MiG-27 - Soviet supersonic fighter-bomber of the third generation with variable sweep wing. The power plant of one-motor. It is intended to strike the movable and the stationary ground and air targets. Can carry tactical nuclear weapons.
MiG-27 – video combat use
At the present time - the main fighter-bomber Indian Air Force. Due to the difficult economic situation with 1993 Year in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine almost all MiG-27 and its modifications have been decommissioned, transferred to storage facilities and virtually all disposed of.
History of creation
By the end of 1960 before the Soviet Air Force in acute need of replacement of obsolete fighter-bombers (such as high impact modified MIG-17 fighter, MIG-19, MiG-21 and Su-7), ceased to meet the requirements of time in terms of airborne sighting and navigation equipment and range of guided weapons. Criticism also caused the airframe of most Soviet fighter-bombers of the previous generations, often inherited without change from the usual fighter. Engineering solutions, allows to reach high on fighter aircraft performance characteristics and good performance in the battles against other aircraft, proved largely unused drums version of the machine, or even, even more, complicated the implementation of attacks on ground targets, which are already required by the pilot of the highest concentration and preparation.
After analyzing the full advantages and disadvantages existing at that time fighter-bombers engineers Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau (CB "MiG") came to the conclusion, that the most efficient in terms of price / quality option to create a new strike aircraft will adapt the latest at the time of the MiG-23 strike missions. In this case, the original plane by the many changes is optimized for attacks on ground targets, at the same time maintaining the unification of the majority of the airframe with his "fighter" fellow. If the appearance of a new strike aircraft, has received factory index "article 32-24" and the proper name of the MiG-23B, easily can be traced kinship with the aircraft MiG-23, then set the sighting and navigation system is completely different from the placement in a fighter plane and fully addresses the shock problems. Subsequent completion of construction and electronic filling MiG-23B led to the creation and adoption of even more advanced MiG-23BN, subsequently widely exported to foreign countries.
We do not sit around and other engineering offices. Sukhoi, Guided by similar requirements for a new strike aircraft, and building on the design of the fighter-bomber Su-7B, It has developed a very successful fighter-bomber Su-17. With the same with the MiG-23B / BN sighting and navigation equipment, Su-17 could take on board more ammunition, It was cheaper to produce and easier to use, and, generally, It is a serious competitor for the MiG-23B / BN. However, changes made to the design of MIG-23 fighter when creating his shock versions were more intermediaries, and new aircraft had sufficient potential for further development, which will then create one of the most famous Soviet strike aircraft.
Under the leadership of Mr.. A. Sedov on the basis of two MiG-23B was built MiG-23BM. The airframe following changes were made: was dismantled steering system of supersonic air intakes ATC-23 and modified chassis design - reinforced strut and shock absorbers, installed new wheels with built-in high-pressure electric blower. The plane was a lay angle, blyzkyy for horizontal, It had a positive impact on the acceleration characteristics during takeoff.
Significantly board equipment has been changed. sighting and navigation system has been installed PrNK-23, built on the base-date at the time onboard computer”Orbit-20″. The complex also includes: navigation system KN-23, On sighting the head-17VG and laser rangefinder "Background". PrNK provides automatic flight route to return to the departure aerodrome or three alternate airports, preplant maneuver, bombed out of sight of land - only eleven tasks. As the gun system, instead of the gun GSH-23L, it was decided to install a 30-mm six-barrel machine AO-18 naval gun mounts AK-630, Adapted for small bomber. The new gun has been substantially enhanced and facilitated, as refined and amplified by the aircraft airframe. Despite the impressive effectiveness of artillery systems known as GSH-6-30A, the plane additionally gun pods were suspended with GSH-guns 23L. Bomb weapons housed in seven outer suspension points. Also, the plane could carry missiles "air-to-surface" X-23, and for self-defense - the missile R-3S (later - P-13M). weapon system management to deliver SUV-2.
It was assumed in the future to apply to aircraft anti-radar missiles Kh-28 on the right underwing installation catapult AKU-58-1. Under the left plane the container suspended from the control "Blizzard-A" apparatus. but, combatant aircraft or missile, or equipment and have not received.
In a series of all aircraft engines installed P-29B-300. Only two cars were the AL-21F-3, for comparative tests with serial.
The first MiG-23BM was flown 17 November 1972 of the year. Serial production of the aircraft was carried out at the Irkutsk aircraft plant. After the formal adoption service in 1975 , the aircraft received a new name - the MiG-27.
The plane made by the normal aerodynamic configuration with high wing variable sweep, tselnopovorotnym horizontal tail and tricycle landing gear.
Glider aircraft structurally divided into the following main parts:
– nasal part of the fuselage;
– head of the fuselage, zakabinnogo compartments comprising special equipment, fuel tanks, fixed part of the wing and the side air intakes;
– movable wing console with interceptors, managed socks, flaps, fuel tanks, compartments;
– the rear fuselage fuel tank, the carpet, rudder and stabilizer.
MiG-27 fuselage - semi-monocoque, having riveted and weldment. The riveted part used sheet material of aluminum alloy, and for the power elements - stamping of steel and aluminum alloy. Technologically riveted fuselage is made of a large number of panels, connected by rivets and spot welding. Welded part consists of separate panels on the terminal, and for argon-arc welding.
For the convenience of the service most frequently being uncovered manhole covers made reclining (hatches forward fuselage and engine compartment hatches) on shompolnye-loop fastenings with legkorazomnymi locks, which are opened by turning the spring-loaded screws by using a slotted screwdriver counterclockwise angle 90 city.
The wing consists of two fixed parts, fixed to the fuselage, and two rotary trapezoidal consoles. Changing the angle of sweep is carried out within the consoles 16-72 degrees (There are three preset positions: 16, 45 and 72 city., but in reality they 2grad.40sek. more). The central compartment - the main power element fixed part of the wing. He welded to the tops of the frames number 18 and number 20. The compartment located consoles rotation nodes (they - consoles mountings) and sections of the wing fuel tanks.
wing pivot assembly is a welded box-like structure, which passes into a powerful plug, into which is inserted a movable bracket swivel. Rotary Wing dvuhlonzheronnoe. The console is divided into technologically nose, central and tail parts. Vortex generating "Fang" is radio transparent skin. Rotate consoles made two-channel hydraulic motor SPC-1 system, which has a ball screw converters, transforming rotary motion into linear (relaying management consoles - with lever, installed in the cab on the left side, next to the throttle).
Sock tiltable rotary wing parts - chetyrohsektsionny. Section interconnected control rods. Deviation and cleaning are made by the general hydraulic system. To avoid the formation of cracks between the tip and the top surface of the wing is made of steel visor, in which the toe slides profile.
Wing spars are made by hot forging of aluminum alloy. Sealing wing bay is performed sealant, pumped through bolt holes, connecting cladding panels to the frame, in the groove, located around the perimeter of the compartment. A second sealing barrier - a rubber band (bead), laid along the perimeter between the frame and panels. On the upper surface of the wing has a two-piece spoiler.
Flap - trohsektsionny, its nose portion is made of a titanium alloy (1-January section) and alyumininievogo alloy (2-I and the third section). The rear part of the flap is a cellular unit, casing formed of aluminum alloy and filler of aluminum foil 0,03 mm. On the outer surface of the flap of the steel tape is laid, on which slides the lug on the pressure plate, closing the gap cut in the fuselage (it includes when you turn the wing). flaps is controlled by means of the hydraulic cylinders of the total. All three sections are interconnected flaps collets, but each section is controlled by its hydraulic cylinder.
The slits between the surface and the fuselage harvested consoles, as well as the gaps between the consoles released and the fuselage closed top and bottom of the fixed and movable flaps, which simultaneously serve as aerodynamic fairings. Shields provide the necessary seal at any angle of attack of the wing and deformation.
Fixed guards of center - panel riveted construction, fixed on the rotation wing unit. These panels are mounted lower and upper plates fixed center section. The front upper and lower wing plates are pressed against the surface by means of pneumatic cylinders, fixed to the fuselage. To reduce friction to profiles fixed and movable sealing flaps are attached fluoroplastic laths. Vertical blinds lower flaps are closed fairing. Between the curtains and the fairing on the one hand and the fuselage - on the other hand also has PTFE lining.
All-moving horizontal tail consists of a front stringer, spar, set of ribs and skin. The central portion is milled panel, nose and tail part - riveted. Inside the tail section - honeycomb filling. Each half of the stabilizer rotates on two bearings. Root bearing fixed-combination (needle and spherical), set of side ribs, end - Roller, It positioned within stabilizer.
The transverse mode (to build aircraft roll) One stabilizer half is deflected upwards, another down to one and the same angle, not exceeding 10 ° with an angle of wing setting 16-55 ° and 6.5 °, Fitting of the wing at an angle of more than 55 °.
It includes keel and rudder. keel frame consists of a front stringer, two side members, a set of stamped sheet metal ribs, milled rib number 9 and side ribs. The whole middle part of the keel is made of milled panels. The upper part has a radiotransparent ending with antennas.
Rudder is attached to the keel at three supports. Sock wheel - steel, stamped, there are located dampers CD-16-5000-0 A. Linings made of aluminum alloy. Inside the sock has a honeycomb.
The lantern consists of a hinged visor part, the ascending and descending by means of the air cylinder. The lantern is equipped with the production control system and the hinged part of the emergency dumping system.
Operational Control System provides the opening and closing of the lamp, his fixation on the fuselage and sealing. To prevent windshield icing there's electrical heating.
To prevent misting, within, around the bottom of the lantern, set hot air blower pipe, Turbojet compressor bleed. For cabin ventilation when taxiing on the ground or duty flashlight can be raised to 100 mm (in such a lamp may steer the aircraft position at a speed up to 30 kmh).
Overview back is ensured by the inspection device CU-27AMSH, mounted on the tilting part lantern. The front arc part arranged hinged, also, two mirrors, providing an overview of the wing planes (are applied on the ground, during taxiing and towing). If the alarm reset four lamp lock open energy cutter PC-ZM-1.
According to test pilot Alexei Rachnova, thanks to the excellent overview of the MiG-27 cockpit was among the pilots nicknamed "balcony".
Ejection seat KM-1M provides aircraft bailout at all altitudes in the speed range of 130 km / h up to the limit for MIG-27 at all altitudes (from 0 m) and includes a deep headrest, limiting the spread of the pilot hands, fixing system in the pilot seat, Set the CCR-5, providing protection from the pilot flow. Seat fitted with an automatic beacon - radio connected "Mosquito-2M", takes effect immediately after activation of the parachute system.
To duplicate radio undermining "friend or foe" system there is a special mechanism circuit, triggered simultaneously with catapult.
ejection process is as follows: when pulling double ejection handle is pulled out at the initial moment of the check, there is pinned capsule and operation piromehanizma shoulder Occipital. Under the pressure of the propellant gases occurs attracting shoulder straps, Issue of hands scatter limiters and extension of the push rod on a chair, thus there is a rotation of the rocker, one arm of which leads to the triggering of the microswitch ZS-5A automatic lowering filter helmet, the other arm through the cable pulls the reset pin gasifier lantern.
Chassis - trohstoechnoe. Nasal rack has two wheels with tubeless tires 520h140, basic rack - one wheel with tubeless tires 840h360. The main stand is made of welded beams, swivel, konsolynoy poluvilki, optional turning mechanism and a remote suspension. Absorber and poluvilka secured to swivel, mounted on the beam and secured against rotation when the landing gear thrust bolt and lock kinematic, formed by a rocking chair and thrust.
When cleaning the chassis plate cylinder, cleaning your, beam produces rotation about its mounting axis, this occurs simultaneously with the additional wheel turning poluvilki nose strut equipped wheel return mechanism to the neutral position on the flight, placed inside the rack.
On the axes poluvilok main landing and nose gear wheel axles fitted mudguards (during the operation of the aircraft flaps were removed in order to protect the air inlets from the ingress of small foreign objects while moving on the airfield), allowing the plane to taxi and take off from unpaved airfields.
The nose landing gear wheel is equipped with a turn mechanism MRC-Z2-25, intended for turning the wheels to the corners, proportional to the deviation of the control pedals.
MiG-27 Brakes - Disc, pneumatic braking system.
Air intake - unregulated. Input of the inlet are spaced from the side surface on the fuselage 80 mm, forming a slit for discharging the boundary layer.
It includes a five-fuselage and wing tanks six-compartments, as well as two compartments, providing power to the motor fuel at negative accelerations. Fuselage tank number 1 Located around the engine air channel, № tank 1A is situated under the compartment Policom zakabinnogo, tank number 3 It is located above the motor and has the shape of a semiring, tank number 4 It located in the annular portion of the fuselage, tank number 2 - Consumption.
Given order production of fuel tanks is maintained automatically by means of special valves. Wing drop tanks with capacity of 800 L set and cleared together with the holder (Reset is done by pirotolkatelya). Their operation is only possible with the wing, defined by the angle 16 city.
fueling system - centralized for all tanks (except PTB), through adoptive node refueling. And allowed to open refueling through the filler neck of the fuel tank. Possible partial fueling, when the overlap (screwdriver, with the push and turn on 90 degrees) Cranes fuel access in wing tanks, compartments, located at the bottom part of the rotary wing, from below.
The hydraulic system is divided into two autonomous systems: booster and overall. Each of them has a variable pump NP-70A-3, driven by motor Jets.
The booster system of one of the chambers serves dual chamber boosters stabilizer (BU-170A) and interceptorov (BU-190A), and a right wing hydraulic turning system SEC-1.
Total hydraulic system provides power to a single-chamber booster BU-270 rudder, a second chamber boosters and stabilizers spoilers, left hydraulic motor SPC-1 system, as well as the work of the chassis, flap, brake flaps, nose wheel turning mechanism, SOUA system, upperstructure ridge (ventral keel), shutters TC 21 turbine starter, flight mechanism boot pedals, switching control steps stabilizer in roll mode and automatic braking the wheels when cleaning the chassis.
An additional source of hydraulic energy accumulators are globular, installed one in each system and to ensure the system is operating at the instant of the working fluid flow rate. Gas cavity technical nitrogen charged accumulators.
When the engine is in autorotation hydraulic pump booster system can be transferred to the alarm speed drive, configured as a separate unit, Encased in units box. Working pressure in the hydraulic system 210 kg / cm. quarter.
Air system consists of two: main and emergency. The basic system provides a seal and lift the lamp, pneumatic clamping wing flaps, seals between moving the pivot arm and fixed parts of the wing and the airframe, braking gear wheels, closing the fuel shut off valve system, brake parachute control.
Alarm system provides emergency braking and wheel main landing gear emergency extension with simultaneous cleaning of the rotating part of the ridge.
As the air cylinder cavity system employed main landing gear and the axes of rotation. Air tank main system chassis is hollow beams of the right post, tank alarm system is the beam of the left landing gear.
cabin air conditioning system
cabin air conditioning system serves to maintain a pilot in the cockpit, and some compartments avionics optimum temperature and pressure. at altitudes 0-2000 and carried out a free cabin ventilation, from more than 2000 m pressure gradually increases, on reaching adjustment value m 9000-12000 0,3 kgf / cm², this value is maintained up to the ceiling plane unchanged. Pressure adjustment is made controller of ARA-57B. At excessively high pressures triggered safety valve 127T.
Air "cold" supply line for the cabin is extracted from the engine compressor, It passes through the cooling apparatus (it is part of the air cooler, evaporative cooler (tank for refilling with distilled water is located in the right niche chassis) and cooling turbines). According to the "hot" air line suited to the check valve, bypassing the cooling apparatus. Before entering the non-return valve, both lines are connected to one and the mixed air is supplied to the crane cab and power airflow collectors lantern, visor and feet flyer.
Onboard navigation equipment
The data on the total of all modifications to the MiG-27 equipment (other equipment in various versions of the aircraft is different):
– on-board digital computer "Orbita-20-23K"
– sighting and navigation system PrNK-23
– navigation system KN-23 (AMP six and four airfield)
– laser range finder and sighting the head of C-17VG in cockpit
– SAU-23 automatic control system
– inertial heading reference SCR-8
– SHS-P-72 air data computer
– radio system of short-range navigation RSBN-6C
– Doppler velocimeter and demolition Diss-7
– SPO-15 "Birch" radiation detection system of the enemy radar
– System radioopoznavaniya "/ another's"
– radiovysotomer RV-5 or AO-31
– radio R-832M
Optical windows of laser-television sighting system "Kyra-23" aircraft MiG-27K. The bottom window under the TV channel with a laser rangefinder-designator, upper receiver for a laser rangefinder
MiG-23B and MiG-23BN ("articles 32-24 and 32-24B ") – The direct ancestors of MiG-27 series, having substantially identical "twenty-seventh" design. MiG-23B / BN - one of the attempts of the Soviet designers by modification of the MiG-23 to create a replacement at that time was armed with a fighter-bomber Su-7B, characterized by low capacity airborne sighting and navigation equipment. In general, he lived up to expectations, but soon he was replaced by more advanced MiG-27. Total built 624 MiG-23BN, most of which are destined for export.
MiG-23BM ("23BM product") February 1975 , the MiG-27 – The result of the modernization (the use of another engine, change the air intake structures, nodes suspension and chassis, replacement of built-in cannon GS-23L on GSH-6-30A, changes in avionics) MiG-23B and MiG-23BN, taking into account experience of their operation. all made 360 Flight.
MiG-27E ("Article 32-27") – The result of the modernization of MiG-27 early series (except MiG-27K) to the level of the MiG-27M. Total converted 304 aircraft.
MiG-27K 'Repeat' ("23BK product") to adopting in 1976 year was called the MiG-23BK – It was equipped with a sighting and navigation system PrNK-23K, part of which included a digital electronic computer "Orbita-20-23 K" and laser-television sighting system "Kyra-23". At the time of, jointly characteristics, MiG-27K was one of the strongest fighter-bombers in the world. all made 197 machines.
MiG-27M ("Article 32-29") – An attempt to create a fighter-bomber, approaching the characteristics of airborne equipment for MiG-27K, but it is worth less and requires less skilled pilots and technicians. Martial characteristics, generally, weaker than the MiG-27K, but it is much safer and cheaper to operate. all made 162 cars.
MiG-27ML «Bahadur» ("Product 32-29L") sometimes referred to as the MiG-27l – The export version of the MiG-27M. Total delivered from the Soviet Union and released in India 210 Flight.
MiG-27 million of India, Bahadur BBC
– Kazakhstan - 12 MiG-27, as of 2016 year
– India - 124 MiG-27ML, as of 2016 year
– Sri Lanka - 6 MiG-27M, as of 2016 year, in a non-flying status
MiG-27 Indian Air Force
Exported to India delivered MiG-27ML. Also, these planes were made there under license. In the USSR, the main contractor was the Irkutsk aircraft factory. MiG-27ML (product 32-29L; in the name of the Indian Air Force "Bahadur", ind. "Brave"), being export embodiment MIG-27M, It was almost identical to its Soviet analogue, and differed essentially only a simplified structure of arms and other defendants state identification system. Difference of this modification is also the use PrNK-44L with the onboard computer "Orbit 10-15-44L".
Deliveries of the first MiG-27ML in the Indian Air Force began in 1984 year (assembled at the Irkutsk aircraft plant). Indian aircraft assembly was arranged at the aircraft factory in Nasik with 1985 and it was completed in 1996 year. Total, in view of the Soviet deliveries, Indian Air Force received 210 MiG-27M. TO 2000 It was left at the disposal of India 195 MiG-27ML and 85 MiG-23BN, among which 189 and 79 machines respectively served in Dogfight, and more for 6 machines of each type were at the training center.
In March 2009 , the MiG-23BN was written off, but the MiG-27 remain in service, although their importance for the Indian Air Force has decreased due to the procurement of new multipurpose fighters Su-30MKI. In the near future is expected to begin the modernization of the remaining available MiG-27, for example 40 machines, It has been modified to 2004 year, increasing their ability to use precision-guided weapons and conducting EW. Machines get shot container Litening, warning receiver on irradiation Tarang, Sagem multifunction display, new inertial and GPS navigation systems, HUD Thales and Elbit digital moving map.
At the last in July 2006 , the air show in Farnborough CEO MMPP "Salut" announced plans for the modernization of MiG-27 Indian Air Force. Modernized aircraft will be overhauled and receive improved avionics, In addition, instead of the engine-29B P-300 aircraft scheduled to install the engine AL-31F, which develops great traction (12300 kg against 11300 kgf), on 200 kg lighter and 15 % more economical. but, Later the Indian Air Force announced its intention to 2017 year to write off a large part of the fleet of the Soviet MiG-27. The reason for this decision was the assessment of the military, whereby almost half park MIG-27 to 2015 year was exhausted and just can not carry out flights.
At the end 2011 , the Indian Defense Research and Development Organization (Drido) completed testing of electronic warfare system for the MiG-27 fighter, According to DNA. In the near future we will begin a series of similar tests of the equipment for the MiG-29 and Tejas. As expected, MiG-27 with an upgraded electronic warfare will arrive in the Indian Air Force in 2011 year, and MiG-29 and Tejas - in 2012. India facing armed fighters equipped with the new Indian EW system. The new system, by DRDO assessment, a more modern. Details about the new electronic warfare are not reported for fighters, however it is known, that one of the existing systems was used for installation on aircraft, developed by DRDO. Probably it is a system of Tarang, created for the MiG-21 fighter, MiG-27, MiG-29, Su-30MKI and Jaguar Sepecat.
Indian MiG-27 have a very high accident rate. FROM 2001 to February 2010 year was lost in flight crashes near 12 Flight, mainly due to defects in engines. During 2010 aircraft crashed five years, and after a disaster flights of MiG-27 were suspended for four months.
The armament of the MiG-27M
– One automatic six-barreled gun GS-caliber 6-30A 30 260-300 mm ammunition projectiles. Due to the immense power of the gun had restrictions on its use (shooting full ammunition could lead to a failure of the electronic equipment, drop out dashboards, explosions planting-taxiway lights). Before leaving for firing ammunition was supposed to shoot a full-Embarkation rulozhnye Headlamps PRF-4, a hole to turn off caps.
– combat load: to 4000 kg of various armament 7 nodes suspension arms: central ventral (It is usually used for suspension FTB), 2 under the engine air intakes, 2 under the aft fuselage and 2 under the fixed part of the wing. More two nodes can be installed under the wing of the pivot arm, but they themselves are not turning, and their use can not be changed sweep. Typically, these units are used for ferry flights and carry additional tanks. Rear pylons are rarely used, as in this case, due to problems with the centering is necessary to reduce the amount of fuel on board the car.
MiG-27M can carry:
– two missiles air-surface type X-29L;
– up to four missiles, air-to-surface type X-25ML;
– two missiles air-surface type with X-23M "Delta-HM" control unit;
– two anti-radar missiles X-27PS with "blizzard" control unit;
– up to four air-to-air missiles P-13M or R-60 (P-60M);
– UX-32 with up to four blocks 128 HAP C-5 (55 mm);
– Up to four units from B-8M 80 HAP C-8 (80 mm);
– NAR to four C-24;
– to 22 bombs OFAB 100 (reloading option);
– to nine bombs FAB-250 (located under the wing tandem);
– up to eight bomb FAB-500 (at maximum takeoff weight, under the wing tandem);
– Up to four incendiary tanks ST-500;
– two outboard cannon installations SPPU-22;
– Up to three drop tanks with capacity of 800 l.
The performance characteristics of the MiG-27K
– 1 human
The dimensions of the MiG-27
– Length: 17,10 m
– Wingspan in the retracted position: 7,40 m
– Wingspan in the deployed position: 13,80 m
– Elongation of the wing in the retracted position: 5,22
– Elongation of the wing in the deployed position: 1,77
– Height: 5 m
– track chassis: 2,66 m
– The base chassis: 5,77 m
– The area of the wing in the retracted position: 34,16 m²
– Wing area in the expanded position: 37,35 m²
– empty weight: 11 908 kg
– curb weight: 18 100 kg
– Maximum takeoff weight: 20 670 kg
– Engine: 1 P-29-300 turbojet
– maximum thrust: 81 kN
– thrust in afterburner: 123 kN
– thrust-to-weight ratio: 0,62
– Maximum speed at ground: 1350 kmh (M = 1,10)
– Maximum speed at height 8000 m: 1885 kmh (M = 1,77)
Practical ceiling MiG-27
– 14 000 m
The range of the MiG-27 flight
– 2500 km
– combat radius: 780 km with the flight profile of "low-low-low height" missiles with two X-23 and three drop tanks or 540 km in the same subject, but without external fuel tanks.
– Skoropodъёmnost: 200 m / s
– Wing loading: 605 kg / m
– Internal fuel: 4560 kg (5400 l)
– Fuel in the external suspension: Up to three drop tanks with capacity of 790 l
– Mileage at normal landing mass (without using a braking parachute): 1300 m
– Mileage at normal landing mass (using a braking parachute): 900 m