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F-22A Raptor

 F-22A Raptor Dimensions. Engine. The weight. story. Range of flight. Service ceiling

F-22 "Raptor" (English. Raptor - Predator) - multipurpose fighter of the fifth generation, developed by Lockheed Martin companies, Boeing and General Dynamics to replace the F-15 Eagle. The F-22 is the first one took place on the fifth-generation fighter armament.

F-22A Raptor – video

Start of work on the fighter

AT 1981 the US Air Force formulated requirements for a new fighter jet - advanced tactical fighter (ATF), which was to replace the F-15 Eagle. The new fighter was proposed to lay all the latest developments, including advanced avionics, New engines with digital control, as well as to be barely visible to radar and multifunction.

In July 1986 The beginning of the competition for the fifth-generation fighter project was announced. In October of the same year it was selected by two teams - Lockheed / Boeing / General Dynamics and Northrop / McDonnell Douglas, who for 50 months were to create a new fighter. TO 1990 Each year the team has built two prototype aircraft - YF-22 and YF-23. ATF to develop aircraft by the end of the 80s were spent huge amounts of money, so companies had to abandon the side-looking radar, optical-location station and the warning system missile attack (for F-22 aircraft is set AN / ALR-94 system). to the aircraft requirements have been reduced, to avoid increasing the cost of the development program, and then mass-produced aircraft. 23 April 1991 the US Air Force announced a group of Lockheed / Boeing Company / General Dynamics won the competition for the fifth-generation fighter.

 F-22A Raptor Dimensions. Engine. The weight. story. Range of flight. Service ceiling

Program for ATF and F-22 Raptor

The first pre-production car went up in the air 7 September 1997 of the year. Compared with the prototype, The F-22 was equipped with more powerful engines (15876 kg against 13900 the prototypes) a controllable vertical thrust vector, Glider aircraft was partially changed: changed shape of the wing, elevators, nose fairing, lantern cockpit was moved forward. Serial aircraft production began in 2001 year. 14 January 2003 , the first F-22 arrived at a military base "Nellis", located in the Nevada desert. TO 2004 It was built in total 51 aircraft. AT 2006 year for new fighter jets for the first time completely passed warhead - 27th Tactical Fighter Squadron, stationed at Langley Air Force Base.

AT 2006 it was planned to buy 384 aircraft to equip seven squadrons of combat duty, at 2008 year procurement plan was reduced to 188 Flight, 127 of which had already been built. The economic crisis and the huge cost of the aircraft forced the US government to abandon the procurement of the aircraft and to focus on the program of the F-35. 21 January 2009 , a group of US congressmen have sent a letter to President Barack Obama, which reported on the distribution of S-200/300 worldwide, as the main argument for the continuation of the production of fighter aircraft F-22 Raptor. In July 2009 the US Senate voted to reduce the military budget 2010 in the amount of 1,75 billion, dedicated to the production of multi-purpose fighter of the fifth generation F-22 Raptor.

6 April 2009 of the year, within the framework of the publication of the Pentagon budget for the 2010 year, US Defense Secretary Robert Gates announced the F-22 fighter planes complete production 2011 year, the US Congress approved earlier in the amount of 187 machines. In July of the same year Congress refused to increase procurement of fighter, beginning with 2010 of the year[16] in favor of the increase in program costs, development of a multipurpose fighter F-35. 13 December 2011 year assembly plant in Lockheed Martin's Marietta, Georgia left the last serial fighter F-22A, tail number 10-4195. He became the 195th F-22A, issued since 1997 of the year, and 2 May 2012 last year was, 187-m serial fighter, transferred to the US Air Force.

 F-22A Raptor Dimensions. Engine. The weight. story. Range of flight. Service ceiling

Design

The basis of the design of the aircraft on the principle of providing increased survival at the expense of the principle of «First look - first kill» (first discovered - the first hit). For this commonly used technology signature reduction («Stealth»). important, characteristic of the fighter 5 th generation design solution, reducing aircraft visibility, It is the placement of standard weapons in the inner compartments. F-22 has a suspension and external, but installing them ammunition deteriorates stealth. The purpose of this design solution was to increase the versatility of the aircraft.

planer

The airframe of the aircraft share of polymer composite materials (PTP) It is not less than 40 % (according to other sources 60 %), of which at least 30 % falls on thermoplastic[Source Unknown 1995 days] carbon composites, widely used materials radioabsorbing (RPM). In particular, PRM constructively prepares aircraft wing edge. Most of the structure is made of FRP based on bismaleimides - class of thermostable polymers, operable at temperatures up to 230 degrees Celsius. Second meaningfully thermoplastic polymer composites presented CFRP, in particular material Avimid K-III firm "Dupont", to which the dignity, in addition to strength, maintainability and heat resistance, are the best features of allowable damage.

The contours of the slots, formed in the joints of the cockpit canopy to the fuselage, flaps and landing gear bays weapons have sawtooth shape, that also provides an effective dissipation of electromagnetic energy and prevents direct reflection in the direction of the enemy radar transceiver antenna. Wing - rhombic, vertical stabilizer V-shaped.

aircraft design was carried out taking into account the requirements of survivability. For a variety of data, survivability airframe solved with regard to high-explosive fragmentation incendiary (OFZ) shell, at the core of Russian ammo 30mm aircraft cannon.

 F-22A Raptor Dimensions. Engine. The weight. story. Range of flight. Service ceiling

engines P&W F119-PW-100 flat-jet nozzle in order to reduce the IR signature

engines

The F-22 is equipped with two turbofan engines with afterburner (turbofans) Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 with a thrust 15 876 kgf, and is equipped with controllable vertical thrust vector. These engines have a thrust of about besforsazhny 10 000 kgf and allow the aircraft to perform the flight at supersonic speeds without afterburner, which it is an important tactical advantage.

engine nozzles are flat, Plane reducing visibility in the infrared range. In the design of nozzle devices applied radio absorbing material based on ceramic, which reduces the radar signature of the aircraft.

On-board equipment

F-22 Raptor run by two fault tolerant onboard computer, называемые CIP — Common Integrated Processor. In each of them - 66 modules, the basis of each module is a 32-bit RISC machines processor-i960.

 F-22A Raptor Dimensions. Engine. The weight. story. Range of flight. Service ceiling

Israeli naval c Afar APG-77

onboard radar

F-22 equipped with a radar AN / APG-77 with an active electronically scanned array. The antenna of this type is made up of about 2000 receiving-emitting elements. The main advantage of such an antenna is electronically controlled main lobe (beam scanning analog) - there is no need for mechanical scanning, which simplifies the design and improves the reliability of the. Target detection range c ESR = 1 m - 225 km (common mode) and 193 km (LPI mode), cruise missile (0,1 m²) - 125-110 km. Instrumental distance radar - 525 km.

The ability of the radar to operate in the mode of a low probability of interception (LPI) It is making useless conventional ACT / RTR system. Radar AN / APG-77 is able to perform active radar search fighter aircraft, equipped ACT / RTR apparatus thus, that the goal is not to know, it is irradiated. Unlike conventional radars, which emit powerful energy pulses to a narrow range of frequencies, AN / APG-77 emits low-energy pulses of a wide frequency range, using a technique, called broadband transmission. When the multiple echoes are returned, radar signal processor combines these signals. The amount of energy, reflected back from the target - on the same level, as in a conventional radar, but since each pulse LPI has substantially minimal amount of power and signals different structure, the goal will be difficult to detect the F-22.

 F-22A Raptor Dimensions. Engine. The weight. story. Range of flight. Service ceiling

Transonic flight of the F-22 "Raptor" over the aircraft carrier John C. Stennis

Data channels

The aircraft is equipped with an integrated communication system, navigation and identification, originally developed by TRW. It comprises a system of radar identification - "friend or foe", as well as protected and immunity IFDL channels and Link-16 JTIDS.
The aircraft is implemented as a circuit Hour, and transmission over IFDL data between other F-22, whereas channel Link-16 JTIDS for reasons of improved radar stealth is implemented only for receiving data.
As part of the modernization of Increment 3.2, fighter planned to equip more modern channel MADL, fitted to the B-2 bomber and Spirit multipurpose fighters F-35 Lightning II. However, in 2010, the US Air Force abandoned the initiative in favor of stealth.

weaponry

F-22 is armed with 20-millimeter cannon M61A2 Vulcan, 480 shells, missile air-to-air: six AIM-120C AMRAAM and two AIM-9M Sidewinder.
Also responsive bombs JDAM.

F-22 is compatible with precision guided bombs GBU-39 and SDB-53 / B, Executes a test discharges, but, on 2015 year plans for their integration with the F-22 has not been declared.
The fighter can produce launches missiles and bombs reset of internal compartments at supersonic speeds.

fuel capacity

According to experts from the military-analytical magazine Armada international, Fighter F-22 carries inside the cabin a very limited amount of fuel (Total 8,2 tons), It is making it critically dependent on the possibility of in-flight refueling.

 F-22A Raptor Dimensions. Engine. The weight. story. Range of flight. Service ceiling

The projection plane F-22A

Exploitation

As of May 2012 , the US Air Force was 184 F-22A. As of July 2010 , the F-22 was in service with the following parts of the United States Air Force:

– 1-th Fighter Wing, Langley base, shtat Virginia
– 27-Fighter Squadron
– 94-Fighter Squadron

– 192-th Fighter Wing of the National Guard, Langley base, shtat Virginia
– 149-Fighter Squadron

– 325-th Fighter Wing, Tindall (the air base), Florida - a center for training pilots.
– 43-Fighter Squadron

– 49-th Fighter Wing, Xollomen (the air base), New Mexico
– 7-Fighter Squadron
– 8-Fighter Squadron

– 44-I Group Fighters Air Force Reserve Command, Xollomen (the air base), New Mexico
– 301-Fighter Squadron

– 53-e Wing, Eglin (the air base), Florida
– 422-I test and evaluation squadron

– 57-e Wing, Nellis (the air base), Nevada - in 10 miles northeast of Las Vegas
– 433-Squadron combat use

– 412-e test wing, Edwards (the air base), California - in 60 miles north of Los Angeles
– 411-I Test Squadron

– 3-e wing, United base "Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson», Anchorage, Alaska
– 90-Fighter Squadron
– 525-Fighter Squadron

– 477-I have a group of backup Command Air Force fighters, United base "Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson», Anchorage, Alaska
– 302-Fighter Squadron

– 15-e Wing, Hikkem (the air base), Hawaii
– 19-Fighter Squadron

– 154-th Fighter Wing of the National Guard, Hikkem (the air base), Hawaii
– 199-Fighter Squadron

 F-22A Raptor Dimensions. Engine. The weight. story. Range of flight. Service ceiling

Cleaning of the F-22 "Raptor"

AT 2006 , the exercises were held "Norden Age", which held mock battles 12 fighter F-22 to F-15, F/A-18C и F/A-18E. During the first week of the exercise aircraft F-22 was shot down by convention 144 enemy aircraft without loss to themselves. In just two weeks the exercise group F-22 gained 241 conditional victory, losing two aircraft.

In June 2012 in Alaska were conducted exercises, include individual air combat fighter aircraft F-22 "Typhoon" under the control of the German pilots. According to Major Mark Grün, participated in the exercises, During the exercise, the opponents fought on equal terms, at large distances The F-22 had an advantage at the expense of the latest equipment, but at close range lighter Typhoon was in a better position. A similar incident occurred in July 2015 of the year, when the fifth generation fighter F-35 lost close combat F-16, were armed with 1979 of the year. aircraft deliveries for export are prohibited by the US Congress 1997 year.

combat application

23 September 2014 the year the media reported about the first combat use of the F-22 US Air Force against the Islamists in Syria. The aircraft struck the city of Raqqah and its suburbs. By February 2015 F-22 performed at least 112 combat missions in Syria sky. By June 2015 , the F-22 were included in the composition of each group of aircraft shock, bombing Syria. Describes a 11-hour flight, in which the F-22 has demonstrated its versatility, performing strike missions, scout out enemy ground forces, pointing at the target and the other planes accompanied by bombers.

 F-22A Raptor Dimensions. Engine. The weight. story. Range of flight. Service ceiling

The cost of the F-22

F-22 - one of the most expensive fighter in the world, facing armed. The production cost of the aircraft is estimated to be 146,2 million dollars (on 2008 year), and the total price inclusive of all indirect costs and the expected volume of production - 350 million.

Mainly this is due to the high cost of multiple reduction of the volume of purchases of the aircraft. Of the originally planned 750 units for the production of all time fighter was purchased just 187 units.

Sometimes on the F-22 say, that he "weight in gold", literally correspond to the financial markets in February 2006 year - the value 19,7 tons of pure gold (weight of the empty F-22A) during this period was the same 350 million dollars.

In this case, the F-22 - not the most expensive aircraft in the world in general. The most expensive - nearly invisible bomber B-2 Spirit, each of which cost the USAF excluding R & D 1,157 billion, and taking into account R & D - in 2,1 billion.

According to the Main Control Directorate (GAO) USA, finally 2010 , the full price of the F-22 aircraft (taking into account the cost of the development program) reached 411,7 million dollars.

 F-22A Raptor Dimensions. Engine. The weight. story. Range of flight. Service ceiling

Operating costs

According to the Pentagon, operating costs per unit of the F-22 is not much higher than those of other fighters. but, This statement has been questioned and criticized some US media. According to the newspaper «The Washington Post», operating costs for the fighter much higher figures, announced by the Pentagon. An article in the newspaper claimed, that this was due to the vulnerability of the radio coverage, accelerated wear that, according to the author, It could cause even normal rain. Also, citing unnamed US military, newspaper reported that the F-22 hours of flight of the cost of $44 000.

At a hearing in the US Senate, Pentagon officials named in the message «The Washington Post» unreasonable and further made the following statement:

- 2008 financial year, the cost of one hour of flying the F-22, It includes only the variable costs, was 19 750 Doll. While, for the F-15, this figure was 17 465 Doll. USA;
- for the same 2008 financial year, the total price of one hour flight of the F-22, including variables, permanent and other indirect costs, was 44 259 Doll. While, for F-15, the same figure was 30 818 Doll. USA;
- rain, Other precipitation, climatic and weather conditions do not affect the performance of radar absorbing coatings F-22 Raptor; the percentage of readiness F-22 Raptor with 2004 to July 2009 It has increased from 62 to 68 percent.
- The average level of combat readiness of the rest of the fleet is 64,5 %;
- the complexity of the F-22 mezhpolotnogo service is 13 hours 1 hour flight. according to the plans, July 2009 , the labor input should be 19 hours 1 hour flight, and at the end of "maturation" should be brought to 11 hours.

On some issues with anti-radar coating it has also been reported in articles in the journal Air Force Magazine, published 13-20 July 2009 of the year. According to the magazine, problem was that, that the coating is kept in the half, than foreseen. but, It goes on to say about the decision of the problem and the constant improvement of the quality of coatings, F-22, which increased the readiness to 68 %.

As for the labor input of service, in F-22, it is not excessively high at 30 man-hours 1 hour flight. for comparison, the third-generation fighter, the F-4 "Phantom» II, the figure was 35 man-h / h, and the F-104 "Starfighter", find it difficult to maintain - 50 man-h / h.

 F-22A Raptor Dimensions. Engine. The weight. story. Range of flight. Service ceiling

Avionics

– BRLS: Israeli naval c Afar APG-77
– detection range: 225 -193 km in goals with ЭPR = 1 m²
– Weight: 553,7 kg
– The maximum average radiated power: 16533 W
– volume: 0,565 m³
– Flow of cooling air: 4,38 kg / min
– Coolant Flow: 33,9 l / min
– the diameters of Afar: 0,813 m
– weight: 219,1 kg
– volume: 0,275 m³
– dissipated power: 8278 W
– Coolant Flow: 11,3 l / min

– AN / ALR-94 radar warning receiver, comprises 30 sensors, located in the wings and fuselage, that provides all overlapping ranges within 360 ° .Sistema capable of detecting, accompany and identify the purpose, on distance 460 km and more. When approaching the target at a distance of at least 180 km is provided for targeting APG-77 using the generated system ALR-94 accompaniment file. As a result of the on-board radar to detect and track the target with a very narrow beam (2ґ2 ° in azimuth and elevation planes). ALR-94 determines the direction, type of threat and the distance to it, and then calculates the distance, where enemy radar can detect F-22.Vse data arrives on-board displays, and pilot to provide timely information graphics for maneuver for the protection of aircraft. On the screen of the main display mark SAMs fire and long-range detection radar control radar enclosed in the circle, that show their estimated effective range of fire.

– An / Aahri 56 IR warning system missile attack.

ЭПР F-22

Russian researchers, eg Poghosyan, Lagarkov, But Davydenko. n. (aircraft chief designer of the PAK-FA) ESR was evaluated as for F-22 within 0,3-0,4 m².

foreign experts (Aviation Week & Space Technology, GlobalSecurity.org) referring to the value indicated Lockheed Martin F-EPR 22 0.0001 — 0.0002 m² (-40 dBsm). What most concerns the local minimum in the diagram ESR.

 F-22A Raptor Dimensions. Engine. The weight. story. Range of flight. Service ceiling

Technical problems

In May 2012 , US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta signed the order, imposes significant limitations on the flights of fighter aircraft F-22 Raptor. The reason for this was unsuccessful searches causes failures onboard oxygen generation system (OBOGS), complaints of pilots for choking and unpleasant odors in the cockpit. according to the order, F-22 now have no right to make long flights, and always have to be in range of runways, that, in case of need, pilots to make an emergency landing. Wherein, as noted by Defense News, flights of aircraft, based in Alaska, are prohibited completely, as the base located there are difficult for emergency landing.

The decision to impose severe restrictions on the flights of the F-22 was made shortly after, the US Air Force transferred several of these fighters to one of the bases in Southwest Asia, and after a public statement about the two pilots, that they refuse to fly a Raptor. 15 May 2012 the US House of Representatives subcommittee on military appropriations ordered to allocate 50 million dollars to install a backup breathing gas security system on the F-22 fighter jets.

Fighters F-22 since the beginning of 2011 year under the influence of another ban - they can not rise above 7,6 thousand meters. It is believed, that at this height if there are signs of choking the pilot is able to be reduced at least to the 5,4 thousand meters, to remove the mask and to breathe the air in the cabin. Besides, in nearly a year and a half the US Air Force several times suspended F-22 flights. In particular, fighters could not rise into the air from May to September last year,.

US Air Force attempted to get rid of the problems with the OBOGS system since the end of 2010 of the year. In November 2010 in Alaska crashed fighter F-22 under the control of the pilot Jeffrey Haney. According to the Commission of Inquiry, He headed by retired Gen. Gregory Martin (Gregory Martin), cause of the accident was the incorrect functioning OBOGS, because of what Haney began experiencing asthma. At the same time on the dead pilot was blamed for the disaster.

In the course of inspections carried out was able to identify the source of the problem. According to the Pentagon, they turned out to vest, worn by pilots, to facilitate breathing during F-22 cab reduced pressure: it is too much inflated at high overload and interfere with normal breathing. In the ensuing in connection with the modernization, in order to ensure a better flow of air, Two significant changes were made. At first, It was replaced with the valve in a vest, maintain pressure pilots: now he responds to the pressure change in the cabin and blown, when there is no need. And secondly, Air volume was increased, incoming pilot. This change was made possible after removal of the filter, detects the presence of contaminants in the presence of oxygen in the system. In this case, the possibility of contamination was excluded in principle.

After receiving assurances, that corrective measures will minimize the resulting pilots F-22 signs of hypoxia, The Pentagon has approved the Air Force planned sequential removal of restrictions on flights since 24 July 2012 of the year.

 F-22A Raptor Dimensions. Engine. The weight. story. Range of flight. Service ceiling

Flight accident

As of November 2012 of the year, Five fighters were lost in the accident flight F-22 Raptor:

– 25 April 1992 , the prototype YF-22A (sir. number 87-0701) crashed while landing at Edwards Air Force Base and was decommissioned.
– 20 December 2004 , the F-22A (sir. number 00-4014) It crashed during takeoff from Nellis Air Force Base, pilot ejected.
– 11 February 2007 of the year 12 fighter F-22 is not able to fly from the US to Japan because of the problems with navigation software (presumably due to the change of the line of intersection of dates in the middle of the Pacific Ocean).
– 25 Martha 2009 , the F-22A (sir. number 91-4008) He crashed in the Mojave Desert of California, near Edwards Air Force Base, during a test flight, 49-old pilot David Cooley died.
– 16 November 2010 года F-22A Block 30 (sir. number 06-4125) It crashed in 160 kilometers of Anchorage when performing paired training flight in 19:40 by local time. Pilot - Jeffrey Haney - died. The original cause of the accident was pilot error is named, However, a detailed investigation has established, that in fact there was a motor overheating, that caused the emergency shutdown of air conditioning systems (ECS) and onboard oxygen generation system (OBOGS). Does not recognize in time the signs of suffocation, the pilot did not have time to activate the emergency oxygen supply system and lost consciousness, which resulted in the collapse of. In February 2013 year report was published US Department of Defense, which give an opinion on the previous report of the United States Air Force: It noted, that the original version of the mistakes made by the pilot was "hasty" and "not supported by the facts", that in the Air Force report, there was no detailed description of the work mechanism of oxygen generation system.
– 15 November 2012 , the F-22 has fallen on the highway in the US. The accident happened in Florida near the airbase USAF "Tyndall". The pilot of the aircraft managed to eject.
– 7 December 2012 , during a memorial ceremony on the occasion of the 71st anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor was damaged during landing fighter F-22 Raptor. Repair the aircraft is estimated to be 1,8 million dollars.

AT 2011 year total flight exceeded the F-22 100 000 hours. Since the beginning of operation of the US Air Force until October 2015 the average loss amounted to a raid on 56 180 hours.

 F-22A Raptor Dimensions. Engine. The weight. story. Range of flight. Service ceiling

The performance characteristics of F-22A Raptor

The crew of the F-22 Raptor

– 1 human

The dimensions of the F-22 Raptor

– Wingspan: 13,56 m
– The length of the plane: 18,90 m
– The height of the aircraft: 5,09 m
– wing area: 78,04 m²
– In the area. ABOUT.: 16,54 m²
– area D. ABOUT.: 12,63 m²

Weight F-22 Raptor

– empty weight: 19700 kg
– Mass normal takeoff: 29200 kg (100 % fuel)
– Maximum weight: 38000 kg
– normal load: 1116 kg (6+2 SKILLS)
– maximum load: 10370 kg
– Fuel: 8200 kg
– Mass two FTB: 11900 kg

The engine F-22 Raptor

– engine's type: 2x TRDDF Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100
– Static forced flow: 15876 kgf
– Thrust-to-weight ratio at a normal takeoff weight: 1,087
– Thrust-to-weight ratio at the maximum takeoff weight: 0,83

The speed of the F-22 Raptor

– full speed: 2410 km / h - the maximum (M = 2.25) (in peace time the maximum speed is limited by M = 2 m. it is. 2124 kmh)
– Maximum speed without afterburner: 1826 kmh (M = 1.72)
– Cruising speed: 850 kmh (M = 0.8)
– Maximum speed at ground: 1490 kmh (M = 1.22)

Flight range F-22 Raptor

– Range with two drop tanks: 2960 km
– Ferry range: 3220 km
– combat radius: 760 km (of them 185,2 km besforsazhny supersonic cruise mode)

Practical ceiling F-22 Raptor

– 20 000 m

Maximum overload of the F-22 Raptor

9,5 G (in peacetime 8G)

Armament F-22 Raptor

– 20-millimeter gun M61A2 Vulcan, 480 shells
– Missile air-to-air: six AIM-120C AMRAAM and two AIM-9M Sidewinder.
– Responsive bombs JDAM.
– Compatible with controlled precision bombs SDB class (Small Diameter Bomb) GBU-39 и SDB-53 / B

Photo F-22A Raptor

 F-22A Raptor Dimensions. Engine. The weight. story. Range of flight. Service ceiling

 F-22A Raptor Dimensions. Engine. The weight. story. Range of flight. Service ceiling

 

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