 from; “Run forward” – for 8 from, and change going full speed ahead to full speed astern – for 25 from.
The three boiler rooms housed cruiser 30 water-tube boilers Niklossa:
fore 10; average – 8 and stern – 12. The height of each boiler with foundation – 3 m, of them 2 held meter collector tubes. Each boiler has three furnaces, lined with brick. All boilers are combined into four groups, each having their chimney, and the bow was already, than the rest. The area of the heating surface 30 boilers was 5786 m2, and the area of the rocking grates – 146 m2. The design working pressure in the boiler was assumed to be 18 atm (test – 28,1 atm). During running the 12-hour progressive testing the pressure in the boiler does not exceed 17,5 atm, temperature in the boiler room at the upper floors reached 73 °, on the lower – 50°. Water to the boilers fed by 10 feed pumps. The amount of water in boilers – 110 t; yet 120 t additionally stored in double bottoms. High pressure steam from the boiler to the machines fed via conduit diameter 381 mm. Slag from the boiler compartment ejected through a special shaft, equipped with motorized. The total cooling surface of the two main refrigerators – 1120 m2.
By boiler offices adjoined coal pit. Coal of them climbed through special neck, It was in the boiler room. He drives up to the furnace on rails in special trolleys.
In the pit coal is charged through 16 diameter manholes 508 mm, arranged on the upper deck.
Ship devices and systems
mechanism Davis, cruiser is the basis of the steering gear, for the first time in the Russian navy had three types of drive: steam, electric and manual. Rudder was designed as a three-section steel frame, lined steel sheet thickness 9 mm. frame space is filled with wooden bars. area steering – 12 m2.
wheel controlled either from combat, or pilothouse; in the event of failure of the steering control transfers compartment, is under the armored deck.
Cruiser “Varangian”, in contrast to the previously created ships, I had a large percentage of equipment, It operates on electricity. In this regard, the power consumption of the ship exceeded 400 kW. It took a considerable amount of fuel. So, eg, of 8600 tons of coal, spent a year, lighting took 1750 t, opresnitelynuyu of ustanovku – 540 t, heating and galley – 415 t.
Sources of electricity in the ship were the three dynamos. power of two, located in the fore and aft, is at 132 kW, a generator, located on a residential deck, – 63 kW. They generate an electric current voltage 105 AT. Besides, for lifting boats and boats used power generator 2,6 kW with a voltage in the circuit 65 AT. There was a generator of a steering and steering compartment; in everyday life, he often served for lighting. Besides, in a special compartment was a battery for emergency power running lights, bells loud fight and other needs.
For fire fighting under the armored deck was laid fire pipe diameter 127 mm. To connect fire hose pipe has a diameter of processes 64 mm, which stretched all the cellars, boiler rooms and engine rooms. The coal pits installed fire alarm sensors. Extinguishing fires in coal pits was carried out by steam.
Drainage system consisted of signaling means, sump pumps and actuators (motors). It provided the incoming pumping water from all rooms, under the armored deck of the ship.
From the boiler rooms water removed by centrifugal pumps, Placing on the deck of a double bottom. The electric motors are used as drive for them, mounted on the armored deck and connected with a long shaft pumps. Performance one pump – 600 mUc. The diameters of the inlets on all pumps are the same – 254 mm. Water from the engine compartments evacuated two main circulation pump capacity refrigerators 2×1014 m3 /.
protected cruisers “Varangian”. The interiors
The ventilation system can provide for one hour is 5-fold air exchange in all areas below the armored deck, 12-multiple – in cellars and 20-fold in the premises of dynamos.
For protection against torpedoes while parked on open roads ship was equipped with metal chains. They were hung on poles along the boards. In the stowed position, the poles were placed along the boards in an inclined position, and network – on special shelves.
Anchoring apparatus consisted of two cruisers hawse with sakklyuzami, four bower Hall with rods, anchor chains, two spiers, driven windlass, vymbovok and tap for cleaning bower. The weight of each anchor 4,77 t.d.va of them were mounted on special cushions to starboard: first, close to Cluses – postural, second – spare. On the left side one postural. The fourth was mounted on the front wall of the foundation of the conning tower. By anchors fastened to both chain length of the anchor 274 m and caliber 54 mm. Besides the main chains, the cruiser were two more spare, each of length 183 m. The rise becomes an anchor windlass produced, had been under forecastle. Drive windlass and capstan, located on the forecastle – steam; aft peak – electric. In case of failure of these drives nursing spiers could be carried out manually using vymbovok. Vymbovki stowed installed on a bulkhead aft superstructure and the outer wall of the elevators on the tank. Cleaning after lifting anchors was carried out by crane, mounted on the forecastle near jackstaff. collapsible crane used for operation with a spare anchor, mounted on the forecastle. In the stowed position, it was kept on the roof of the pilothouse.
In addition to the anchors, cruiser there were one brake anchor and three VERP weight 1,18t, 685 kg. 571 kg and 408 kg. Stop-anchor was on the left side of “kazemat” 75-mm guns on special brackets. On the starboard side near the whaleboat number 1 on brackets kedge one was fixed, others were placed on the left side.
The lifeboats were two cruiser steam boat length 12,4 m; one-oar 16 and one 14-oar barges; two 12-oared boats; two 6-ve-selʹnyh VELBOT; two 6-oared yawl and two test 4-oared boat. All of them were made of galvanized steel. Besides the two Yalov all boats were installed on Rostra. Six located on the sides of the forecastle to the first chimney; trial boat – next to the 12-fun-tion boats on the Rostra.
management Tools, communications and surveillance on the cruiser were concentrated, basically, at the stern and bow bridges, including chassis and conning tower. The conning tower cruiser, increased compared to the design with 2.8×2,3 m to 4.2×3,5 m, It is an oval in plan armor parapet, protected 152mm armor. Felling was established on the foundation height 1,5 m. To ensure normal operation and combat stg roof and floor of the cuttings carried bronze sheet with a thickness 31,8 mm thick and a sheet of brass 6,4 mm.
The roof is a mushroom-oval shape with curved edges down. The edges of the roof were over the parapet; Clearance between the roof and the vertical parapet formed by an armored viewing slit height 305 mm. Entrance to the armored cockpit was open. To prevent the wheelhouse and the fragments of shells installed just in front of the traverse armor plate thickness 152 mm. The armor cutting through vertical armored pipe was connected to the central post placement, which is under the armored deck. The wall thickness of the tube was 76 mm. Above the conning tower was placed cross the bridge, where fighting lights were installed (floodlights) and gakabortnye lights. pilothouse, also completely made of sheet brass and copper, It was at the center of the bridge. Fifteen windows had in its walls: five front, four sides and two in the rear. doors – four. Moreover, all the doors were sliding. The bridge rested on the roof of the conning tower and 13 installed on the forecastle racks.
In both logging to control the ship, communications and surveillance have been installed laminated devices and instruments. Similar devices, except the wheel and compass, They were installed in the control room.
Compass on the cruiser was five. Two major stationed on the roof of the lead and in a special area aft bridge. Zone nonmagnetic these compasses was 4,5 m.
The means of communication “Varangian” entry phone network, Interphone pipes and staff messengers. If the past is a traditional form of communication, the phone was almost a novelty in the Russian Navy. It covered almost all the service facilities of the ship. Telephones installed in all the cellars, boiler rooms and engine rooms, cabins commander, senior officer, Mechanical Engineer, in combat and wheelhouse, in positions at the guns.
electrical signaling means (calls, indicators, fire alarm sounders and detectors al.) We were in the cabins of the command staff, on duty in the conning tower. In addition to warning calls, cruiser, a tribute to the traditions, preserved state drummers and buglers (drummer supplied signals for artillery calculations starboard, a gornisty – field effect). To communicate with other ships, in addition to the radio, the cruiser was a large staff of whistleblowers, transmitting messages using flags, flags, figures, Tabulevich lights and mechanical semaphore (in summer 1901 year removed due to bulkiness and inconvenience of use).
To raise the signal flags, figures, stretch and radio antenna placement searchlight and Mars-sites on the cruiser sets two-mast odnodrevki. Topmasts on both masts were made telescopic and, if necessary, could be drawn into the mast by means of special devices. Inside the towers were also placed elevators for feeding ammunition to the 47mm guns on Mars.
On “Varangian” there were six spotlights with a diameter mirrors 750 mm. They were located on masts (one) and bridges (two).
Martial dressing station
On “Varangian” There were four dressing station: two at the bow and two at the stern. In the fore part in a combat situation bandaged the wounded to the hospital, located on the starboard side, and a pharmacy across from the hospital on the left side. Aft – in the 4th team room in the descent into battle dressing station and the point, located under the armored deck. To get to the nasal points can be through two hatches, is located between the 1st and 2nd chimneys. In peacetime, to them it was possible to come down and through the hatches between the 2nd and 4th tubes, after passing through the third team room, separated from them watertight bulkhead. But in a combat situation on alert this passage can not be used, as the doors usually are battened down.
For delivery of the wounded in point, located in the 4 th command cockpit, it was necessary to pull in the officer's room, zatem ottuda steep ramp – on deck armor, continue to carry through a narrow corridor, extends at right angles to the ladder, go through the door in the watertight bulkhead and into the 4th team room.
To bring the wounded in battle dressing station, You need to go down the ladder to the officer's room, thence bring him to the wardroom. Then use the hoist to lower the wounded in the storage room of torpedoes (at the same time through this door during alarm torpedo fed to apparatuses, located in the wardroom), and from there through the narrow door – in the dressing station.
The unsuitability of the paragraph was revealed during a drill before the fight, as during an alarm trap, leading from the main cabin on deck armor, was filmed, and hatch battened down for the ship survivability. Further, in accordance with the order of the commander, as dressing stations were approved:
1. The bow – hospital and pharmacy.
2. Aft – mess room- companies and dressing station on the armor- howling deck.
Dressings were stored in special boxes, stationed at four locations. The entire staff has been trained to provide first aid to the wounded.
porters wounded (14 human) They were equipped with special bags with medical supplies. Surgical instruments had enough: except for treasury, doctors used their personal and.
Crew and accommodations
cruiser “Varangian”, in accordance with the specification, The crew consisted of 21 officer, 9 and conductors 550 the lower ranks. Before leaving the ship to Russia, it was 19 officers, Priest, 5 and conductors 537 the lower ranks. In battle 27 January 1904 year participated 558 human: 21 Officer, Priest, 4 conductor, 529 the lower ranks and 3 civilian. Yet 10 crew “Varangian” before leaving in Inch'on were abandoned in Port Arthur.
Residential premises located under the command forecastle and living deck and aft on deck armor. 72 nm it. aft cabins were officers and command ship. Officers cabins were single, area of 6 m2; cabins senior officer, mechanical engineer and senior navigator – by 10 m2. Room aft over a length 12,5 m occupied commander. These adjoined saloon area 92 m2. On a residential deck were infirmary, pharmacy, Pantry, bathroom (25 m2) and the ship's Church. On a residential deck doors, except waterproof, been sliding.
During the service “Varangian” stained as follows. Before leaving Russia, and in Russia from September 1900 in May 1901 of the year: hull and masts – white; lower knee chimneys, fans (Pipes and sockets) – yellow; upper knee chimneys, Stengel and the both MACT rei – black; bilge – green and the internal surface of the socket – red
During the voyage as part of Emperor Nicholas II escort from August to September 1901: hull and masts – white; knee chimneys and fans (Pipes and sockets) – yellow; chimneys crown width 1,5 m, Stengel and the both MACT rei – black; the inner surface of the socket – red; bilge – red.
In the transition to the Far East and in Port Arthur in August 1901 to September 1903 of the year: hull and masts – white; lower knee chimneys and fans (Pipes and sockets) – yellow; upper knee chimneys, topmasts on both masts and spars black; the inner surface of the socket – red; bilge – red.
From september 1903 years before the date of death: from the truck of the waterline – olive (in accordance with the order of the color of ships on flue pipes should have been beaten off stripe width 0,9 meter orange); bilge – red.
During repair Vladivostok and go to Hong-Kong from March to July 1916 year: from the truck of the waterline – Ball color; chimneys crown width 1 meter – black; bilge – in all probability, red. During the transition from the Hong-Kong to Greenock from July to November 1916 of the year: from the truck of the waterline – “half-white” Colour (so in the document – AT. TO); chimneys crown width 1 meter – black; bilge – red.
In the transition from Greenock to capture British November 1916 to November 1917 of the year: from the truck of the waterline – Ball color; chimneys crown width 1 meter – black; bilge – red.
Evaluation of the project
cruiser program “for the needs of the Far East” We built on the same technical project, but were completely different world, like in appearance, and on the basic characteristics shipbuilding. their native, perhaps, only the same armament. In this regard, one might wonder: how successful were these ships and which one was better?
It seemed, these questions should be answered combat experience. But in fact, everything was much more difficult. Tasks, who had to carry out the cruisers during the Russian-Japanese War, It was far from the originally prescribed in the draft.
Ironically, “hero”, most secure and perfect from the 6000-ton protected cruisers, I did for the war not a single shot, and almost did not take part in any campaign, after standing in the dock in the protracted repair. But “Varangian” on the first day of the war had come face to face with representatives of almost all generations “elsvikskih cruisers” – from legacy to the latest models. But fate has put him in such conditions, that the tragic outcome was a foregone conclusion. The third member of the family – “Askold” – It takes an active part in all the operations of the Pacific Squadron. true, those operations were slightly – significantly less, than anticipated before the opening of hostilities. Nevertheless, cruiser demonstrated his outstanding capabilities, becoming the only ship of the series, who managed to get out with honor from the crucible of the war, on “arena” which is so wasteful use of these cruisers.
Speaking of the 6000-ton cruisers, not to mention the ships, built under the program 1895 of the year. They became the prototype for the development of the brain of the cruiser shipbuilding program 1898 of the year. We are talking about cruisers “Diana”. Entered into operation before the beginning of the Russian-Japanese War, they, Alas, morally and physically obsolete and do not meet modern requirements. This fact shows, first of all, the level of development of domestic industry the beginning of XX century. “Diana”, “Pallas” and “Aurora” distinguished by good reliability mechanisms, but in all aspects of protected cruisers lost foreign construction.
protected cruisers “Varangian” at 1916 year
“Varangian” and “Askold”, in fact are experienced ships of this type, on a constructive and assembly scheme best suited for comparison. There is no doubt, what “Varangian” was designed more elaborately and compact. Forced placement of artillery in the extremities saved him from close cellars along the boards. The ship had a good seaworthiness, it is very well located boats and boats. Engine and boiler room were spacious; their equipment and the ventilation system is highly commendable.
“Askold” in this regard “Varangian” losing. builders fears not reach contract speed led to, The relative length of the cruiser (already the largest in the original draft) It became the final version is 8,7 (in “Varangian” – 8,1). As a result, the housing is the length of the flexible beam; low stock its strength led to local buckling, and sometimes destruction of the structure. “Fragility” Corps on the move caused a strong vibration, this is especially felt on the poop. For fear of overloading the ship lost the forecastle head and wheelhouse (the latter was established only after the sea trials, at the insistence of the commander), which significantly worsened its performance in stormy weather. housing narrowed led to cramped living quarters and cellars of ammunition.
On the measured mile during a progressive test for the maximum speed of the ship, both have shown outstanding results. So, 12 July 1900 of the year “Varangian” It has a top speed 24,59 uzla.6 September 1901 of the year “Askold”, in its turn, reached speeds 23,39 host. During the 12-hour continuous test “Varangian” It showed an average result 23,18 host, when power machines 19 602 l. from. “Askold” 15 and 17 September 1901 by 6-hour runs reached speeds 23,98 and 24,01 node with a power 21 100 and 20 885 l. from. respectively. It should be noted, that due to a malfunction of the mechanical lag velocity values were not measured. In the final test the tables were written numbers, obtained during other tests.
Interesting 24-hour test “Varangian” during economical speed range in 10 knots. So, during the day cruiser passed 240 miles, thus he spent 52,8 ton of coal (i.e 220 kg per mile). Simple calculations show, that in the normal coal left in 720 tons cruising range was 3270 miles, and in full in stock 1350 tonnes – 6 136 miles.
Appearance of the ship at the end of construction
true, the actual range of the ship's voyage always differs significantly from the calculated, received the test results. So, during long crossings “Varangian” at speed 10 nodes spending 68 tons of coal per day, which corresponds to a maximum cruising range 4288 miles. Daily coal consumption at “Askold” for speed 11 nodes was 61 t – in this way, its cruising range is equal to 4760 miles.
One of the main advantages “Askold” it was considered reliable operation of the power plant. This advantage is offset all its flaws. Alas, “Varangian” these “boast” not my. A significant portion of the pre-war service in Port Arthur cruiser spent at the wall in the endless repairs. The reason was both careless assembly machines, and the unreliability of the system of boilers Niklossa, who were clever idea in, but we will not suited to operate.
Location guns of the main caliber “Askold” It seems preferable. On it broadside to participate, seven six-inch guns, and on “Varangian” – only six. true, strictly on the bow or the stern “Varangian” I could shoot four, a “Askold” Only one gun. Others were restricted to an angle of 30 ° at risk of fracture design superstructures.
But the main disadvantage and “Varangian”, and “Askold” It is perversity of the very concept of protected cruisers in the displacement 6000 t. While Japan, preparing for war, wisely opted for a much cheaper 3000-ton ships, and savings invested in creating armored cruisers with 203mm artillery, Russia continued to spend money on “trade fighters”, designed to act alone on the ocean lanes. As a result, the domestic fleet was increased by a series of large, beautiful, but, Alas, virtually useless ships, among which belonged to the legendary “Varangian”.
The cruiser "Varyag" and gunboat "Korean" go into battle, 9 February 1904
In late January interrupted telegraphic communication with Port Arthur. But despite all the signs of impending war, Envoy in Korea Pavlov did not let go "Varyag" Chemulpo, giving "good" only to send to Port Arthur "Korean" with pouch. Notably, that on the night of 26 January suddenly went to sea, and Japanese stationeer "Chiyoda".
26 January gunboat "Korean", receive mail, weighed anchor, but the output from the raid it blocked the way the squadron of Rear Admiral S.Uriu as part of the armored cruiser "Asama", cruisers 2 Class "Chiyoda", "Naniwa", "Takačiho", Niytaka, '' rearrangements', and three transports and four destroyers. The destroyers attacked with two torpedoes gunboat, but failed. Not having the order to open fire, and did not know about the beginning of military operations, Commander "Koreans" Captain 2 G.P.Belyaev rank ordered to turn back.
Immediately after anchoring Belyaev arrived at the "Varyag" cruiser and reported to his commander about the incident, Rudnev immediately left for the British cruiser "Talbot", whose commander - Captain L.Beyli - was the oldest on the roads. Bailey, after hearing the Russian commander, immediately I went to the older Japanese ship for explanations. During the proceedings, the commander "Takachiho" deny mine attack on a Russian boat, and actions minonostsev, According to him, They were dictated by the wired transports from attack "Korean". As a result, the incident was presented as a misunderstanding.
Throughout the night the Japanese planted with transports landing. And the next morning, the Russian sailors learned, the war between Russia and Japan announced…
Rear Admiral Uriu sent the commanders were in Chemulpo warships of neutral countries - the British cruiser "Talbot", French "Pascal", Italian "Elbe" and the US gunboat "Vicksburg" - the message with the request to leave the raid in connection with the possible actions against the "Varyag" and "Korean". After the meeting, the English cruiser "Talbot" commanders of the first three ships have protested, since the fight in the roads would be a flagrant violation of formal neutrality Korea, however, it was clear, it is unlikely to stop the Japanese. Protest to the Japanese admiral presented and British ambassadors, France and other countries, accredited in Seoul.
Picture “Cruiser “Varangian”, artist PT. Maltsev. 1955 g.
Then V.F.Rudnev, He is the commander of the detachment of Russian ships, I decided to go to sea and try to break with the battle at Port Arthur, Officers of the "Varyag" and "Korean" military councils unanimously supported this proposal.
After a rousing speech commander "Varyag", that the crew welcomed the repeated loud "Hurray!", and enforcement of court orchestra national anthem, sounded team: "All the top, anchor removed!" AT 11.20 27 January 1904 the cruiser "Varyag" and gunboat "Korean" weighed anchor and headed for the exit with raid. "Korean" while walking in front. The distance between vehicles is maintained cbl 1-2, speed - about 6-7 units. Weather in the day was calm and frosty, the sea was dead calm.
The horizon of the haze is not in sight, and yet there was no sign of the presence of the enemy in the sea. Foreign ships people, standing along the boards, gave tribute to the courage of Russian. According to the British "Talbot", "They welcomed us three times, and we are also very friendly three meet .. ". On the "Varyag" the band played anthems of the countries, by ships which took place at a time. Solemnly and sedately watched Russian to foreigners, who admired their calm before the coming unequal battle. Especially enthusiastically expressed their feelings French sailors from the cruiser "Pascal": breaking system, They waved their hands and caps, shouted greetings, I am trying to encourage people, going to die.
When she left behind the Italian cruiser "Elba", the music stopped. Now, ahead of the enemy was only, which is still to be seen behind the island Yodolmi (Pxa-milьdo). Gradually increasing the pace, Russian ships brought the rate up to 12 knots. Signalmen on the bridge of the "Varyag", in the morning carrying the watch in combat schedule, We peered intently into the distance, and soon noticed a haze of silhouettes of enemy ships. Captain 1 V.F.Rudnev rank n hours 25 minutes ordered to break combat anxiety and raise flags stengovye. As soon as the blue and white cloth St. Andrew's flag fluttered in the wind, rang drum crack and high notes horn, Deafening bells rang loud fight, causing fire and water divisions top. People quickly dispersed to action stations. The conning tower of the reports of batteries ready for battle and posts began to receive.
Although S.Uriu and preparing for retaliation by Russian, but all the way out into the sea was a surprise for him. The Japanese fleet with the exception of a few ships watched for Russian at the southern tip of the island Phillip. Closest to the exit from the raid were "Asama" and "Chiyoda", and it is with them found their way to the sea "Varyag" and "Korean", The commander of the "Asama" Captain 1 R.Yasiro rank ordered to raise a command signal: "Russian ships go to sea".
Rear Admiral Uriu on board the cruiser "Naniwa" at this time reading the international squadron commanders protest, Wilson delivered a lieutenant with the British cruiser "Talbot". Received the news with "Asama" and "Chiyoda", Commander along with the audience quickly went upstairs. Masts "Naniwa" shot up signal flags. Riveted anchor chains, because the time to recovery and cleaning anchors were no longer, ships of the squadron began to quickly extend to reach, reconstructed on the fly in combat column according eve obtained dispositions. Assessing the situation, Admiral ordered the "Chiyoda" to join the "Asama" and work together with him.
The first to have set in motion "Asama" and "Chiyoda", after them, lags behind, moved the flagship "Naniwa" cruiser "Niytaka". On traverze not strelyayushtego bead «Nanivы» shli three destroyers him 14 squad minonostsev. The destroyers of the 9th detachment morning were sent for carbon and water in the Bay of Asan. Cruiser, rearrangements, and Takaçiho, develop more progress, We rushed to the south-west. Memos "Chihayya" along with the destroyer of the 14th detachment "Kasasagi" were on patrol at the output of the 30-mile waterway.
Russian ships continued to move the same course, but the "Korean" was now walking the ledge, somewhat to the left of the "Varyag". On the right wing of the bridge cruiser, in combat lantern (floodlight), rangefinder have begun to develop their own tools, The ship stopped in anticipation of battle. The priest Father Michael blessed "Christ-loving warriors on the feat and the victory over the enemy," and went to the hospital.
On deck, like a giant snake, lay unrolled hoses, fire hoses. With the ranging stations began to report the distance to the nearest enemy ships. Elevators have filed the first charges, and a gazebo with a charge with a roar rolled across the Monorail to the guns.
Away at the rate of the island opened Yodolmi. To the right of the island is already viewed with the naked eye gray silhouettes of ships of the Japanese fleet. Surrounding Japanese ships meanwhile stretched to combat column (so it seemed to the Russian ships), moved convergent rate, ahead going down the line of movement of Russian ships. Before the lead ship was more 45 cbl. Against the background of numerous smoke on the masts of the third from the head of the column raznotsvete cruiser hoisted signal flags. Without a doubt, Signal meaning was clear - the Japanese commander offered to surrender without a fight Russian. Immediately it was told about it to the conning tower, From there came the command: "At the signal is not responding".
ship clocks, installed in the wheelhouse, showed 11.40. The conning tower was closely. Besides watches, which in the morning were serving in combat schedule, there were commander, senior artilleryman, senior navigator, Auditor and the officer of the deck. I stood at the helm steering, from phones and negotiating pipes froze the lower ranks, in the passage of the conning tower were stretched head bugler and drummer. And outside, at the entrance to the bridge, almost on the steps of the ladder stood signalers and messengers commander.
Russian sailors continued to observe the enemy. The second group of Japanese ships - "Naniwa" and "Niytaka", - a little bit behind the first group, It was the right shoulder, holding several seaward. away, in the haze could be seen Yeshe several enemy ships, but they were difficult to classify due to too large distances.
The conning tower "Naniwa" was also closely. In addition to the ship's command, here was his headquarters squadron commander. AT 11.44 masts "Naniwa" was raised by the signal to open fire. A minute later the armored cruiser "Asama" began sighting of guns fore tower,
The first salvo of the enemy lay in front of the "Varyag" with a small flight. To the surprise of Russian, Japanese even exploding projectiles on impact with the water, raising huge columns of water and clouds of black smoke. The guns of the "Varyag" while silent - waiting for the commander, when the distance is reduced.
First shell, land in cruiser, killed young navigator midshipman A. M.Niroda and two sailors rangefinder, Three people were injured. The explosion destroyed the bridge decking and handrails, a shock wave is bent bridge pillar. a fire broke out in the chart room, but it quickly was extinguished.
The next shell exploded at the side. Its fragments were put out of action all the servants 152-mm guns №3, and seriously wounded plutongovy Commander Midshipman P.N.Gubonin.
"Varyag" and "Korean" fired back. true, first volley with the gunboat gave large undershoot, and later an artillery duel with the enemy Russian cruiser conducted almost single-handedly.
Meanwhile, the density of the fire by the enemy increased: the battle joined the ships of the second group. According to the "Varyag" was shot mostly "Asama", "Naniwa" and "Niytaka"; episodically, when the situation permitted, fired "Takachiho" and "Akashi". "Varyag" was literally bombarded with enemy shells, sometimes hiding behind the huge waterspout, who rattled now and then flew up to the level of combat Marsi. Nedoletevshie shells, bursting at the beads, pour over the superstructure and deck flood waters and debris hail, destroying the superstructure and maim, open standing on the upper deck. Despite the loss of human life, "Varyag" vigorously responded to frequent enemy fire, but, Alas, results yet to be seen. "Korean" shelled "Chiyoda" and, probably, several other ships of the squadron Uriu. Moreover, their shooting was very inaccurate, and during combat it have not been adjusted. Looking ahead, note, that during the whole fight in the "Korean" has not got a single shell. According to the gunboat commander, There were only three undershoot, and the rest of the shells fell with great flight.
As the Japanese ships initially were far ahead and to the right at the exchange rate of our vessels, the "Varyag" and "Korean" had all the time as if to catch up with them and firing with a fairly sharp corners. Japanese, in its turn, moving towards the Russian convergent rate, gradually "came down" to the intended line of "Varyag" movement and "Korean". At the same time they had to follow the fairway, to fend off the rocks.
View of the ship's tank
The battle flared up, and, as noted by the English observer captain Trubridzh, During this period of combat, "he observed many shells falling near the" Naniwa "and believed, that he probably should have been getting ". Once under fire "Varyag", Japanese flagship cruiser immediately broke down and, having made the right koordonat, skipped ahead "Noah-so", and he then joined her in the wake of.
On the "Varyag" at this time on the quarterdeck raging fire, resulting from the explosion of a six-inch shell segment, from which ignited cartridges prepared to fire. The fire spread from the cartridges to the canvas awning whaleboat number 1. The explosion of the projectile was destroyed by a crew six-inch guns №9; it temporarily fell silent. Fragments were also killed kommutatorshik K.Kuznetsov, Three people from the servants gun number 8 and almost completely - the calculation of the 47-mm gun, located on the main-Mars. Through the efforts of the fire division, headed midshipman N.I.Chernilovskim-Falcon and boatswain Kharkov, fire quickly extinguished. The cabin received information about the damaged starboard guns. It revealed, that 75-mm guns during firing broke down compressors and recuperator.
In the adapted dressing station under the main cabin was hard work. Not far from the entrance hatch exploded shell, ship shuddered perceptibly. Performs bandaging senior doctor M.N.Hrabrostin barely stay on his feet. In an instant, saloon was filled with smoke, there was nothing to breathe. Medics began to drag the wounded in an adjacent room. Upstairs extinguished the fire - through the open hatch poured streams of water; Yevgeni Khrabrostin and some orderlies drenched.
By that time, the distance between the opposing sides are so diminished, that the battle, finally, could start "Korean" tools. The first of its shells formed at the side of the head of the Japanese cruiser.
Due to the closeness in the conning tower and difficulties observation of the enemy (prevented hanging remnants of sailcloth body kit, Guy and davits) Commander "Variag" stood in the passage between chopping bugler H Nagle and drummer D. Korneev and hence continued to command the ship. On the right abeam we could see the sullen rock island Iodolmi. Ahead on the wide reach of the moving enemy ships. The squadron Uriu in relation to the Russian at the "sostvorilas". In the process of complex evolutions Japanese ships were in line. As a result, and so rarely cruiser firing the second and third groups do ceased fire. combat stress more bedrooms.
View of the deck from the front of the bridge
"Varyag" and "Korean", before reaching the beam Yodolmi island, should be, following in the fairway, turn right. Therefore, 12.12 Falah at surviving cruiser foremast was raised signal "P" ("Rest", which means "turn right"). Steering shifted "left aboard 20 °», cruiser and started to carry out the maneuver. The clock in the tower showed 12.15 p.m.. Since then he followed chain tragic events, hastened the denouement battle. First, one enemy projectile, hit the deck near the conning tower, interrupted pipe, in which all control actuators were installed. As a result of uncontrollable ship rolled on the circulation right on the rocks of the island Yodolmi. Almost simultaneously with the first hit here as the second shell, forming a hole in the deck area of about 4 m2. At the same time lost the entire calculation tools №35, and is at the cutting on the transfer orders Quartermaster I.Kostin. Fragments flew into the passage conning, fatally wounding sailors Nagle and Korneev; commander escaped with minor injuries and concussion. Further control of the ship had to be transferred in the stern steering compartment. There, under the direction of the boatswain Shlykova steering Gavrikov, Lobin and driver Bortnikov quickly began to establish manual control.
On the "Korean", see signal cruiser, We would be turned after him, but then, having seen, that the "Varyag" is not controlled, reduce speed and described a circulation of 270 ° in the opposite direction. After the battle, the commander Belyaev boats in its report noted Rudnev: "After the island Yodolmi, I see your signal ("P") "Change course to starboard", and, avoiding sostvoritsya with you to the enemy, and assuming you have a fault in the steering wheel, I put "the right to board" and, reduce speed to a small, He described the circulation of 270 °… AT 12 1/4 noon, following the movement of the cruiser 1 rank "Varyag", He turned to the road, continuing to shoot, first from left 8-inch and 6-inch guns, and then of a 6-inch ".
Suddenly Dnishev under the "Varyag" was heard gnashing, and cruiser, shuddering, has stopped. As a result, stranding budge №21 boiler, and in the boiler room came water. Later, even when lifting the Japanese ship, a large hole was found on the left side in the area 63 frame length of about seven feet wide and about.
The conning tower, immediately to assess the situation, gave the most complete car back, but it was too late. Now the "Varyag", unfolded to the enemy portside, It was a fixed target.
View of the stern of the cruiser "Varyag"
On Japanese ships, nominated a long way, They did not immediately notice the danger maneuver his opponent and continued to move the same course, firing of guns feed sector. but, making out a signal to the masts of the "Varyag" and suggesting, that the Russian decided to break his astern, Uriu immediately went in the opposite direction. Ships of his unit, koordonat consistently describing to the right side, They continued their fierce fire. And only then, assessing the plight of Russian, Uriu raised alarm: "Everyone turn to rapprochement with the enemy.. Ships of all groups formed a new course, without ceasing to fire a bow gun.
The position of the "Varyag" seemed hopeless. The enemy was fast approaching, and sitting on the stones cruiser could not take. It was during this time that he received the most serious injuries. One of the enemy shells hit the third chimney; noisily burst backstay main-yard. Have scattered in all directions, splinters killed two people from the workers 75-mm guns on the port side. another projectile, exploded next to cruiser, interrupted pertulin and rustication (chain, which is attached to the anchor pad) birth right anchor. Anchor with a crash jumped up and hung on the slack anchor chain. Fragments was pierced cladding board in the area bath. Another large-caliber projectile, breaking board under water, It exploded at the intersection of coal pits number 10 and №12, The result was a large hole in the area of frames №47 and №48 of about 2 m5. Distribution of the water managed to stop the neck of securing the coal pit. water, The approaches to the furnace, immediately began to pump out all the cash, Emergency Party under the leadership of senior officers. V.Stepanov, despite enemy fire, We began to subsume under the hole patch. And here was a miracle: cruiser itself, as if reluctantly, slipped from the rocks and rear stepped away from a dangerous place. Do not tempt fate more, Rudnev ordered to lie on the opposite course.
However, The situation was still very difficult. Although water is pumped by all means, "Varyag" continued to lurch to the left side. Fire Division on the quarterdeck unsuccessfully fought with fire in compartment for provisions - burned flour. The fire was caused by a projectile, flown from the left side. shell, passing through the officers' cabins in the area of the frame №82, He struck an adjacent deck and exploded in the cellar for provisions. projectile splinters struck starboard (Looking ahead, remark, that the fire was extinguished only after the cruiser returned to the road). Soon there was another source of fire - broke berthed grid spruce boards. heavy shell, breaking through the mesh of the nasal bridge area in the frame №39, It exploded between the first and second chimneys just above the ladder to the infirmary, wherein the shock wave were dropped on the deck 75 mm instrument №16.
protected cruisers “Varangian” in Port Arthur
The enemy kept coming: to the nearest ship ("Osama") distance was less than 25 cbl. "Korean", who was a little bit away from the cruiser, He conducted intensive fire on the enemy at the beginning of the left sold by the meter, and then one of the guns retiradnogo. The enemy on the gunboat is still ignored, and it was neither killed, or wounded.
Surprisingly Uriu Admiral, “Varangian”, despite the visible fires, increased speed and with the "Korean" confidently went toward raid. Because of the narrowness of the fairway to pursue Russian could only "Asama" and "Chiyoda". According to Japanese, due to problems in the car and bad coal "Chiyoda" with the permission of the Admiral I was forced to prematurely withdraw from the battle and join other cruisers, which were sent to the anchorage.
"Varyag" and "Korean" violently firing back, although due to the acute course angles fire could carry only two or three 152-mm guns. Meanwhile, the cruiser "Asama", making way for the destroyer, He made the right circulation and temporarily came out of the battle. Because of the island appeared nimble destroyer and started to go on the attack. Came the turn of small-bore artillery. Surviving fodder Russian guns opened dense barrage. Destroyer abruptly turned and walked away, and not firing a torpedo.
This unsuccessful attack prevented the "Asama" timely to approach the Russian ships, and, when an enemy cruiser, completing the circulation of the right side, again I rushed to the chase, "Varyag" and "Korean" has approached the anchorage. The Japanese had to cease fire, because their shells began to fall near the international fleet of ships. On the latter we were forced to play the alarm and prepare for battle, and "Elba" cruiser even had to go deep into the raid. AT 12.45 cease fire, and Russian ships. The bout ended. "Varyag" was anchored near the cruiser "Talbot", and "Korean ', received permission from the "Varyag", He went further and stopped at the side of the foreign ships.
Japanese in the battle with the "Varyag" was released in the general complexity 419 shells: "Asama" - 27 203-mm; 103 152-mm; 9 76-mm; "Pins" - 71 120-mm; "Naniwa" - 14 152-mm; «Netah-ka" - 53 152-mm; 130 76-mm; "Takačiho" 10 152-mm; 'rearrangements' 2 152-mm shell.
According to Russian data, during the "Korean" battle made of eight-inch guns 22 shot, from a six-inch guns - 27 and of 9-pounders - 3; "Varyag" released 1105 shells; 425 152-mm, 470 75-mm 210 47-mm. If these data correspond to reality, the artillery of the "Varyag" in the battle showed a record rate. However, it is not clear, both during the battle was fought account vypushennyh shells (and whether it was conducted in general). It can be assumed, that given in the report of the commander of the "Varyag" number of shots fired is estimated based on a survey crew after the battle, and in fact it was less. However, the exact answer to this question is still no.
Banked to the left side cruiser "Varyag" after the battle
To this day, it does not put an end to the dispute and on the impact of the fire Russian cruiser. As often happens, Opinion opponents in this regard varied widely, According to official Japanese data, published even during the Russian-Japanese War, hits in the ships of the squadron was not Uriu, and because their teams were no injuries, in front of, in Russian, and later in the Soviet official press said about the significant losses the Japanese - as in ships, and in others. Reasons not to trust each other on both sides were. So, Japanese official work "Description of military operations at sea in 37-38 years. Meiji ", published immediately after the war, rife with inaccuracies, the default being inconvenient for Japan facts and even outright misinformation. Sinned such and Russian publications. A confusion has contradictory testimony of international observers were in Inch'on. A comprehensive analysis of all available information - is a subject of separate research, goes beyond the scope of this book. In the meantime, we present the main official documents, including reports of participants in the battle 27 January, No comments.
According to a report of the commander of the "Varyag", participated in the battle 557 human, including 21 Officer (including equivalents officers ranks). According to official documents (sanitary report for war), the loss of the "Varyag" crew made 130 human, including 33 dead. Just a cruiser on the Russian data got about 14 large shells; According to the Japanese - 11. However, after the lifting of the cruiser on it the Japanese found 8 combat damage from projectiles. Other injuries were not directly linked to the fight: one hole (nm region. №63) area of approximately 0,3 m2 is the result of running aground off the island of Yodolmi and three - in the district number of frames 91-93 and number 99 - the result of the explosion of ammunition and fire in the aft, took place after the ship's crew evacuation port Chemulpo.
Although the armored deck was not destroyed, and the ship kept course, it should be recognized, By the end of "Varyag" battlefield almost completely exhausted its combat capabilities of the resistance due to large losses in manpower, damage steering gear, failure of a significant number of guns (on the report Rudnev) and having several holes submarine, that in the conditions of the besieged port could not be fixed in-house. Besides, Crew morale, experienced the effect of powerful Japanese shells, by the end of the battle it has changed dramatically. AND, apparently, to get people to go into battle again, and without the slightest hope of success, It was very difficult.
Japanese rousing Russian cruiser “Varangian”, Chemulpo. 1905 year
Foreign ships, see bedstvennoe position "Vaerings», We lowered the boat and headed to the Russian cruiser. One of the first to the "Varyag" approached the boat with the English "Talbot". On board in addition to the officers were doctors - Dr. Austin itself with the "Talbot" and Doctor Keene with a merchant vessel "Ajax". Then came longboat with "Pascal" with the commander, arrived in person. On the longboat was also physician Dr. Prejean cruiser with nurses. Boarded the "Varyag", they, wasted no time, immediately began to help the wounded.
AT 13,35 commander "Varyag" in French boat went to the "Talbot". English cruiser, he agreed on further actions: carried on foreign ships the crew of his ship and the sinking of the cruiser directly on the roads. According Rudnev, against the explosion of the "Varyag" protested Bailey, citing the large ships crowding on the roads. AT 13.50 Rudnev returned to his cruiser, Hastily assembled officers nearby (and senior officers and certain other, elimination of employment injuries, next was not), He informed them of his intention to. Present his officers approved. Immediately began shipping wounded, and then the whole crew on foreign ships. The sailors kept courageously, among the team dominated the discipline and order, primarily sent the wounded. English, French and Italians took Russian sailors, only American sailors "Vicksburg", According to the British, for some reason transported "all-ryazhtsev" not on your Ship, and the "Talbot" or "Pascal". US gunboat "Vicksburg" even though sent to your doctor bandaging, but take people from the sinking of the cruiser refused. Subsequently, their actions gunboat commander A. Marshall defended the lack of permission from their government to assist Russian.
Flooded protected cruisers “Varangian” in Inch'on
AT 15.15 V.F.Rudnev sent a midshipman VA. Beam on "Korean" to notify the commander of the boat on the situation on the "Varyag". The commander of the "Korean" immediately assembled a council of war and offered to discuss the issue: as being in these conditions?
The officers decided: "Bout coming in half an hour - is not equal, cause futile bloodshed… without injuring the enemy, and therefore it is necessary… blow up the boat ".
"Korean" crew at full strength went to the cruiser "Pascal". GMSH subsequently transmitted to the second department (MID) 38 certificates to the medal "For diligence", granted by the lower ranks of the cruiser "Elba" - for help, provided Russian, and mechanic 3 Class Umberto Morochchi received a gold medal at the ribbon Annensky.
These awards later received the crew and other foreign vessels.
AT 15.50 Rudnyev culture starshim botsmanom, besting the ship and making sure, that there's no one left, He descended from it together with the owners of bilge compartments, who opened the Kingston and flooding valves. AT 16,05 blew up "Korean".
The cruiser continued to slowly sink; Rudnyev, fear, that the Japanese can capture agonizing ship, Captain Bailey asked to make a shot torpedo at the waterline.
Having been refused, he and his men on the French boat headed for the "Varyag" and "made a number of fires, accelerated the destruction of the ship ".
AT 18.10 burning "Varyag" with a roar rolled over on the left side and disappeared under the water.
Japanese rousing Russian cruiser “Varangian”, Chemulpo. 1905 year
The further fate of the cruiser Varyag
"Varyag" was raised by the Japanese 8 August 1905 of the year. 22 August 1905 , it was included in the Imperial Japanese Navy. Repaired and put into operation 7 July 1907 year as the cruiser 2nd class called "Soya" (nn. 宗 谷 on the Japanese name La Perouse Strait). More than seven years has been used by the Japanese for training purposes. Saluting the heroism of Russian sailors, Japanese left at the stern called the "Varyag", and the recording was made on board when lifting: "On this ship we will teach you, how to love their homeland ". FROM 14 March 7 August 1909 the cruiser went hiking to the Hawaiian Islands and North America to practice navigation in a long voyage and training officers. These trips served to cruiser 1913 of the year.
After the lifting of the "Varyag" and repair the wheel in Japan it was referred to the flagship of the Japanese Navy battleship "Mikasa". The last ship-museum was made. Until now, the "Mikasa" is exhibited helm, issued at the helm of the "Varyag". However, its appearance suggests, what, Most likely, the wheel belonging to the Russian steamer "Songhua".
In the Russian Empire, and Japan became allies during the First World War. AT 1916 the cruiser "Soya" (Instead of bronenostsami "Sagami» and «Tango») It was bought by Russia. 4 April Japanese flag was lowered and 5 April 1916 the cruiser was transferred to Vladivostok, and then under its former name of "Varyag" was included in the composition of the fleet of the Arctic Ocean (made the transition from Vladivostok to Romanov-on-Murman) as part of a special detachment of ships under the command of Rear Admiral Bestuzhev-Rumin.
In February 1917 year left for repair in the UK, which it was confiscated by the British, because the Soviet government refused to pay the debts of the Russian Empire. AT 1920 resold by the German firm scrapped. AT 1925 year when towing a ship caught in a storm and sank off the coast of the Irish Sea. Part of the metal structures was removed at the same time local residents. It was subsequently blown up.
Japanese rousing Russian cruiser “Varangian”, Chemulpo. 1905 year
The performance characteristics of the cruiser Varyag
– Home port: Port Arthur
– Organization: First Pacific squadron
– Manufacturer: William Cramp and Sons, Philadelphia, USA
– Construction started: 1898 year
– Launched: 1899 year
– Commissioned: 1901 year
– Status: flooded 9 February 1904 of the year
– Commissioned by Japan: 9 July 1907 , entitled “soy”
– returned to Russia: 5 April 1916 of the year
– Withdrawn from the fleet: 1917 year
– Status: He sank under tow to be scrapped in 1925 year
Displacement cruiser Varyag
– 6604 tons, 6500 tonnes (design displacement)
Dimensions cruiser Varyag
– Length: 129,56 m
– Width: 15,9 m (without skin)
– Draft: 5,94 m (of Midelt)
Reservation cruiser Varyag
– deck armor: 38/57/76 mm,
– The conning tower - 152 mm
Engines cruiser Varyag
– vertical triple expansion steam engines, 30 boilers Niklossa
– Power: 20 000 l. from.
– Dvizhitely: 2 three-bladed propeller
The speed of the cruiser Varyag stroke
– on tests 13.7.1900: 24,59 knots
– Renovated in Port Arthur 16.10.1903: 20,5 knots
– Renovated in Vladivostok: 16 knots
– Cruising range: (10-nodal progress): 6100 miles (full supply of coal), 3270 miles (normal supply of coal)
Crew: 20 officers, 550 sailors and non-commissioned officers
– 12 × 152 mm / 45,
– 12 × 75mm / 50,
– 8 × 47mm / 43,
– 2 × 37mm / 23 guns,
– 2 × 63 mm / 19 implements Baranowski,
– 2 × 7,62 pulyemyota
Mining torpednoe vooruzhenie
– 6 × 381(450)-mm and (2 in shtevnyah, 4 onboard, 12 torpedo),
– 2 × 254-mm and (6 metatelʹnyh min),
– 35 (22) minefields
Japanese rousing Russian cruiser “Varangian”, Chemulpo. 1905 year
Japanese rousing Russian cruiser “Varangian”, Chemulpo. 1905 year
Japanese rousing Russian cruiser “Varangian”, Chemulpo. 1905 year
Japanese rousing Russian cruiser “Varangian”, Chemulpo. 1905 year
Japanese rousing Russian cruiser “Varangian”, Chemulpo. 1905 year
Japanese rousing Russian cruiser “Varangian”, Chemulpo. 1905 year
Japanese rousing Russian cruiser “Varangian”, Chemulpo. 1905 year
Japanese cruiser "Soya" (Former cruiser "Varyag") between 1910 and 1915 years
Japanese cruiser "Soya" (Former cruiser "Varyag")
Stranded on the rocks cruiser "Varyag" the coast of Scotland – 1920 g.