IL-76 - Soviet heavy military transport aircraft, OKB Ilyushin developed in the project, and under the leadership of Mr.. AT. Novozhilova. Serially produced in Uzbekistan, at the Tashkent aviation production association named in. P. Chkalov. Production moved to Ulyanovsk "Aviastar-SP".
IL-76 – video
28 June 1966 the Ministry of Aviation Industry of the USSR instructed the OKB C. AT. Ilyushin carry out research work on the creation of the project of the military-transport aircraft IL-76. Already 25 February 1967 , the General Designer With. AT. Ilyushin approved to develop a technical proposal for the creation of IL-76. 27 November 1967 the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a resolution to start work on the creation of IL-76. Work on the creation of the aircraft took place under the supervision of the Deputy General Designer T. AT. Novozhilova (from 28 July 1970 of the year, Novozhilov - General Designer of OKB "Arrow" of the Moscow Machine-Building Plant). Development of conceptual design of the aircraft was carried out under the direction of D. AT. Leschiner. FROM 12 by 31 May 1969 Prototyping has been working commission under the leadership of Commander Lieutenant General BTA G. n. Pakileva, whereas in the manufacture of a full-size mockup of the aircraft tested including the deployment of various military equipment on the plane. The act of working mock-up committee was approved by the Chief of the Air Force P. FROM. Kutakhov 20 November 1969 of the year.
The construction of the first prototype of the aircraft was carried out in Moscow Machine-Building Plant "Strela". The first flight of an airplane made 25 Martha 1971 year from the Central aerodrome named M. AT. Frunze (Commander - Hero of Soviet Union E. AND. Kuznetsov), landing made at Ramenskoye airfield. In May 1971 , the aircraft was first brought to the attention of the international community at the air show in Le Bourget. aircraft testing took place in the garrison Krechevitsy (near Veliky Novgorod) and in the same division (Vitebsk-North, Krechevitsy, crosses (Pskov)) for the first time I got up on the arms of the USSR VVS. Has worked well in the maneuvers "Shield-76" and "Shield-78". She showed their best in Afghanistan.
The first production aircraft made its first flight 5 May 1973 years from the airport of the Tashkent aviation plant, crew test pilot A.M. Tyuryumyna. In the future, the IL-76 of various modifications were produced at the Tashkent aviation production association named in. P. Chkalov, built just a few years production of about 1000 Flight, of which more than 100 were exported.
In the late 1980s, under the leadership of P. P. Papkovskogo started the development of a new modification of the IL-76MF / TF. 1 August 1995 the crew of the test pilot of A. n. Knyshova made its first flight on an experimental Il-76MF, manufactured on the "Tashkent aviation production association named in. P. Chkalov ". During the work on the modernization of the aircraft fuselage in two inserts have been added on 3,3 m, which greatly increased the volume of cargo compartment (from 326 to 400 m³), power point - 4 PS-90A-76. Compared with D-30KP: great traction and better fuel economy - at 12-15 %, flight range increased by 15-20 %, also to ICAO standards the reduced noise and emissions. Serial production of IL-76MF is planned in Russia, at the aircraft plant "Aviastar-SP" in Ulyanovsk. In late March 2012 Year completed assembly of the first serial copy.
IL-76 is designed to transport and airdrop personnel, equipment and supplies for different purposes. It is the first in the history of Soviet military transport aircraft with turbojet engines. The aircraft is capable of delivering a maximum mass loads 28-60 m at a distance of 3600-4200 km at a cruising speed of 770-800 km / h (the maximum weight of cargo and flight range depends on version).
All cabins IL-76 are sealed, which makes it possible to carry 167 (in decked embodiment - 245) soldier with a personal weapon or to eject 126 man landing group. The aircraft may carry the entire range of military equipment airborne units. One IL-76 may parachute parachute way, on airborne platforms, three pieces of equipment (BMD-1, BMD-2, BTR-D or GAZ-66) or four units of planting method. Also, It can carry much of the art motorized divisions.
The cargo compartment has dimensions 24,5 m in length (of which 4,5 It falls on the ramp), 3,46 m in width and 3,4 m in height. Aircraft able to take on board 90 000 l fuel and overcome the distance to 6700 km at average fuel consumption 9 t / a.
Designed for use on concrete and unpaved airfields with the strength characteristics of not less than 0,6 MPa.
The length of the runway to take-off of 1500-2000 m, and the range of 930-1000 m at landing.
The estimated cost of the aircraft - 27 million US dollars.
The plane constructed according to traditional heavy transport aircraft scheme odnofyuzelyazhnogo vysokoplana swept wing and odnokilevym T-tail. trapezoidal airplane wing with fracture of the trailing edge. Wing sweep through quarters Chords - 25 °. Each half-wing is equipped with powerful mechanization and a five-section slats and two flaps trohschelevymi. There is also two-piece four aileron and brake flaps. Horizontal tail is disposed on top of keel (T-shape). The keel has a rudder trimmer and servo tab. stabilizer resettable, with the steering wheel height and trimmer-Flettner.
Round in cross-section fuselage is divided into several pressurized cabins: cockpit (above the forward fuselage), cabin mate (under the cockpit), cargo cabin and the aft cabin hand gun mount with a pair of guns GSH-23L (pilots and cabin mate hermetically not divided, aft cabin with gun setting is present only on the military versions of the aircraft). In the front part of the fuselage are arranged two hatches. At the stern is the rear cargo hatch tricuspid. Dropping personnel is possible in four streams (two through the cargo hatch), however, in practice this method is almost never used because of the frequent similarities in the air desantiruemye. The cargo compartment is equipped with two cargo winches, mounted near the front bulkhead, four hoist lifting capacity of 2,5 t and four podtrapnikami, the width of which position can be changed. For ease of loading and unloading the rear hoists can be pulled over the threshold onto the ramp 5 m. Floor of the cargo compartment is equipped with a roller table tracks, that enables loading, unloading and landing of non-self-Monocargo.
Power point represented by four turbojets, suspended on pylons under the wing. On the first production versions installed engines D-30KP thrust 12 000 kgf. The motors allow the aircraft to fly in the speed range 260-850 km / h, what, one side, It provides comfortable conditions of air landing, on the other hand, high speed cruising flight. In the latest versions of aircraft engines D-30KP replaced with PS-90A-76 pull 14 500 (3300) kgf at takeoff (cruise) mode.
The power plant of IL-76
VSU TA-6A placed in front of the left landing gear fairing. It serves to provide aircraft parked power ≈208 V and 115 V ~, = 27 and compressed air for starting the main engines.
Chassis pyatiopornoe, mnogokolosnoe, retractable into the fuselage. The nose has a leg 4 tubeless wheels (1... 18 nm.), p = 5,5 + 0,5 kg / cm2 for the primer and p = 7,5 + 0,5 kg / cm2 for concrete. WHEEL controlled by an angle ± 48 °. and during taxiing of the pedal at an angle of ± 7 degrees (take-off landing). The wheels are braked when reverting. The main landing gear legs are made up of front and rear struts (35... 51 nm.). On each of the four racks established on 4 chamber wheel with p = 4,5 + 0,5 kg / cm2 for the primer and p = 7 + 0.5 kg / cm2 for concrete. Parking braking by a switch on TSPL. Axle with wheels unfolds 90 city. at harvest.
Neutral gas generator (azotnaya system) installed in front of the right chassis fairing and right front luggage compartment. It serves to produce NG and outputting it by pipeline to tanks space nadtoplivnoe. Nitric system further has 16 cylinders (16 l) nitrogen.
– harvesting and landing gear;
– wheel braking GNSH;
– wheel rotation NNSH;
– cleaning and flaps and slats;
– spoiler and airbrake control;
– opening and closing the front doors;
– management Rampoy, germostvorkoy, flap cargo hatch;
– control tail wheel;
– opening and closing of the escape hatches;
– wiper control;
– doors fotolyuka management.
The hydraulic system is divided into 2 independent, independent of each other system, № 1 and number 2. Operating pressure 210-7+15 kg / cm2, AMG-oil volume 10 l ≈240. a hydraulic pressure source is 2 pump NP-89 for the g / s № 1 (on 1 and 2 engine), 2 pump NP-89 for the g / s № 2 (on 3 and 4 engine). The emergency source in each g / s are electrically driven pump station HC-46. Control of the work performed from the panel, mounted on the left side of the cockpit, have a flight engineer.
Fuel system intended for receiving and supplying fuel to the main engines, k VSU TA-6A and GNG. TC consists of:
– fuel tanks, placed around the wing and constituting a caisson-tanks, included in the power circuit of the wing. Fuel tanks have a drainage system.
– Fuel pumping system and feeding it to the main engines.
– Fuel supply system to APU.
– fuel tanks refueling system.
– Condensate drain system and fuel.
The maximum amount of fuel, refueled at a central refueling 109480 l (84840 kg). Wing deployed 4 isolated groups of tanks (for each engine has its own group). In each group 3 tank: main, and additional backup. Besides, on wing consoles installed on one drain tank. Tanks are numbered in accordance with membership of the engine, eg: 1-D, 1-D, 1-R. The tanks are separated by leakproof partitions ribs, (28 rib, 20…19, 9, 4…3, 0). Each tank has a compartment predraskhodny, and in the main tank, and more consumable compartment. These compartments are separated from the rest of the ribs tank, in the lower parts of which are located check valves, providing one-way flow of fuel from the pump predraskhodnyh (consumables) compartments. To approach in the internal volume of the tanks, Refills their top fuel, draining condensate and fuel to the wing surface are respectively hatches, manholes, jellied mouth and push taps. The fuel tanks are situated vehicle units:
– System JTMP-4-1 (fuel management software system);
– Fuel supply system for engines and pumping in predraskhodny and consumable compartments;
– refueling system tanks;
– condensate drain system;
– drainage system
Fire alarm system and the system of NG
Permanent fire fighting system (PPS) It provides detection, signaling and elimination of fire engines in nacelles, in front of a center section and SCHK, in the compartments of the APU and GNG. As an extinguishing agent in fixed PPP uses Freon 114 B2, which is enclosed in three cylindrical bottles UBTS-16-7 (16 l, 7 pirogolovok). In the case of landing with landing gear retracted stationary discharge PPP provides all three extinguishers (automatically). The signal coming from the HF under removable wing fairings on consoles and the bottom of the chassis fairings.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers intended to extinguish the fire inside the cabin and outside the aircraft. In the cockpit (in the cockpit HQ, in tehotseke and aft cabin) used fire extinguishers OP-1-2 with extinguishing mixture of Freon 12 B1. The cargo cabin fire extinguishers installed OR-2-6 with Halocarbon 12 B1.
Structural protection is formed on a plane in the form of fire walls, oblitsovok, seals, drainage cavities, etc.. d.
stationary PPS is controlled from the panel "Fire Protection" installed on VESCHL. The aircraft as set nacelles overheating detection system, triggered with the possible destruction of the bleed air duct of the engine.
neutral gas system (CIS) designed to protect aircraft fuel tanks from explosion or fire in case of lumbago wing during a combat mission or a flight combat zone. In operation, neutral gas system (NG) served in nadtoplivnoe space tanks and, filling it as fuel generation, It creates an environment vzryvopreduprezhdayuschuyu, displacing the air and fuel vapor. The source of neutral gas is a neutral gas generator (GNG). Neutral gas GNG formed from the air in the combustion of fuel in it. Air is supplied from SLE, fuel from Vehicle. The main component of the neutral gas nitrogen from the air (80 %). Besides, a neutral gas must contain at least 11 % CO2 and O2 and may contain CO at no more than 2 %. CIS management focused on workplace BI panel.
electrical power system
SP3S4P60V system of three-phase alternating current voltage 200/115 In a primary and a main power supply system on aircraft. The system combines 4 channel in the number GT-60PCH6A alternators and is divided into 2 independent subsystems: subsystem port and starboard with two generators, working separately or in parallel, In each independent subsystem. It provides for parallel operation of three generators, Parallel operation of the four generators excluded. Generators are connected via constant speed drive (PPO). Each generator works equipment:
– BLT-376SP - protection and control unit, designed to ensure the proper functioning of generators in separate or parallel operation.
– BRN-208M7B - a voltage control unit for stabilizing the given voltage of the alternator and a uniform load in parallel running generators.
– BRCH-62BM - frequency control unit and MCC-62TV - frequency correction mechanism.
– BBT, 60PM - block CTs.
– BCS-76 - bus switching unit.
– BMB-76 - power supply switch
Reserve AC source is a generator GT 40PCH6 (generator at VSU). It is a three-phase synchronous generator noncontact, which is used on the ground and in flight to H = 3000 m failure main generators.
The emergency source of AC single-phase voltage 115 V ~ 400 Hz is rotating converters IN-750A. As the land-based sources are used aggregates APA-50 and-60 AEMG. They are connected to a power outlet SHRAP-400F, located in the right fairing chassis.
DC power supply system voltage 27 The secondary is composed of two independent subsystems - port or starboard. are major sources 4 TA-6A rectifying device(B), which provide AC power conversion 200 AT 400 Hz 28,5 VDC. Auxiliary source is a starter-generator GS-12TO APU TA-6, which is used as a starter when starting the APU and as a generator after the rated operation in APU. are emergency sources 4 Alkaline batteries 20NKBN-25-KM, which are located on the 2 pieces in the chassis fairings (left and right). The batteries supply the power of vital consumers for 20 or 30 minutes ... 20 three minutes at failed starts APU. When powered all consumers during operation is reduced approximately 3 fold.
The main sources of three-phase alternating current 36 AT 400 Hz are 2 three phase step-down power transformer TS320SO4A. The primary windings of the transformers are supplied from the tire side of three-phase AC voltage 200/115 AT. power TS320SO4A 2 kW. Transformers are connected to RU-25 tires and RU-26, which are used to supply consumers PNA (flight control and navigation system). Redundant power converter is a DC-125TS, which converts the DC voltage 27 Into alternating current three-phase voltage 36 AT 400 Hz. PT-125TS converter is self-powered artificial horizon AGB-3K, Switch VK-90M correction, magnetic recorder MSRP-64. Emergency power-phase alternating current voltage ~ 36 V, frequency 400 Hz is performed from the RT-1-025 power transformer 0,25 kVA, powered by a 750-IN. Consumers AC voltage 36 AT 400 Hz connected via one wire bus circuit breaker, and the second - on the aircraft body.
General cabin illumination and jobs produced shades PS-62U, have white lights and red. Switches control "Lighting White - Red" are on the left-hand upright remote commander and "Lighting" on the right 11 nm. Local lighting panels and controls produced lamps: CT, KSHL-63M, PP-64, SBC, CM-1km (red matt) and SM-1BM (white matt). Individual lighting devices and consoles - built-in lamps in red and slit lamps CB-1 (high lamp) and C-60 (80). LEDs on the local and individual lighting fixtures placed on the first and second line, each of which is powered by alternating current ~ 115 400 CIA Hz RC and opposite sides through transformers regulators TR-50, TR-45, TP-35 and TP-80, which handles displayed on the plates and labeled "red lights" on the remote pilots, borttehnika for ADO on ADO, WOULD BE, SAF and are marked accordingly: "First" line and the "second" line.
Cargo compartment lighting
– 20 lampshades PS-62U disposed on the sides forming the front and (6 PC.), average (6 PC.) and back (8 PC.) group of the main cargo compartment lighting. They are driven by a CIA-35, 36, 37 respectively, Control switches on 3 PC. mounted on the front panel at the BT of ADO and the technical compartment. In flight with landing gear retracted at the opening of the front door or the cargo hatch or the front middle and rear diffusers automatically switch from white to red light;
– 10 lampshades PS-45 emergency lighting installed in pairs along the axis of the ceiling: Right - White, Left - Red. Power from the CIA-37 or RU-61. control switches installed at the entry door into the cargo compartment;
– 30 PS-45 lampshades illumination mooring units are installed under the seats along the cargo compartment. Power is obtained from the CIA-35, 36 and includes a front panel switch BT on ADO "Highlight locks";
– 2 lights DF-100 local lighting medical operating table, located on trowels. 17 and includes two switches "Lighting the operating table" on the front panel of the ADO borttehnika;
– 2 FR-lamps illumination 100 are mounted on the loading platform trowels. 57 under the ceiling. Power from the CIA-37 is activated by two switches "Lights ramp" on the rear panel;
– CRU and monoblock DISS-013 highlights the PSN-51. Power from the CIA-35 and turns on the respective switches;
– working place health workers and flight engineer on ADO additionally illuminated lamps SLSHN-48.
The cargo compartment Il-76MD
Illumination of the tail section of the aircraft
– highlights five shades PS-45, simultaneously illuminating pins germostvorki locks. Power is obtained from the CIA-37 and 38 (RU-43 44) and includes two switches on shp.90 at the entrance to the cabin door and SAF on germostvorke.
The remaining compartments and empennage
– illuminated shades PSN-51 or SS-45 shades, their switches are located at the entrance to the appropriate compartments. There PL-64 portable lamps, sockets around the aircraft.
– 4 rulozhnye lights PRF-4M mounted on the wingtips, and in the forward fuselage, receive power from the CIA-35, 36 and RU-23, 24. Control Switch "Lights" located on the top panel of pilots.
– headlight illumination stabilizer NRF-14 is installed in the left fairing chassis shp.54 area ... 55, receiving power from the CIA-35 and the push switch turns "Highlight stabilizer" in the technical panel at the inspection crew compartment unit CU-27AMSH.
– headlight illumination of the left half-wing and left engine nacelles NRF-14 is located on the left side near shp.11 ... 12 under the fairing, is powered by EN-23 and turned on the pressure switch "highlight MG", which is located at the left front door.
– 2 ceiling illumination loading platform PS-45 are mounted on the middle svorke c. / hatch, receiving power from the CIA-37 and activated by a switch on the rear panel b / t ADO.
– Manual CPR-signaling lamp 45 is in the cradle on the right panel and cab of the navigator can be used to illuminate the obstacles in lane taxiing and supplying light signals.
Arrow Cab and ramp Il-76
Signaling refers to the inner
– 4 Indicator light "Emergency Exit" SU-2A located above the escape exits from the cargo compartment and have individual power supplies, are included in b / t for ADO and provide at least 10 minutes retardant and can be used as portable lamps.
– 3 fire type ANO-62 XC right with a green, Left red in the wingtips and white in Ho. Power from the CIA-37 through BUANO-76 control unit (nm. 3738 ... Left), They may be included in the modes: «30 %», «60 %», "100%" Brightness (constant light) and "flashing" (with frequency 45 flashes / min with brightness 100 %).
– parking lights: 2 68 installed in the exhaust gas fire zakontsovkah left and right wing and intended to denote wingspan and light barriers in a strip steering 80 ... 100 m.
– Pulse beacons media-2KM, It consists of a power supply and two lamps pulsed discharge, mounted on the center shp.29 and average leaf cargo hatch. When you open gruzolyuka automatically disabling the beacon.
– The tail lights of flight systems and alarms on the leading: 2 Fire XC-62 are located in the rear fuselage and have replaceable filters: red, yellow, white and green, which are stored on the left side shp.68 ... 69. the control switch is in the navigator: "Landing" "Flow Left - Right Feed".
– Anti-theft lighthouse: beacon ICP-3 is disposed on the center shp.25 and activated simultaneously with 2 sirens C-1 at the opening of the aircraft by outsiders, if not previously been typed the code on the dashboard key switch (10 buttons) in compartment flap refueling in the right fairing chassis. Battery power supply number 2 (RU-62A), code set by using 4 forks on 10 rosettes control unit, which is located in the left landing gear compartment below the floor c. cabin. The lighthouse is prepared to work after closing the doors and hatches on the panel by pressing the reset button on the key switch.
To solve a number of problems need to aeronautical measurement and calculation of the following options:: barometric altitude, instrument and true airspeed, number M and the outside air temperature. For this purpose on a plane the following systems are used:
– pitot static system;
– aneroid membrane devices (AMP);
– air data system SVS1-72-1V (2 kit);
– central system of air speed and altitude signals EVC-3M-1B;
– proofreaders-speed reference KZSP and height of the SGC;
– measuring complex relay IKDRDF pressure.
The system has a total pressure 3 Receiver PDP-1M, each of which provides a total pressure of a certain group of consumers. Two receivers are mounted on the left side of the fuselage, and one on the right in shp.6 area ... 7. To prevent freezing of moisture is provided heating PPD-1M and alarm failure heating.
The system has a static pressure 16 the main receiver (by 8 receivers on each side of the fuselage in the zone shp.10 (by 2), shp.18 (three), shp.20 (two), shp.62 (one)) and 1 spare (under radome CP-2). main 16 receivers combined in 8 line static pressure.
Mechanical aneroid membrane devices for measurement and display height, instrument and true airspeed, rate of descent and ascent. On the dashboard of the crew members found: 2 altimeter VM-15K, 4 DSB-730/1100, 3 variometer VAR-30MK and variometers VAR-75K. To fly abroad provided the replacement VM-15K on futomery Navy-50K. Replacement does not require design changes.
Correctors speed and height deviations measured airspeed and flight altitude of the aircraft from the preset values and outputting a SAU-1T electrical signals proportional to these deviations when included "Stabilization speed" mode and the "height Stabilization". KZSP ACS produces a electric signal when the speed of 600+20-10 kmh. This signal is used for automatic airspeed limit in all channel conditions pitch SAU. Together unit readiness signaling works with every proofreader, that before connecting to the ACS controls the equalizer output signal and if it exceeds the threshold value, it produces a signal failure and the checker is connected to ACS. Upon cancellation corrector after connection to the ACS unit produces a signal failure, but concealer is still connected to the ACS. failure alarm annunciator panel is made of yellow color "Check N ass" (2 PC.), are included with? H = 60 ± 20 m or "Check Vzad" (2 PC.) at ΔV = 15 km / h. Scoreboard mounted on the left and right of TDL. Enabling display "Check Nzad" duplicated voice message "Check predetermined height".
IKDR-DF-0,25-0,17-3 It is intended to include the red display "Excess M, VPR »LAF at VPR = 578 ± 8 km / h. When any of the two relays include two boards. IKDR-DF-0,04-0,038-3 It is intended to include yellow board "Check mechanization" to PEPs and RI-65 "Speed exceeded! Check mechanization!"When the Vred = 274 ... 284 km / h, if the flaps 430. IKDR-DF-0,1-0,065-3 It is intended to include yellow board "Check mechanization" to PEPs and RI-65 "Speed exceeded! Check mechanization!"When the Vred = 354 ... 373 km / h, Esslin mechanization 250/300. IKDR-DF-0,1-0,075-3 It is intended to include yellow board "Check mechanization" to PEPs and RI-65 "Speed exceeded! Check mechanization!"When the Vred = 381 ... 400 km / h, Esslin mechanization 140/150.
SVS1-72-1V intended for dispensing in airborne systems and indicators on the following parameters: M, VIST, NOTN, NABS, MCR = 0.77 ± 0.01, deviation from a predetermined number M ΔM, tNV, PCT. The aircraft is set 2 set SVS1-72-1V. EVC-3M-1B is designed to calculate and continuously output to the operator, and pointers to the calculator 257-1I WB-relative pressure altitude, true airspeed and outside air temperature. These parameters are calculated in the system EVC-3M-1B based on the total and static pressure, hindered air temperature and atmospheric pressure at ground level. angles of attack and overload Automatic with alarm AUASP-18KR is designed to measure the current in-flight local angles of attack and vertical accelerations, calculation of the critical angles of attack as a function of Mach number, indicating the critical current and the vertical angles of attack and overload, as well as the occurrence of critical mode the angle of attack and the vertical overload alarm. dangerous proximity alarm system SSOS is intended to alert the crew about the dangerous aircraft to the ground closing speed.
Apparatus determining the spatial position of the aircraft. they measure:
– roll angle relative to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft;
– pitch angle relative to the horizontal plane of the natural;
– Plane turning angular velocity about the vertical axis of the aircraft.
– Gyroscopic central vertical TSGV-10P (the left, right, control - 3 PC.) tehotseke located in the left and right side shp.11 ... 12;
– comparing unit gyrovertical AAH-2P (1 PC.) located in tehotseke starboard shp.11 ... 12;
– alarm violations SNP-1 Power (1 PC.) Located next to the AAH-2P;
– pointer roll and pitch UKT-2 is located at the HQ;
– VK-90M correction switch (4 PC.) tehotseke located in the left and right side shp.11 ... 12;
– attitude indicator AGB-3K (1 PC.) of PD KK;
– electrical blinkers EUP-53MK-500 (2 PC.) located on the PD QC GAC.
– Magnetic compass CI-13K.
Designed for life support crew and passengers when flying at high altitudes in the sealed and depressurized cabins, and crew breathing pure oxygen at the span areas with contaminated atmosphere or cabin smoke blanketing. KP-19 and KP-21 are installed on the cylinder CB-2 capacity 7,65 l, which is charged to p = 30 kg / cm² under normal conditions.
The exact exchange rate system TCS-P is designed to determine and display the aircraft course, as well as for the issuance of electrical signals in the course of other aircraft systems. TCS-P is a centralized system, combining the gyro and magnetic means for determining the rate. When combined with the Diss-013 and BCCH pointer TCS-P provides an indication of drift angle, setpoint and actual angle of travel of the aircraft. Inertial navigation systems and 11-76, is designed to determine the coordinates of your location, velocity, roll angles, and pitch rate of the aircraft. I-11-76 serves as an independent source of navigation information, which is issued on a digital display of the navigator. inertial system operation is based on the continuous measurement of linear accelerations translational movement of the aircraft in the direction north (along the Y axis) and east (along the X axis) using two accelerometers, angled 90 ° to each other on a horizontal platform gyrostabilized, and followed by twice integrating the acceleration signals (au, brother) in DCM.
Onboard registration modes MSRP-64M-2 designed to filter the tape recording main filter parameters, operation of its power plants, systems and equipment, and the recorded information to determine the causes of flight accidents. Recorded data is decrypted only on the ground by means of decoders type NDU-8, Luch-74, ARM "Topaz-M". Three-K3-63 recorder is designed to record in-flight altitude, airspeed and overload. Voice recorder - tape MC-61b, to record the negotiations in the cockpit.
automatic control system
SAU-1T-2B is designed to:
– and the guiding of automatic piloting of the aircraft by a given route with H = 200 m to a maximum flight altitude of climb modes, horizontal filter and reducing;
– the construction of pre-maneuver the signals UCMJ and the construction of the maneuver type "boxes" on the signals of the ARC-15;
– approach to H = 60 m in automatic and director control.
– ACS includes: sdvoennыy autopilot (AP), Managing RN, RV and ailerons, dual autothrottle (AT), upravlyayuschyy ores; dual automatic permutation APS stabilizer; snubber roll and yaw damper dual, Managing vehicle and switched off the autopilot aileron.
The ACS roll channel uses the following modes:
– "Management" from the pens' Roll ";
– "Management" from the pens "Kurs";
– "Control" from the "TAL" knob in the navigator;
– "Management" from the TEC and the INS "Flight of LZP";
– "Management" from ICD "Landing with Mo" and "Landing with ZN";
– "Capsule" mode;
– "Approach" - access to the runway center;
– semi-automatic (-director) with the regime 5 by 8 inclusive.
Channel pitch includes the following automatic control modes:
– "Stabilization of the current pitch angle";
– "Management" from the pens "Descent-Ascent";
– "Rate stabilization";
– "Stabilization of M";
– "Altitude hold";
– "Approach" - decrease on the glide path;
– semi-automatic (-director) operation with the regime, "Stabilization of the height" to "Approach";
– automatic limitation Vred MAX = 600 + 20-10 km / h.
Radio engineering and radio navigation equipment
– KP-3A radar forward-looking
– Jets intercom SPU-8
– Jets of SSU-15 loudspeaker device
– Emergency shortwave radio R-861
– Shortwave radio R-847T
– Station P-862 (2 company.)
– Apparatus telecode connection P-099 M «Seagull»
– Bitching Betty RI-65
– Recorder MS 61b
– Dosimeter DP-3B
– Automatic Direction Finder ARK-15M (2 company.)
– FM radio-compass ARK-U2
– Radio range navigation RSBN 7C
– Radio range navigation A-711
– Radiodalʹnomer SDK-67
– Navigation and landing equipment RATE-MP-2
– Jets transponders COM-64, and SB-70
– Low altitude radio altimeter RV-5 (2 kompl)
– Doppler speed measurer and drift angle Diss-013-C2M
– Warning System irradiation SPO-10
– Navigation and piloting sighting system "Dome-II-76"
– Managing computer system UVC-based digital computer "Gnome-A"
IL-76 – The first production modification. The first prototype flight 25 Martha 1971 , under the command of E. AND. Kuznetsova. The first flight of the serial car 5 May 1973 of the year.
IL-76 «Baghdad-1" – Later renamed «Adnan» -1. AWACS plane Iraqi Air Force based on the Il-76MD with antenna radar Thomson-CSF Tiger-G, which was mounted in a fixed fairing in place of the loading ramp. There were built 3 aircraft, one of them was badly damaged during the raid Aviation Multinational Force.
Il-76 'Adnan 2 » – Modification with locator radar Tiger in a rotating radome. During the Gulf War, he flew to Iran (which was later named «Simorgh»), a 22 September 2009 , during a rehearsal parade crashed, although officially the type of the crashed plane was not immediately after the incident communicated.
Open-76KT – The aircraft to train astronauts in conditions simulating weightlessness. constructed 3 Plane this modification. First flight 2 August 1981 of the year.
Il-76LL – flying lab. The aircraft for training and testing of aircraft engines. The first flight in 1991 year. On the plane to change the configuration of electronic equipment and radar. To test the study engine is suspended on the pylon instead of the standard number 2.
Il-76M – streamlined, with a reinforced fuselage. Capacity increased to 42 tonnes. First flight 24 Martha 1978 of the year.
Open-76MGA – Civilian aircraft without special equipment and weapons. Construct and operate two machines (USSR-76502 and the USSR-76503). First flight 22 December 1976 of the year.
Il-76MD – upgraded distant, Candid-B according to NATO classification. A modified version of the Il-76M. Strengthened airframe and landing gear. Capacity increased to 48 t. Maximum takeoff weight increased to 190 t. Range of flight with the load 40 r increased to 4 200 km. Autonomous operation time increased to two months. Possible to install four additional pylons for suspension of aerial bombs and beacons. First flight 6 Martha 1981 of the year.
Il-76MF – Modification of aircraft Il-76MD. Compared with the basic model of the fuselage length increased by 6,6 m due to insertion of additional sections 3,3 m behind and in front of the wing. In this way, load floor length of the Il-76MF was 31,14 m compared with 24,5 m at the Il-76MD. Modernization also touched and avionics. The instrumentation includes two display indicator, satellite navigation unit added. With more modern equipment could be excluded from the crew radio operator, that is, the crew reduced to five. The use of more powerful and more efficient engines PS-90A-76 has increased the range of flight. Flight range Il-76MF with the load 40 tons of 5800 km compared with 4700 km of the Il-76MD. Capacity increased to 60 t. Maximum takeoff weight increased to 210 t. The first flight of committed 1 August 1995 of the year. State joint tests to be completed in 2009 year, and with 2010 year - to supply the Russian Air Force. The first production aircraft was built in 2010 year on aircraft plant "TAPOiCH".
Water discharge from Il-76MD
Il-76MD – Firefighter option. A modified version of the IL-76MD for firefighting. Able to take on board 42 t extinguishing fluid. First flight 28 January 1993 of the year. interesting fact, what in 1989 year in Krasnoyarsk tanks installed on 76508 l.
Il-76MD "scalpel" – Version of the Il-76MD, converted into a plane-hospital. On board are three medical unit, perform the functions of preoperative, operating rooms and intensive care. First flight 23 July 1983 of the year. According to media reports in July 2008 of the year, Military Medical aircraft "scalpel" has been in operation.
Il-76MD-90A (product 476) – Modification of aircraft Il-76MD. On the plane a more powerful and efficient engines PS-90A-76, which satisfy the ICAO's requirements in terms of noise and emissions.
IL-76MD M – Modified long-range upgraded. The upgraded version of the Il-76MD. It made its first flight 28 February 2016 of the year.
IL-76MDK "Cosmos" – Il-76MD, converted for astronauts training under simulated weightlessness. We strengthened aircraft wing and fuselage, are special batteries in the fuel and hydraulic systems to ensure smooth operation of these systems in weightlessness. The walls and ceiling of the cargo compartment are trimmed with soft material, fixed on the floor sports mats. First flight 6 August 1988 of the year. Created three such aircraft, they are all based on the Moscow airport "Chkalovsky".
Il-78MK – upgraded convertible. The aircraft tanker is designed based on the IL-78M and is intended for refueling in flight up to three aircraft for various purposes. After conversion in conditions Il-78MK can be used as a military transport aircraft for the transport and parachute landing of cargo and personnel.
Il-78MK-90 – Modification of the IL-78MK. On the plane a more powerful and efficient engines PS-90A-76, which satisfy the ICAO's requirements in terms of noise and emissions.
Il-76P – Aircraft for fighting fires. Able to take on board 32 t extinguishing fluid. First flight 22 September 1989 of the year.
Open-76PS – Search and Rescue. First flight 18 December 1984 of the year.
Il-76PP – jammer. A modified version of the IL-76MD. Established in a single copy. First flight 29 April 1987 of the year.
Il-76SK – Strategic air command post (VKP) to guide the country's nuclear forces in the case, if the ground control points will be put out of action (factory designation Il-76VKP). Equipped with a set of communication equipment (including satellite). constructed 2 aircraft, Both are based in the Chkalovsky airfield.
Il-76T – Transport. Civil modification of the Il-76M. By plane dismantled aft gun mount, automatic ejection chaff, landing equipment and electronic equipment for military use. First flight 4 November 1978 of the year.
IL-76TD in the sky over Frankfurt
Il-76TD – transport distant. Civil modification of Il-76MD. Dismantled equipment for military use. Capacity of the machine was 50 t. Maximum takeoff weight 190 t. The range filter with a maximum load 3600 km. First flight 5 May 1982 of the year. USSR-76464 (2803)
IL-76TD "Antarctica" – A modified version of the IL-76TD. First flight 17 November 1985 of the year. On a production machine set additional navigation equipment and coloring to fly in the Arctic and Antarctic. Aeroflot 76474. In Krasnoyarsk altered 2 aircraft 76459 and 76465.
IL-76TD-90VD – Modification of aircraft IL-76TD. It uses more fuel-efficient engines PS-90A-76 (IL-76TD-90VD). Modified under the direction of the airline Volga-Dnepr (IL-76TD-90VD). The aircraft of this modification meets ICAO requirements for noise on the ground in accordance with Chapter 4, while all other modifying engines using D-30-KP (D-30-CP-2) only responsible 2 headed.
IL-76TD-90SW – Modification of the IL-76TD aircraft with PS-90A-76, similar to IL-76TD-90VD). Modified by the order of the Azerbaijani Silk Way Airlines airline (IL-76TD-90SW).
Open-76TF – Civil modification of Il-76MF with more economical engines PS-90A-76. On it is planned to decrease crew 3-4 human.
A-50 (On the basis of Il-76MD)
A-50 – The aircraft airborne detection and control. The first flight in 1978 year.
A-60 – flying lab, aircraft carrier laser weapons. constructed 2 (according to other sources 3) instance Beriev OKB and plant them. D. Dimitrov Taganrog based on the Il-76MD. First flight - 19 August 1981 of the year (first plane) and 29 August 1991 of the year (the second plane). The first plane after the test was at the airfield Chkalovsky, burned in 1989 year. The second aircraft based at the airport of the city of Pushkin (St. Petersburg). There is information about the third Il-76 (A-60) Taganrog, which is maintained in working condition.
A-100 "Premier" – AWACS plane based on the Il-76MD-90A.
IL-976 – Jets team measuring point (SKIP) telemetry missiles. The aircraft is designed as a hybrid IL-76MD and A-50. The crew 15 operators SKIP. The first airplane flight in 1986 year. There were manufactured 5 machines, mixed by the detachment, based at Ramenskoye airfield. Currently, three of the aircraft written off, one converted into a flying laboratory for testing engine and sold in China, second and transformed into LL - on it, in particular, tested Russian-French engine SaM-146 aircraft Sukhoi Superjet 100 (done 28 flights).
IL-78 – The aircraft tanker based on the Il-76MD. First flight 26 June 1983 of the year.
Il-78M – IL-78 modified. First flight 7 Martha 1987 of the year.
Il-78M-2 – The modernization project is similar to the IL-78M Il-76MD-M.
Il-78M-90A – The aircraft tanker developed based on the Il-76MD-90A.
Il-78MK – Project (MK - upgraded, convertible), Modification of IL-78M convertible into transport configuration. Developed and prepared for serial production in the early 1990s, but orders for the aircraft was not followed.
Il-78MK-90 – Project tanker aircraft based on the Il-78MK with PS-90A-76
Il-78MKI – (MKI - upgraded, commercial, Indian), modification of the Il-78M, comes under the state contract the Indian Air Force.
IL-78MP – The designation for the four aircraft delivered state company Ukrspetsexport contract in Pakistan. Serial machines were repaired, retrofitted and painted on Nicholas aviation repair plant (GP NARP). The contract was signed at the end of 2006 of the year, Deliveries are made between December 2009 till May 2012 of the year.
KJ-2000 – Chinese AWACS aircraft based on the Il-76TD.
Il-76MD-90A (Product-476) - a deep modernization of the Il-76 aircraft. Built Ulyanovsk aircraft plant "Aviastar-SP", which is part of the KLA.
This plane is sometimes called the IL-476, but officially in the Ilyushin Design Bureau and is directly written on the aircraft Il-76MD-90A.
The first copy was built in December 2011 of the year, His first flight took place 22 September 2012 of the year. Factory tests took place in 19 flights, from 18 March to May 2013 of the year. Since July 2013 the year the first stage of the CIO (3 flight).
Il-90A-76MD has a new wing structure, New Perm PS-90A-76 pull 14,5 so every, reinforced chassis, modified radio-electronic and navigation complexes PrNPK "Dome-III-76M(A)».
5 October 2012 in the presence In. AT. Putin between "Aviastar" and the Ministry of Defense signed a contract for 39 units to 2020 year with the delivery of the first two sides in 2014 year. Unit cost about 3,5 bn. The first phase of the ICG launched 10 July 2013 of the year.
The first flight of the serial aircraft went 3 October 2014 of the year. As of 28 January 2016 year collected 6 production aircraft.
Cab navigator Il-76MD-90A
Going on a test flight program for the IL-76TD-90VD in Antarctica. The second phase of testing, which was carried out in November 2016 of the year, the aircraft was checked for failure safety. The joint crew Aviation Complex. FROM. AT. Ilyushin and the State Research Institute of Civil Aviation (GosNII GA) under the command of test pilot of "Il" Sergei Rusk fulfilled interrupted and continued ups with snow and ice runway with simulated engine failure, differential inhibition (braking only landing gear, located on one of the plane sides), landing with one engine inoperative (transferred to a small gas). control plane has been tested on snow and ice surface asynchronous traction, caused by a possible engine failure. The conducted tests confirmed the safe operation of the aircraft IL-76TD-90VD in Antarctica in similar situations, recommendations on actions the crew when an engine failure will be included in the aircraft flight manual of the aircraft. The use of the IL-76TD-90VD to fly to Antarctica from the mainland can increase security, because abroad the decision to continue the flight and landing operations or return to the departure aerodrome, in the absence of alternate aerodromes and fragile Antarctic weather postponed to the point of destination. This is achieved due to the increased distance the IL-76TD-90VD, equipped with a more efficient engines PS-90A-76, compared to the IL-76TD / MD with D-30KP. Besides, PS-90A-76 environmentally friendly D-30KP, that is of particular relevance in Antarctica - the most environmentally friendly continent in the world. PS-90A-76 meet all the requirements of the ICAO noise and emission and can be used to fly around the world without any restrictions.
To protect aircraft mounted defensive weapons system 9 A-503, consisting of feed unit with two guns GS-23. fire control - with a working space arrow (CBC), Aim - how to use optical sighting station, and "Krypton" radar sight. For passive jamming on a plane set 4 APP-50P machine with the total number of cartridges to and LTC - 384 PC., or five sets of reflectors automatic reset ASO-2I-E7r system 320 rounds.
At various aircraft possible suspension svobodnopadayuschih bombs or beacons 4 beam holder LPP-3DA. Bombing can be performed automatically by "Dome" system, and from NKBP-7.
IL-76 of various modifications is the main airplane of military transport aviation of Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan. It consists also in the Air Force arsenal CIS, Algeria, India, Jordan, Iran, Iraq, China, Libya, North Korea and Syria.
Il-76 took an active part in the war in Afghanistan and showed it to be highly effective. During the fighting two cars were lost.
Numerous commercial companies around the world use civilian modification of IL-76 for transport.
loss of aircraft
According to unofficial data, on 5 May 2015 year was lost as a result of disasters and serious accidents 73 aircraft Il-76, of them 24 Machines - by fighting.
The performance characteristics of Il-76MD-90A
– The number of Marines on board: 126
– 5 human
Dimensions of IL-76
– The length of the plane: 46,6m
– Wingspan: 50,5 m
– The height of the aircraft: 14,7 m
– wing area: 300 m²
The size of the cargo compartment of IL-76
– The length of the cargo compartment: 24,54 m
– Width: 3,45 m
– Height: 3,4 m
– volume: 321 m³
– plane resource: 30 years / 10,000 landings / 30000 hours
Capacity of IL-76
– to 60 t
Weight of IL-76
– Maximum takeoff weight: 210 t (in fact in the register 195t)
– empty weight: 88,5 t
– fuel volume: 109 000 l
The rate of IL-76
– Cruising speed: 780-850 km / h
– minimum speed: 220 kmh
Range of flight of IL-76
– the load 60 t: 4000 km
– the load 48 t: 5500 km
– the load 40 t: 6500 km