T-28 - trohbashenny Soviet medium tank interwar. Developed in the years 1930-1932 by engineers tank-tractor VOAO design bureau under the guidance of C. A. Ginsburg. T-28 is the first in the USSR medium tank, launched into mass production. Since 1933 by 1940 year Leningrad Kirov plant was issued 503 instance T-28.
T-28 – video
T-28 was a medium tank trohbashenny classical configuration, with a gun and machine gun armament and anti-bullet armor, and was intended for infantry support and enhance the quality of rifle and tank units in the breakout fortified enemy positions. At the time of its introduction the T-28 medium tank is the strongest in the world.
FROM 1933 , the T-28 tanks arrived on arms heavy tank brigades (ttbr) RKKA, allocated to 1936 the year of the reserve of the High Command. As part ttbr RGC tanks T-28 were used in the Polish campaign of the Red Army and the Winter War, which showed a very high combat qualities. However, body armor tanks at the end of the fighting on the Karelian Isthmus was found to be insufficient, with the result that part of the tank was subjected to additional screening. By the middle 1941 , the T-28 is obsolete, However, its performance characteristics are still superior to almost all tanks samples, BEFORE Wehrmacht. As part of the tank brigade mechanized corps of the Red Army T-28 took part in the battles of the initial period of the Great Patriotic War, but most of them were lost in the first few months of its, mainly due to technical faults. Last combat use of T-28 in the fixed parts RKKA 1944 year.
Trophy T-28 used by the troops in Finland, armed with these tanks remained until 1951 of the year.
History of creation
History of T-28 began in 1930 year with a visit to the UK of the Soviet Purchasing Commission, headed by C. Ginsburg, whose task was to purchase the most modern models of armored vehicles and sending them to the USSR to study and use of the organization's own production of armored. One of the tanks, particularly interested Commission, It became the latest in a while medium tank A6 firm "Vickers", more commonly known as "16-ton Vickers'. However, the company "Vickers" refused to sell the finished sample of the tank because of its secrecy and the Soviet side has put forward the following conditions for the purchase of cars:
– A one-time payment in the amount of 20 000 pounds (order 200 000 gold rubles) for reviewing the design and development of this type of tanks.
– An order with the company "Vickers" 10 tanks of this type of price 16 thousand. pounds (160 thousand. gold rubles) for tank without arms.
– A further order from the firm tankettes Carden-Loyd Mk VI and light tanks Vickers Mk E.
Such Soviet delegation conditions were deemed unacceptable, and it was decided to refuse from purchasing A6 and instead create a tank of this class on its own, using the experience, obtained in studies in the UK sample A6.
Preliminary design of the new tank was charged Faculty of motorization and mechanization of the Military Technical Academy. F. Dzerzhinsky, and created 28 January 1931 , the tank-tractor VOAO Design Bureau. Both projects were ready by July of the same year. According to the results of comparison by the Office of motorization and mechanization was selected who had the T-28 project design VOAO Bureau, major developers who were the chief of Bureau. Ginsburg, his deputy in. Zaslavsky and design engineers About. Ivanov and A. Hackel. The tank design data were used as, obtained in the study A6, and experience, designers gained during the Soviet-German cooperation the beginning of the 1930s (in particular, TG tank development and testing of German tanks at the site near Kazan). According to the original design tank I had to keep the overall layout A6, weigh about 16 tons and carry a gun with 45-mm cannon and machine guns in the main tower and two other guns - small. Reservation tank should form a 20 mm in the front housing part and 16-17 mm at the other vertical surfaces, the thickness of the armor plates of the roof - 10 mm, bottom - 8 mm. The aircraft engine M-5 was chosen as the capacity powerplant 400 l. from., already being installed on tanks BT-2. The structure was assumed widely used as other components and structural solutions already present in the BT-2 production and T-26.
28 September 1931 the Office of motorization and mechanization concluded with VOAO contract for production of working drawings and assembly of two prototypes of the T-28 to 1 May 1932 of the year. The first prototype tank, which became known as the T-28-1, It was completed in May of a non-armored and made its first test run 29 May 1932 of the year. From the initial project prototype differed installing a more powerful engine M-17, and installing 37mm gun FS-2 instead of 45-mm, since the latter still was not ready by the time. 11 June 1932 , the T-28 has been demonstrated command of the Department of motorization and mechanization of the Red Army. Tank as a whole received a positive evaluation, However, the military demanded the installation of a, starting from the second prototype, Diesel PGE, It was at that time in the development of, and 76mm guns PS-3. In view of these observations, as well as the results of tests of the first prototype, Project T-28 was in August - September 1932 Year radically redesigned - to a greater or lesser extent, changed were almost all units and tank systems, with the exception only of the propulsion system, since said diesel and has not been brought up to an acceptable level. Then in late October 1932 of the year, even without waiting for the fabrication of the prototype, Council of Labor and Defense of the USSR, it was decided on the mass production of the tank.
For the commercialization of the T-28, the Leningrad plant "Red Putilovets" was chosen (former Putilov, subsequently - Kirov). This was due primarily to the fact, that at the time the T-28 was a very complex machine and "Red Putilovets" have sufficient for the development of its production capacities and qualified personnel. Besides, the plant has already had experience of highly sophisticated construction machinery, such as artillery, locomotives, harbor cranes, etc.. P. Important was the fact, that 1931 the factory has produced details of the suspension of the T-26 (elements of the gearbox, final drives, etc.. P.). In the end of November 1932 , the refinery workers received tank drawings, and it started production deployment.
However, almost immediately started having problems. shop equipment MX-2, allocated for the production of T-28, It was heavily worn and poorly adapted to the manufacture of tanks parts, requiring high production. To overcome this problem, It was reactivated, modernized and put into operation of the machine during World War II. Besides, on the personal order of C. M. Kirov plant was delivered on a number of machines from other companies of Leningrad.
The first batch of 12 tanks were ready by April 1933 of the year, and already 1 May 10 of them have been a part of the parade on Moscow's Red Square. true, these tanks have been accepted conditionally, because it needs work, had optical sights, Devices internal and external communications, etc.. P. After the parade, the tanks went back to the factory.
But, despite early successes, development of T-28 in the manufacture was slow and encountered many difficulties. The first state order of the Office of mechanization and motorisation of the Red Army, issued in 1933 year, He called for the release of 90 T-28. The plant is with great difficulty until the end of the year was able to collect 41 car. To correct the situation, capital improvements department MX-2 was carried out, wherein the collected T-28, the necessary tools and equipment have been ordered abroad. Besides, autumn 1933 , the plant was organized by a specialized tank KB, dubbed SKB-2, the first task of which was the completion of the T-28 to accelerate its production. Head of SKB-2 in that period was about. M. Ivanov.
Open stable mass production succeeded only in 1934 year, when Reconstruction ended and were established strong relationships with all suppliers of components for the tank. However, the drawings and finally tanks production technology have been worked out only to the top 1936 of the year. By this time in the design of the tank was already made over 700 small changes. It was a long development in production is due to the fact, that the T-28 release 1933-1935 suffered from many "childhood diseases" of armored vehicles, because of what the military tanks were delayed acceptance, and in military units, I have already received the tanks T-28, I had to send the factory repair teams.
Positive role in the unfolding of series production also was the fact, what in 1936 , MX-2 plant was finally released from foreign orders - before he, parallel T-28, to assemble 15- and 75-ton crane and presses, which diverted the already few workforce.
Production component of T-28, beginning with 1934 of the year, carried out the following plants:
– Hulls and towers - Izhora Plant (g. Kolpino)
– Engines M-17 - Plant № 26 (g. Rybinsk)
– CPR - the factory "Red October" (g. Leningrad)
– fuel tanks, air filters, boeukladki - factory number 7 (g. Leningrad)
– Bearings - State Bearing Plant (g. Moscow)
– devices (manometers, thermometers, speedometers, tachometers) - Factory number 213 (g. Moscow)
– Radio - factory number 203 (g. Moscow)
At the Kirov Plant is manufacturing the remaining parts and the assembly of the tank. Serial release of the tank was carried out for eight years, from 1933 by 1940.
From the above table shows, what, beginning with 1934 of the year, Kirov factory in most cases not only follow the schedule of production of T-28, but several of his overfulfils. The sharp decline in volumes of manufacture of tanks 1937 was driven by planned to adopt on the tank T-29 weapons - wheel-tracked version of the T-28, but the project T-29 did not come out of the prototype stage and 1938 the production of T-28 was reopened in the same volume. Several sources contain a reference to 523 Machines like the total number of manufactured T-28, but most sources agree 503 duplicate. In addition to various changes of the basic model structure, during mass production numerous attempts tank upgrade. In particular, carried out work to improve the transmission and final drive, had led to the establishment of T-T-28A and 28A-2 (cm. below).
T-28 was a medium tank trohbashennoy classical layout with bunk arrangement weapons. Engine-transmission branch is located in the rear part of the tank, and separation of management, coincident with combat - in front. The tank had a bulletproof book. The crew consisted of six men: the driver; commander, also serves as an arrow from the tower machine gun and gun loader; radio operator, also serves as the second charging; gunner and two shooters machine-gun towers.
Tank body - a box-shaped, fully welded (of homogeneous armor) riveted or welded, (Hardened Armor). Riveted, welded hull tanks were late release 1936 - start 1938 and in 1939-1940, in other years, the tanks were produced with a fully welded housing. During 1938 year produced tanks to the housing of both types. Housing going from rolled thickness from bronelistov 13 to 30 mm, butt welded together. To increase the viewing of the driver and to reduce the dead space in front of the tank front part of the body has been mown. In order to increase the security of the joints of the upper front inclined, vertical windshield and front bottom plate were covered additional ledges.
Functionally, the body was divided into four compartments: management, martial, force and separation force transmission. Fighting compartment dissociate themselves from the engine partition with a hatch for access to the engine. Above the front inclined sheet between the machine gun turrets welded vertical wall of the upper part of the cab of the driver. Front cab hinge bronedvertsey were covered with openable hatches up. Hatch had a viewing slot, closes triplex. Top cabin closed another hatch, facilitate landing of the driver. During winter war tank portion on the driver's front door amplified 20mm additional broneliste, and around the cab is welded fencing, Protect the door from jamming by shrapnel during shelling.
Outside the housing on both sides in front of the crew compartment fastened boxes dymopuska devices. Tanks of different years of release crates varied configuration. To access the instrument dymopuska inside the fighting compartment in the hull sides were two round holes. To the bottom of the housing along the engine compartment was welded engine frame, primary transmission fan and PPC. Frame for strength strengthened by two struts on each side, serves simultaneously as a support for radiators. Right and left of the sub-frame in the transmission department has vertical niches for gas tanks. On the roof of the engine compartment had a hinged hatch in the middle of the hood air intake. Right and left of the hatch had shutters, providing access of air to the radiators. During engine compartment muffler installed on the roof, covered with additional broneschitkom.
Above the gear compartment in removable fan installed broneliste, covered on top with armored covers blinds, the configuration of which also vary, depending on the tank model year. At the bottom of the case there was 7 hatches for access to the various units of the engine and transmission, as well as the door emergency evacuation of the crew through the bottom.
The projections of the T-28 sample 1938 of the year (with gun L-10)
turret placed in two tiers. On the ground were two small machine gun turret, on the second - the main tower with cannon armament.
As housing, main towers are available in two types - welded and riveted, welded. According to the main tower structure was identical to the main tower heavy tank T-35. The tower had an elliptical shape with a developed niche and going aft from rolled bronelistov 15-20 mm. The roof of the tower was reinforced with reinforcement ribs, vyshtampovok made in the form of a big star, and the two strips with rounded edges. Initially, the roof of the tower had a rectangular hatch, which 1936 he was replaced by the two - round hatch gunner with the installation under anti-aircraft turret and rectangular hatch commander. In front of the roof of the tower there are two holes for periscopes, protected armored covers, at the rear of the right - opening an antenna. The outside of the tower on the sides of eight brackets could be fastened handrail antenna. On the right and left walls of the tower were peepholes, closed Triplex, and under them - the loopholes for shooting from the sidearms, closable bronezadvizhkami. In front of the tower trunnion installed 76.2 mm cannon, the right of it in independent ball mount was placed machine gun DT (horizontal firing angle ± 30 °, elevation angle + 30 °, reduction - -20 °). In the rear wall of the aft turret recess had a vertical slit for yoke installation gun, instead of which a 1936 year standard ball mount was introduced. Besides, on the right wall of the niche was placed a radio station. For the convenience of the crew of the main tower was equipped with a suspended floor, elevated above the bottom of the case and fastened to the turret with four arms. Top floor was covered with corrugated rubber sheet. The right and left of the gun were set high seat commander and gunner (respectively), had on their desks boeukladki rotating drum-type 6 shells each. Between the seats with a shift toward the front of the tower mounted on the rack 8 shells (on the first series of tanks - in the 12 shells) and six stores by the machine guns. On the rear rack suspended floor is hingedly fastened folding seat radio operator (he is charging).
The tower had a circular rotation. Mechanism turret equipped with an electric or manual actuators. recent 13 series of tanks, issued in 1940 year, We had a main tower of conical shape, It is also similar in construction conical turret T-35. but, Unlike T-35, cone was only the main tower - machine gun kept the cylindrical shape.
Small machine gun tower were also identical in construction machine gun towers T-35 (The only difference - the lack of towers T-28 lifting eyes rings). Both towers were the same on your device, round, with a projection in front of the ball for setting gun, and differed only in the placement of the observation slits and embrasures for firing of personal weapons. Armed with one machine gun turret DT. Drive turret - manual. Each tower can rotate on the way into the wall of the cabin of the driver all the way to the wall of the tank body, horizontal angle gun bombardment was thus 165 °. Arrows placed on the rotating seat, height adjustable, mounted on the bottom of the hull. For planting arrow had one large hatch rectangular shape with rounded roof tower top.
The use of T-28 in Winter War revealed their reservation failure, whereby additional screening of the tank circuit was developed. The tanks were screened in the factory by welding additional armor plates 20-30 mm thickness to the casing of the tank and the towers. Screening allowed to bring the armor thickness of the coil ends of the tank body to 50-60 mm, and towers and upper sides - up 40 mm. This has raised serious The security machines, although a negative impact on its dynamic characteristics, since the mass of the tank increased to 32 tonnes. tanks shielding produced at the Kirov plant in 1940 year. Shielded tanks received the T-28E ("Shielded"). It was planned to make the screening of all the available cars in stock (over 400), but, according to documents, all were screened 111 tanks, of them 103 - completely and 8 - partially. Most shielded machines reported in parts of the Leningrad Military District (about 80 %), 15 % cars - in Kiev PSB, and only two cars - in the West PSB.
The main arms of T-28 was 76.2 mm tank gun. Initially, the tanks were armed with cannon model CT-28 ("Kirov Tank") sample 1927/32 years. Specially designed for the T-28, He used a modified gun swinging portion 76 mm cannon regiment sample 1927 , with the following changes:
– shortened recoil length with 1000 to 500 mm;
– increased amount of fluid in the recuperator with 3,6 to 4,8 l;
– reinforced by thickening slide with their walls 5 to 8 mm;
– introduced a new hoist, foot slope and new sights, satisfying the conditions of operation of the tank crew.
CT-28 gun had the barrel length 16,5 calibres. The initial rate of 7-pound high-explosive shell was 262 m / s, 6,5-kilogrammovogo shrapnelynogo - 381 m / s. The gun was mounted in the front part of the main tower in the mask trunnion. The maximum angle of elevation of the gun was 25 ° +, declination - -5 °. The lifting mechanism of the gun - sector type, manual. Cannon CT-28 was intended to deal with the enemy firing points and unarmored objectives, and quite satisfied rests on her tasks. It might as its armor-piercing projectile due to the low initial speed was very low. Need to say, that blatant weakness of CT-28 guns in the fight against armored targets served as the source of many complaints from the military. properly, by the designers of the tank 28 CT-gun as the primary armament viewed as a stopgap measure - subsequently tanks intended to equip a universal 76.2 mm tank gun FS-3. However, for various reasons it did not manage to finish up to an acceptable level and to start production.
Beginning with 1938 year and until the end of production 1940 year T-28 armed with a new 76.2-mm tank gun L-10. L-10 gun had a barrel length 26 caliber and large in comparison with the CT-28 primary rate (555 m / s), allowing its armor-piercing projectiles penetrate the armor thickness up to 50 mm at a distance of 1000 m meeting at an angle of 60 ° to the normal. This greatly increased the combat capabilities of the tank, although the reliability and ease of use L-10 significantly inferior to CT-28. Besides novoproizvodivshihsya machines, gun L-10 tanks reequipped, arriving at the Kirov factory for repair. Precise data on the total number of tanks, armed L-10 guns, no, however, the available data suggest, what to 1941 by gun L-10 were armed with nearby 300 T-28 (of about 450 available as of). For pointing guns at the target sample used telescopic sight Top 1930 year and periscope sight PT-1 sample 1932 of the year.
Ammunition gun was 69 unitary shots, were placed in packing on the sides of the body (49 pcs), rack on the suspension tower Polikey (8 PC.) and rotary drum units under the seats the commander and gunner (by 6 PC.) (use of rotating boeukladki - a characteristic of the T-28 and T-35). In ammunition tanks with guns KT-28 included only high-explosive and shrapnel shells, and tanks, equipped with cannon A-10 - also armor.
Auxiliary arms T-28 consisted of four 7.62 mm machine guns DT, disposed in ball plants. One of them was located in the frontal part of the main tower in the stand-alone installation, deal of rifles, the other was located in the rear recess. Initially aft gun had its installation, and it was removable (Installation on the yoke) and led a fire through the armor closes cover vertical recess. Beginning with 1936 of the year, in the rear recess of the tower mounted a standard ball mount. On one machine gun was set in a small turrets, each having a horizontal sector 165 ° crosstalk. Tanks recent series on the hatch gunner was established as an anti-aircraft turret U-40 machine gun DT, equipped with the shooting at air targets collimating sight (in this way, the total number of tank guns brought to the five).
Ammunition guns was 7938 rounds in 126 disk stores 63 each cartridge. Shopping for the main tower guns were placed in racks on the sides of the body and the rear recess. Original styling shops to small machine guns towers has been resolved - on both sides of the driver on the right and left sides were on the same rotates in the vertical plane of the drum, each of which was laid on 40 shops for machine guns (8 sectors 5 shops).
Tank T-28 military maneuvers. Belarusian Military District, 1936 year
Engine and transmission
Tank Engine - V-shaped air Carburetor M-17T cooling water, operational capacity 450 l. from. at 1400 rev / min. Maximum capacity was 500 l. from. at 1450 rev / min (attempts to install a tank of diesel engine were unsuccessful). Compression ratio - 5,3, dry weight of the engine - 553 kg. Carburettors - two, type CD-1 (for each group of cylinders). Water-cooled engine carried out using a total capacity of radiators 100 l. On the first series machines radiators had different number of sections. Two gas tank capacity 330 l each arranged along the sides in the pack compartment. Fuel supply - pressure, fuel pump. The fuel used by gasoline brands B-70 and CB-70. Oil pump - gear type (on the tanks of the first series - a piston). Zazhiganie - by magneto. On the first series of tanks used magneto "Scintilla", to follow - Magneto "Electrozavod".
Transmission consists of a main friction clutch dry, five-speed gearboxes (five gears forward, one ago), dry multi-disc steering clutches and final drives with double-row band brake. Gearbox had a locking device, prevents the gearshift headlights on reminder when the main clutch.
The suspension has been developed mainly on the type of tank company "Krupp" and is a box-like frame tracked, riveted or welded to the body armor, in which all the suspension elements placed. Chassis for a board composed of 12 the pair of rollers of small diameter, interlocked by means of rocker arms in 6 carriages with spring cushioning. carriages, in its turn, interlocked in the two trolleys, hinged to the body at two points.
The outer diameter of the support roller - 350 mm. Initially, all road wheels had rubber tires. Beginning with 1936 year on two carriages in the busiest part of the tank (4-th and 5 th) all-metal rollers were installed without tires. There were also 4 rubberized support roller diameter 280 mm. Leading wheels - lantern meshing pitch circle diameter 720 mm 17 teeth, rear position. Gear rims - removable. The guide wheels - alloy steel rim and stamped with a rubber bandage. The outer diameter of the wheel - 780 mm. Tensioning device - screw, with the help of a crank. Melkozvenchataya caterpillar chain length 15 800 mm consisted of 121 cast steel truck. The width of the tape - 380 mm, length - 170 mm, step track chain - 130 mm.
The T-28 sample 1936 year run as part of the parade on the Red Square. Moscow, 7 November 1939 of the year
At the first party machine sets imported electrical voltage 12 AT, but then, from the end 1933 of the year, switched to domestic equipment, voltage 24 AT. Power Generator - 1000 W. Interior lighting and electric machine includes 3 bulb driver flap, 2 portable lamps, 6 ştepselnıx rozetok (3 in the main tower, one - small and one of the transmission department), 4 ceiling (2 in the main tower, and one - in small).
To illuminate the road at night tank had two folding headlights, snabzhёnnыe bronevыmy casings (similar to that used on the T-26). On the tank at the stern nadgusenichnyh shelves housed two taillights with hinged lids. Also, a number of tanks installed two spotlights for night shooting (the so-called "battle-beam headlamp"), is placed on the mask gun, either directly on its trunk, or on either side of it. For supply of sound signals had beep "SET" of the vibrator type.
observation and communication tools
Surveillance on the T-28 is a simple peepholes, closed from the inside of the replaceable triplex glass blocks, provides protection from bullets, shell fragments and lead spatter firing armor-piercing bullets. One observation slit was located on the sides of the main tower, External sides machine gun turrets and the hatch of the driver. Besides, tank commander possessed panoramic periscope observation device PTC, protected armored covers.
For external connection, all the tanks T-28 were equipped with radios. In earlier releases tanks installed radio TC-71, Provides links to a distance of 18-20 km. FROM 1935 steel, on the tank 71 to establish the radio-TK-2 with increased up to 40-60 km range communication, but due to insecurity (radio constantly overheated) it has to 1936 year replaced the more advanced 71-TK-3, has become the most widespread armored radio station pre-war years. On machines release 1933-1935 years had problems with the electrical shielding, whereby there were strong interference. Later, due to blockage with the help of electrical capacitors of the noise is to get rid. The majority of T-28 was equipped with an antenna handrail type, only tanks release whip antennas mounted steel 1939-1940 year. For internal connection T-28 equipped with a tank intercom (tankofonom) TPU-6 on all six crew members. In the first series of machines installed device type "Safari".
Fire fighting equipment includes stationary fire extinguisher with a capacity of carbon tetrachloride 3 l, mounted under the right radiator and actuate the special button to place the driver or the tank commander. Besides, There were two hand-held fire extinguishers. The tank is equipped with two devices dymopuska DPT-3, installed on board in special boxes.
Outside the tank was attached to the body of spare parts consisting of two 15-ton jacks, two shovels, ax, two-handed saws, dvwx Lomov, special steel bar for removal rollers, tow, tarpaulin, replacement spare rollers and lower suspension carriage. Driving ZIP laying varied considerably depending on the year of release. On the part of the tank was mounted a special grid for stacking canvas.
Major modifications serials
T-28-1 - pre-production (1932). weaponry: 37-mm sample cannon 1932 and three pulemёta DT.
T-28 sample 1933 - the first serial production sample of 1933-1934. weaponry: 76,2-CT-28 mm cannon and 4 machinegun DT. released 41 a car.
T-28 sample 1934 - the main production model production years 1934-1938. weaponry: 76,2-mm gun RT-28 machine guns and 4-5 DT. released 266 machines.
T-28 sample 1938 - the main production model production years 1938-1940. weaponry: 76,2-mm gun L-10 and 5 machine guns DT. released 131 a car.
T-28 sample 1940 - a tank with a conical tower, the main production 1940 of the year. weaponry: 76,2-mm gun L-10 and 5 machine guns DT. released 13 copies.
T-28E - shielded version of the T-28. The screening of previously built cars made in 1940 year. all screened 111 tanks.
T-28A - "speed" tank T-28. It managed to raise the speed of the tank due to redesign the final drive and transmission to 56 km / h on the highway, and 46 kmh in reshuffle. From June to December 1936 the year was made in the framework of the manufacture of series of tanks 52 cars. Further production of tanks of this modification was minimized due to the planned adopting the T-29.
28A-T-2 - one of the "high-speed" T-28A, on a trial basis transmission equipped with a modified design, which has resulted in the rate 65 km / h on the highway. released in the fall 1936 of the year.
T 28PH (T-28 underwater walking) - production tank, which in the experimental procedure were equipped to overcome obstacles along the bottom of the water to a depth of 4,5 m (1937).
In order to ensure an underwater walking, a tank body T 28PH and encapsulated with armament, Special tools and established for the motor supply air and exhaust gases under water. The equipment was manufactured in the workshops NIBT polygon Kubinka. Tank tests were carried out in August - December 1937 year in natural waters of the Moscow region. Crew worked lung diving apparatus type-2 IPA and IPA-3. Total produced 27 arrivals at different depths. The total duration of the underwater tank was walking 6 no 35 min, of them 4 no 44 min - with the engine running. The duration of a single dive was brought to 60 minutes, and the continuous operation of the engine under water - up 27.
However, not without PE. 4 September 1937 year on the 18 th minute of the fourth arrival, at a depth 2780 mm, engine, worked previously normal, at 1000-1100 rev / min, I began to give failures, spontaneously changing the number of revolutions. 40-50 seconds in the engine compartment of the tank explosion occurred. From a sharp pressure drop were taken fixing hatches driver, Right small tower, hatch gunner main tower and the sub hatch, as well as a number of sealing broken blinds seals. As a result, the tank flooded with water. Fortunately, there were no casualties - the crew was able to leave the car.
According to test results, it was concluded, that in this type of underwater speed equipment has a number of design flaws and generally do not fully comply with the presented the tactical and technical requirements. At the same time, even the most superficial elimination of identified defects scuba circulation of T-28 was recognized quite possible. By eliminating all the drawbacks T 28PH could successfully be used for the forcing water barriers to depth 4 m and a width of 1 km at maximum flow rate to 1 m / s. Commission, performing the tests, it was considered necessary to produce a reference sample T 28PH factory. However, no information on the subsequent development of the T-28PH no.
Cars, created on the basis of T-28
T-29 - Experimental High wheel-track tank, created by a similar with T-28 and the assembly scheme using its components and assemblies. weaponry: 76,2-mm gun RT-28 (PS-3 or N-10) and 4-5 machine guns DT. Released a few prototypes.
Bridge tank IT-28 tests. NIBT ground in boots, June 1940 of the year
IT-28 - Engineering tank-launched bridge, designed in the years 1936-1940. spring 1940 , the T-28 number 1638 in the experimental procedure was converted into IT-28. Instead, towers and octagonal turret box was mounted cutting, which was established long double-track bridge 13,3 m with a bridge and drive levers pickup. According to the results of tests it was found, that time, the bridge pickup is 3-5 minutes, and the strength of the drive mechanisms and the bridge itself sufficient for the passage of the mass to the tanks 50 t. Net weight of the machine was 24 tons, armament consisted of 2 machine guns DT. The machine was evaluated positively by the military in principle, but identified deficiencies demanded improvements, which was never carried out. All further work on the IT-28 were phased out.
SU-8 - a draft anti-aircraft self-propelled artillery units on the basis of the T-28 (1935). weaponry: 76-mm anti-aircraft gun sample 1931 Goda and pulemёt DT.
152,4-mm self-propelled mortar - the project self-propelled artillery (1932). Used chassis tank T-28. weaponry: 152-mm mortar sample 1931 of the year (NM) and two machinegun DT.
152,4-mm self-propelled gun Coast - the project self-propelled artillery for coastal defense (1933). Used chassis tank T-28. weaponry: 152-mm naval gun B-10.
SU-14 and SU-14-1 - self-propelled artillery (1935, 1936 years). Created using the components and assemblies of tanks T-28 and T-35. armament respectively: 203-mm howitzer B-4 or 152 mm marine gun B-10. Produced two prototypes.
Elektrotralschik tank based on T-28 - experimental elektrotralschik to create passages in minefields (1940). The tank instead of the main tower mounted cabin with a generator and other equipment. Generator created the front of the tank electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency, which allowed to undermine the mines with electric detonators. 14 April 1940 elektrotralschik year has passed successful tests, but for various reasons it has not been put into production. Later, a similar machine was designed based on the KV-1 tank.
Motor armored car - vooruzhёnnaya bronedrezyna. Created using aggregates, nodes and turrets tank T-28. weaponry: three 76.2-mm CT-28 gun (or L-11, which it was replaced by the F-34 in the period of the Great Patriotic War), 8 DT machine guns and 4 Maxim guns ''. released 2 instance.
An object 112 - medium tank project, represents the T-28 suspension for heavy tank type T-35. Designed KB Kirov factory under the guidance in Kotin 1938 year.
Besides, the tower T-28 was used for armored weapons project 1124. Also in the period of the Great Patriotic War, towers and buildings elements of the T-28 was used in the construction of some armored trains (for example, armored train number 1 "Fascism Fighter" from the 6th ODBP and armored train number 2 "Dzerzhinets" from the 48th ODBP) and in the construction of long-term fire points in the Leningrad area.
Shielded T-28 to L-11 cannon, lined with German anti-tank guns. Northwestern Front, August 1941 of the year
weaponry, tested on the basis of T-28
– 76,2-mm gun L-11 - designed in KB at the beginning of the Kirov factory 1938 years to replace A-10 as the main gun arms T-28, as well as to equip the prospective heavy and medium tanks. It was tested on the T-28 1939 in parallel with the set up for the same purpose gun F-32, showing some similarities with the latest results. but, because of the greater complexity and cost, adopted was not accepted.
– 76,2-mm gun F-32 - established in DB-92 artillery Gorkovsky plant № 92 under the guidance of. D. Grabit. Intended for the same purpose, as the L-11 and used in the construction of the swinging portion 76.2 mm divisional gun F-22. It was tested in the T-28 in parallel with the A-11 1939 year and has shown roughly comparable to its results. Due to the lower cost and greater manufacturability, according to test results the choice was made in favor of the F-32, and in January 1940 , the gun was adopted by the Red Army. However, it was planned upgrading T-28 has not been made.
– 85-mm gun F-30 - developed under the direction of the beginning Grabina 1939 as a tank gun, the high-power. At the beginning of summer 1939 , the sample was tested tools and sleigh on the artificial pullback on the T-28 (gun was set in the tower). Test firing, it was decided not to hold, since using guns the calculated return on the reaction stream is higher than the permissible.
– 95-mm gun F-39 - designed to DB-92 artillery Gorkovsky plant № 92 based on the 85 mm gun F-30 in early 1940 of the year. In the autumn 1940 Carrying year tested on artificial pullback in the turret of a tank T-28 (apparently, same, that was used for the test guns F-32 and F-30).[L 24]
– 57-mm rifle JIS 2 (ZIS-4) – Grabin developed under the leadership of both anti-tank gun (zis-2), It is then used in fighter T-34-57 (zis-4).
Shielded T-28, cast crew. Ukraine, July 1941 of the year
Equipment, tested on the basis of T-28
– Katkov mine sweeper push action - tested on the T-28 in May - July 1939 of the year. Tral went through two passages in front of the width of tank treads 600 mm. During the tests revealed, that each carriage rollers are able to undermine the anti-tank mines 2-3 type TM-35, Curb 2600-2800 g of TNT, after which it needs to rebuild. trawling speed was 10-12 km / h. To install the trawl on the tank needed 1 no 40 min. Overall dimensions of the tank with a trawl made: length - 8160 mm, width - 3216 mm. Massa trawl - 2110 kg. According to test results, it was concluded, what, despite a number of positive qualities of the trawl, its design must be improved, to achieve greater vitality (10-15 explosions under the carriage) and maneuverability. It was considered necessary to make a sample 2-3 for field tests and to hold them in 1940 year in summer and winter conditions, However, further tests were not carried out.
– Boikova mine sweeper TP-28 - was tested on the T-28 in July - August 1940 of the year. Trawl has been developed by engineers and Belogurova Koloev experience the Winter War and was intended to ensure the passage width 3,5 m in the minefields. Trawl consisted of a drum, to which are attached cables with weights on the ends, and a chain drive with a drive from the tank sloth. spinning, ropes with weights strikes the ground and detonate mines. tests have shown, Chto structure trawl in the principle felicitous, but it needs work.
– Plow-trencher HF - tested on the T-28 in November 1940 of the year. Designed for easy digging behind a moving tank trapezoidal trenches incomplete profile (about 0.5-0.6 m depth) to cover the infantry in battle. Tests have shown good results, However, further development of the plow KV were discontinued.
– Torsion bar suspension - tested in February - March 1939 , as part of the design and development work of SKB-2 QMS tank. For testing serial T-28 (factory number 1552) It was dismantled staffing suspension and torsion-bar set. Torsion bars were placed directly under the bottom of the machine, and to limit the stroke balancers were installed steel stops with rubber dampers. During the test the tank passed 1851 km. Three types of rollers have been tried, differing in diameter, weight and type of the elastic member. Tests have shown the overall reliability of the torsion bar suspension, which in the modified form it was applied to the experimental tanks and KV QMS. Besides, torsion suspension was recommended for use in the construction of new T-28, however, in the production of T-28 with torsion bar suspension for various reasons have not been mastered.
Screened T-28 labeled Wehrmacht troops, autumn 1941 of the year
Operation and use of combat
AT 1933 first year 10 T-28 entered service of the 2nd Independent Tank Regiment of the Leningrad Military District, then 1, 3 and 4-Panzer Regiment. 12 December 1935 tank regiments, the order of People's Commissar of Defense were deployed in separate heavy tank brigades (or TB for short ttbr). In accordance with this order, ttbr consisted of three linear tank battalions, training battalion, combat support battalion and other units. In its composition was ttbr 54 T-28, 16 BT tanks, 18 T-26 and 3 BCM-3 flame tank, as well as numerous cars. Personnel was brigade 1400 human.
Total was formed 4 ttbr 1, 4, 5 and 6th (the base 1, 3, 4 and 2nd respectively separate tank regiments). 1-I ttbr stationed in Smolensk (Belarusian Military District), 4-I ttbr - Kiev (Kiev Military District), 5-I ttbr - Kharkov (Kharkov Military District) and 6th ttbr them. FROM. M. Kirov - Slutsk (Leningrad Military District). It is interesting, that in addition to the T-28 5th ttbr armament consisted of heavy tanks T-35. Order of People's Commissar of Defense 21 May 1936 , the heavy tank brigades have been allocated to the reserve of the High Command (RGK). The main purpose of these is often defined as "qualitative strengthening of infantry and tank units in the breakout fortified enemy positions". In accordance with this purpose has developed a program, which was prepared by the staff of ttbr. Preparation tank T-28 was carried out in the 2nd Tank Brigade spare LVO, Orel Armored School, as well as the Leningrad armored courses to improve officers'.
In accordance with the Charter of the Red Army, battle tank crew calculation of the T-28 as of January 1936 was as follows (retained the original spelling and punctuation):
– tank commander (lieutenant) - is placed in the main tower of the number 1 Right from the gun at the periscope. Conducts fire from DT, charges via radio operator gun, commanded a tank.
– Technician Tank Jr. (Military Technician 2 rank) - placed in front of the tank in the department of management. Directly controls the movement of the tank, is responsible for its technical condition. Outside of battle directs preparation of drivers and mechanics-minder.
– Driver mechanic (petty officer) - placed in the tower № 2 (left machine-gun), conducts fire with a machine gun, It provides for engine maintenance.
– The commander of the artillery tower (Jr. platoon commander) - placed in the tower № 1 left, conducts fire from 76-mm guns. Is responsible for the condition of the tank weapons. Outside of battle directs preparation of Gunners.
– The commander of the machine-gun turret number 3 (dissociated commander) - placed in the tower № 3 (right machine-gun), conducts fire with a machine gun. It provides care to chassis tank.
– radio operator (dissociated commander) - placed in the tower № 1, serving station, in combat helps load a gun.
– The driver Jr. (Jr. platoon commander) - located outside the tank. Provides ongoing care, cleaning and lubrication of the transmission and chassis in pre-battle atmosphere and after the fight.
– motorcyclist (Jr. technicians) - located outside the tank. It provides constant care for the motor, its cleaning and lubrication.
A column of tanks T-28 from the 90 th Tank Battalion, 20th Heavy Tank Brigade, promoted to attack abroad. district heights 65,5 on the Karelian Isthmus. lead car (Release of the second half 1939 of the year) a whip antenna, improved armor protection and periscopes box dymopuska devices with access ramps.
AT 1939 year heavy tank brigades were transferred to the new staff, and changed the numbering: 5-I became ttbr 14, 4-I ttbr - 10, 1-I ttbr - 21, and 6th ttbr - 20 th they. Kirov. To 1939 , the T-28 is not used in combat, but they have participated in military maneuvers and exercises (for the first time - in January, 1934 of the year). It often occurred positive feedback about the performance characteristics of tanks, but the quality and reliability of the machines have been claims. Besides, from 1933 years and until the beginning of World War II T-28 regularly participated in military parades 1 yeast and 7 of November in Moscow (Red Square, about 20 machines), Leningrad (Palace Square, 10-12 machines) and Kiev (Khreshchatyk, 10-12 machines). In September 1939 , the 10th and 21th tank brigades (98 and 105 T-28, respectively) participated in the "liberation campaign" on the Western Ukraine. 10-TB I acted as a part of Ukrainian Front, 21-I TB - as part of the Belarus. Despite, that clashes with the enemy during the campaign there was virtually no, tanks T-28 proved to be very good, passing on the march of 350-400 km and demonstrating the very satisfactory reliability.
Sophisticated camouflage schemes in color were in ttbr T-28 is not widely applied. Usually, tanks painted standard for armored vehicles of the Red Army olive paint 4BO. In winter, the applied temporary camouflage washable white paint.
Tank T-28 rut mine trawl during the test overcomes trench. NIBT landfill.
In the Winter War
20-I heavy tank brigade Name From. M. Kirov, armed tanks T-28, He participated in the fighting on the Karelian Isthmus during the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940 (Data on participation in the fighting in Karelia 10th ttbr untrue). As part of the team, there were 105 T-28, as well as light tanks BT-5 (8 PC.), BT-7 (21 PC.), ohnemёtnыe tanks BHM 3 (11 PC.), 20 armored vehicles, Numerous trucks and 2926 personnel of the.
During the fighting on the "Mannerheim Line" T-28 tanks used for its intended purpose - to support infantry in breaking fortified enemy positions. Wherein, despite, that the T-28 was created by the requirements of the beginning of the 1930s, their application as a whole was very successful, especially in comparison with the T-26 and BT. In particular, T-28 to easily move on snow depth of 80-90 cm, well overcame ditches, scarps and other antitank barriers, firepower guns were enough to deal effectively with bunkers and even a small pillboxes, and numerous machine guns allow you to create a real downpour of lead. but, at the same time, tanks booking did not allow them to effectively resist fire anti-tank artillery, in particular, 37-mm guns "Bofors".
The role of the 20-th in ttbr breakthrough "Mannerheim Line" can not be overestimated. Thanks to the skilful and energetic leadership, Brigade fought a much more effective than other parts. Thus it was possible to organize a good coordination between the tank brigade with other arms (true, in its technical implementation was a problem, that sometimes served cause high losses). Command of the Red Army praised the 20th ttbr during the Winter War - in April 1940 the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR team was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, and was called to continue the Red Banner. 21 tanker was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, 613 people were presented to the awards and medals.
One T-28, captured by the Finns in the Winter War and adoption of the Finnish Army, 1940 year. The tank already repainted in camouflage Finnish armored units (almost vertical blue stripes on a white background).
During the period from 30 November 1939 year on 13 Martha 1940 year loss of 20 th made ttbr:
– in personnel - 564 man, are irrevocable - 169;
– in material part - 482 tanka, of them 155 shot down artillery fire, 77 by mines, 30 Fired, 21 He drowned in the marshes or lakes, 2 Finns seized, and 197 tanks out of service for technical reasons.
However, because of 482 T-28 lost during the fighting was recovered and returned to the system 386 tanks, ie over 80 %. This high percentage of recovered vehicles is due to the good work of repair and recovery service team, a good supply of spare parts and the proximity of the Kirov factory - the manufacturer of T-28. In this case, all participated in the fighting in Karelia 172 T-28 tank - 105 as part of the 20th ttbr at the beginning of the war, and further 67 new tank brigade was obtained in the process of fighting. I.e, average, each participated in war T-28 out of the system, He recovered and returned to the system at least twice (separate tanks - up to five times). irrecoverable (unrepairable) loss of T-28 at the end of the war made 32 cars (30 burnt and 2 trapped). However, It would be debited Only 19 tanks. Others continued to be enrolled in the Red Army!
In this way, use of T-28 in the Winter showed war, with the proviso that the correct use and good supply of spare parts, these tanks are powerful, reliable and maintainable machine, despite the difficult climatic conditions, shelling and minefields. Also conclude that the lack of security of the T-28 was made, which led to the development of their screening scheme.
Soviet medium tank T-28, thrown in the village due to a faulty undercarriage. Machine Release year 1936-1937.
In the Great Patriotic War
To summer 1941 , the T-28 in terms of the design idea is already obsolete (especially in comparison with the new Soviet medium tank T-34), However armament superior to all machines, available at the time at the disposal of the Wehrmacht, and on armor protection only slightly inferior to PzKpfw IV (Screened T-28E surpassed booking all available armored Wehrmacht samples). However, not all available in stock tanks were combat ready - impacted depreciation of most machines and a chronic shortage of spare parts, which the Kirov plant in connection with the transition to the production of other machines produced less.
Furthermore one tank were factories № 92 and 174. Another one, Variants in IT-28 - NIABT of polygons in boots. In this way, to the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the Red Army possessed 484 units of T-28, of which 37 They were blank bronekorobki; fully combat-ready is an order 250 machines (however, growing problems with spare parts allow to revise this figure downwards to about 200 machines). Most of them are in the western military districts (KOVO, Povoa, LVO, ZapVO).
Nominally-organizational structure units, disposal a T-28, to the beginning of the Great Patriotic War has also undergone substantial changes. Since summer 1940 year there was a gradual transition armored troops on the new scheme of organization - heavy tank brigades gradually disbanded, and of their personnel and material of the tank divisions were formed as part of the mechanized corps. For example, participated in the Winter War 20 th Red Banner ttbr was transformed into the 1st Red Banner Panzer 1 Mechanized Corps, and part of the tanks of its staff was transferred to the 3rd Armored Division of the same body. Similarly, transformed and other heavy armored brigades.
The T-28 is actively used in the initial period of war, but almost all of them were lost in the first few months of fighting. In addition to the use of the illiterate, lack of fuel and ammunition, and the general disorganization of the parts of the Red Army, the main reason for the loss was the most technically worn tanks and almost complete lack of spare parts. For example, "Report on the combat activities of the 10th Panzer Division on the front of the struggle against German fascism in the period from 22 June 1 August 1941 year "contains the following information about the T-28, the available in the division:
– According to its technical condition of tanks T-28 had a power reserve to an average of 75 hours. For the most part, they demanded the replacement of engines and technical condition could not be used in long-term operation. TO 22 June had 51 T-28, It is displayed on the alarm 44 cars. The almost complete lack of spare parts directly adversely affected in times of war. Cars often broke down at the slightest technical fault.
Soviet medium tank T-28, destruction of property by the crew in the village. Machine Release year 1938-1940.
According to this document, of 51 T-28, Lost 10th TD of the 15th Mechanized Corps during this period, in battle were hit only 4 cars, yet 4 out of order when the combat mission, 4 They were left in working order due to lack of fuel and lubricants, 3 missing, and 2 stuck on obstacles. Rest 32 the tank out of service for technical reasons and were left.
At the same time, practice has shown, that with proper use of T-28 (especially shielded T-28E) able to deal effectively with all types of enemy armored vehicles and withstand fire small-caliber anti-tank artillery and anti-tank guns. T-28 were noted and acts heroic Soviet tank. for example, 3 July 1941 , the T-28 under the command of Major tank troops Vasechkina crew from the driver Dmitry Malko and three cadets raided by the Germans have captured Minsk, ramming enemy trucks, knocking down infantry, destroying enemy fire guns and machine guns. a group of soldiers and a truck on the street were destroyed. Voroshilov, motorcyclists string str. Ulyanov, concentration of enemy troops and equipment on the street. Yanka Kupala in the park to them. Gorky. Having spent ammunition, tanks began to leave the city and was stopped only on the eastern edge of the fire anti-tank battery. Major Vaseçkïn pogïb, I have already been selected from burning car. The driver - Sergeant Dmitry Malko - managed to leave the tank and make his way through the enemy lines to their. The commander of the machine-gun turret number 3 Cadet Nicholas Pedan was taken prisoner and was released in 1945 year. Charging student Fyodor Naumov was local women hidden in the cellar, then made his way to the partisans. The further fate of the last cadet, Alexander Rachitskogo, unknown.
Autumn - winter 1941 , the surviving T-28 continued to meet occasionally at the front. General Lelyushenko recalled, it took on an abandoned site "16 T-28 without the motors, but serviceable guns "and used them as a fixed gun emplacements on the direction of Borodino - Mozhaysk. At least one of these tanks killed at least four enemy. A small number of these cars took part in the Battle of Moscow. To spring 1942 , the T-28 were only in the Leningrad Military District (order 20 machines). The relative "longevity" T-28 LVO explained, Firstly, the proximity of the Kirov factory, which still remained a stock of spare parts to them, a, Secondly, the, that in the parts of LVO were largely shielded tanks T-28E, representing for the German tanks and anti-tank guns serious problem. T-28 is actively used in the defense of Leningrad (including both fixed gun emplacements). The latter is their combat use in the composition of the Red Army was recorded in the winter 1944 year - in an operation to lift the blockade of Leningrad.
German rangers 97th Mountain Division pass by Soviet medium tank T-28, fallen from the bridge over the river near the village of Gmina Kozłów Vosushka Ternopil region. This tank is shielded. A car, probably, from the 3rd Battalion, 16th Panzer Regiment of the 8th Armored Division 4th Mechanized Corps of the Southwestern Front.
Trophy T-28 in the armed forces of Finland and in the Wehrmacht
Trophy T-28 used the Finnish Army. During the Winter War, the Finns took almost two serviceable machines (from the 20th ttbr), and in August 1941 year - more 10 (from the 107th OTB). Seven of these machines were repaired and put into operation. One of the cars was the Soviet shielding, others were shielded by Finns, wherein shielding places Finnish scheme significantly different from the Soviet. In particular, body armor mask gun was strengthened (Besides, We have been attempts to re-T-28 truncated captured Soviet guns F-22, however, ineffectual). Seven T-28 was armed with only the Finnish Armored Brigade, as part of which he participated in the fighting in the Republic of Karelia in 1941-1944, in particular, the defense of the Finnish Vyborg. Even after the withdrawal of Finland from the war, at 1945 year, one T-28 has been transformed into a recovery vehicle. Armed with the Finnish army tanks T-28, stood up 1951 of the year.
Data on the use of T-28 captured by the German army are practically absent. It survived only a few photos of the T-28 with the identification marks of the Wehrmacht, moreover, likely, they captured one and the same machine. At the same time, in the Wehrmacht tank had time to receive the official designation - Panzerkampfwagen 746 (r). This suggests, that if the tanks and used by the German army in the fighting, their use has been sporadic, and the number of tanks used are not exceeded 10 copies (probably 3-4 cars). Besides, it is known, one technically serviceable captured T-28 was taken by the Germans in the tank training ground in Kummersdorf and carefully studied. The fate of this machine could not be established.
One T-28 was captured by the Hungarian troops in the summer 1941 of the year, but in the battle, apparently, I was not used. In January 1945 year this tank was captured by the Red Army in the Arsenal building in Budapest, where is he, perhaps, and stood with 1941 of the year. Besides, aware of the finding of the two captured tanks T-28 in the Romanian Army. These machines have also been captured in the summer 1941 year and set on one of Bucharest's space for all to see. Found in some sources of information about the sale of the two tanks T-28, Turkey does not have any evidence and is likely not true.
Soviet medium tank T-28, destroyed by its own crew on the road. The aft part of the tank is destroyed by explosion. No idler wheel on the left side. Most likely, that the car was destroyed due to catastrophic failure and the inability to evacuate. Tanks from the 1st or 3rd Armored Division of the 1st Mechanized Corps of the North-Western Front. By tank passes a column of German troops. According to the characteristic features shielded tank with cannon A-10 Release 1939 of the year.
Evaluation of the machine
T-28 as a whole was a successful machine, sufficiently advanced for its time. Despite the dead end towered layout, composition and location of the weapons can be considered optimal T-28. three towers, placed in two tiers, under their management independence, They were able to provide an effective accompaniment of massed infantry fire. An important is the fact, that the commander was able to effectively manage the fire and adjust it, what, for example, It was unfeasible to T-35, manage the five towers which battle one commander could not physically. Finally, two towers in the front gunner not only fired from machine guns, but also helped to detect targets, which ultimately contributed to the survival of the tank. The tank had adequate time for your reservation, reliably protects the crew and equipment from bullets and shell fragments, and in the case of screening the tank was able to withstand small-caliber anti-tank artillery shells. Speed and maneuvering performance machines also were very advanced for its time, especially in the modification of T-28A with improved gear and CAT.
At the same time, for its time, the T-28 was a very complex machine and had significant shortcomings, especially in engine and transmission systems. Chassis also wear out quickly: burst springs, out of order suspension parts, breaking gear final drives. Tanks were hardly of acceptance run, and then the plant begins to flow a stream of complaints from the troops. In particular, these shortcomings suffered "nedovedonnye" machine of the first series, 1933-1935 years of release (however, In those years the production of low culture has been a common problem of Soviet tank - even a lot less complicated T-26 production years 1933-1935 had numerous flaws and technological marriage). Thanks to a number of alterations and improvements, made to the design of the machine in the course of its production (in particular, strengthening of shock absorbers bogies, the use of rollers with internal shock absorption, continuous improvement of the units of the engine and transmission), tank defects were significantly reduced, but to eliminate them completely and failed. This was largely due both to poor aggregate base, and with sufficiently low technology and production standards. Even the troops were not always ready to receive and operation of such complex war machines.
With skillful use of a good and the supply tank has demonstrated high efficacy even in difficult operating conditions and the conduct of hostilities, it was once again confirmed during the Winter War. undoubtedly, Four hundred and fifty T-28, mastered the troops, technically sound and staffed with trained crews, It would be a serious obstacle for the Wehrmacht troops, but this did not happen due to problems with the supply of spare parts and the dissolution of the eve of the war heavy tank brigades.
At the same time, an increase by the end of the 1930s, the power of anti-tank artillery has created a need to increase the thickness of the tank's armor. It is a factory layout idea towered to a standstill, from which she was not destined to get. Conducted attempts tank design, like T-28, protivosnaryadnym with booking, clearly illustrate that fact - dramatically increased the mass and dimensions of the tank. Shielding ready tanks, partially solves the problem snaryadostoykosti, also results in reduced machine mobility. The last Soviet tanks towered - SMK and T-100 - also demonstrated the disadvantages, and appeared in 1940 , the T-34 and HF-1 completely buried idea layout towered.
German soldiers considered damaged and burned shielded Soviet tank T-28 release 1939 year with cannon A-10 from the 3rd Armored Division of the 1st Mechanized Corps of the North-Western Front.
Comparison with foreign analogues
On a combination of fundamental valuation parameters - mobility, armament and armor protection - in the 1930s, the T-28 medium tank was the strongest in the world. In this case, at the start of production of T-28 serial analogues him virtually non-existent - for example, tank units in France at that time were staffed almost exclusively with light FT-17 tanks, and German armored forces do not yet exist. production tanks, comparable to T-28, in other countries, was started a few years.
English cruising tank "Vickers» Mk I, also known as the "Vickers» A9, in fact, was "cousin" T-28, as was the development of the design, "Vickers 16-ton" and also had three towers. Although the development of this car began in 1934 year, the first production tank left the factory floor only in 1937. According to the British classification tank was cruising, and speed - 40 km / h on the highway, and 24 km / h ROKADA - 28 correspond to T-speed, as well as power reserve - about 200 km on the highway. At the same time, flotation tank was below its Soviet "relative" - for example, width surmounted "Vickers» Mk I was moat 2,25 m vs. 3,2 m at T-28. At the expense of arms 40-mm cannon OQF, Mk I T-28 was superior to CT-28 instrument in combating armored targets, having no advantages over A-10. But the absence of other shells to the gun, except for armor, left the tank to fight for other purposes, only three 7.7-mm machine gun "Vickers". Booking the British tanks - forehead housing 14 mm and a board 6 mm - for 1937 it was already anachronistic and completely inferior Soviet tank. Slightly better in terms of body armor fared at the next British cruiser tank, «Vickers» Mk II (A10) - cases brought to the forehead 30 mm, corresponding to the frontal armor T-28. However armament compared to the precursor was reduced to a gun (disappeared from the tank machine-gun towers), and mobility in general fell almost twice (25 km / h on the highway, and 12 kmh in reshuffle), as well as cross-country - the tank could not move wider over the moat 1,8 m. In this way, British tanks corresponding period significantly inferior to T-28 for most parameters (if not all,). Even later British tanks, such as "Matilda" or "Covenanter", superior T-28 only on any one parameter (armor protection and mobility respectively), significantly inferior to others.
Tank T-28 with a conical tower parade 7 November 1940 year on Uritsky Square (now the Palace Square) in Leningrad.
The German side in a series of medium tanks of the 1930s represented a very odious machine called Neubaufahrzeug, also known as Nb.Fz. this tank, first full-length copy of which was built in 1935 year, also I had towered arrangement (Artillery tower and two machine-gun) Germans and was positioned as a heavy. properly, such was only armament - it consisted of a 75-mm and 37-mm shells, SPARK is installed in the Main Tower, and three machine guns. Fitting the variant snub 105 mm cannon. But, exceeding T-28 weapons plane, Nb.Fz. significantly inferior to his mobility and more palpable - bookings, which was at the German 15-20 mm. Thus Nb.Fz. is an experienced and machines were built only in the number of three copies (excluding prototypes). Later German tanks PzKpfw III (modifications D, E) и PzKpfw IV (modification D), which T-28 faced during the Great Patriotic War, in terms of body armor were already approaching Soviet tank (but not to its shielded embodiment T-28E), but still inferior to him in the terrain and firepower.
As for France, then its armored units, beginning with 1935 of the year, possessed infantry tank Char B1, by weight attributable to the medium and, a number of sources, a heavy tank. The most numerous modifications of this tank, Char B1bis, I had, German like Nb.Fz., two caliber guns 75 and 47 mm, And the 75-mm was set in the front hull. Strength and mobility of his machine-gun armament, but, much inferior to the T-28 - Char B1bis carried only two caliber machine gun 7,5 mm. In terms of body armor superior French tank T-28 was comparable to the T-28E, however B1bis mobility inferior performance Soviet tank. Besides, real effectiveness B1bis decreased functional congestion at the tank commander, stimulated at the same time lead the tank as a whole, firing from the turret gun and in addition to coordinate the shooting of 75-mm guns.
Abandoned and podozhenny crew Soviet tank T-28
As of 2014 year aware of the existence 5 copies of the T-28 as a whole form, as well as a certain number of tank parts:
Russia - 2 cars:
– sample tank 1936 of the year (the only surviving car with a gun CT-28), on display in the open air of the Central Museum of the Armed Forces in Moscow;
– sample tank 1938 of the year, renewed search clubs "rearguard". housing tank, adapted for emplacement, It was discovered near the village of Lembolovo Leningrad Region in the early 2000s, and while on display in the museum complex "Sestroretsky abroad" (Sestroretsk city, Resort St. Petersburg area). It was subsequently restored to the running condition with the use of a number of original spare parts, originally belonged to another tank T-28. It is assumed, that in the future tank will go to the museum "Battle Glory of the Urals".
The exhibition on Poklonnaya Hill in Moscow Central Museum of the Great Patriotic War, there is a small tower, presumably belonging to the tank T-28.
Finland - 3 cars:
– Two samples of the tank 1938 of the year, shielded (the original and the Finnish screening), in the exhibition tank museum in the Password.
– sample tank 1938 of the year, screened (Finnish screening), on the territory of the military unit in Mikkeli.
– Remains of another T-28 (brash) preserved in one of the military ranges in the Hämeenlinna area - apparently, tank was used as a target artillery.
Soviet medium tank T-28, abandoned due to a malfunction in the territory of technological park in Lviv. The park is adjacent to the street Yanovska (now, street Shevchenko) and located along the street Zaliznychniy (railway, in Polish time - Street. Peratskogo). Machine from the 4th Mechanized Corps.
Performance characteristics of the T-28
Crew, pers.: 6
Manufacturer: Kirovsky plant
The layout: classical, trohbashennaya
years of production: 1933—1940
years of operation: 1933—1944 (in USSR), 1940—1951 (in Finland)
The number of issued, PC.: 503
Weight of tank T-28
– 25,4 tonnes
Dimensions of the T-28
– body Length, mm: 7370
– housing width, mm: 2870
– Height, mm: 2625
– Clearance, mm: 500
Armor tank T-28
– Type broni: steel rolled homogeneous
– housing forehead (top), mm / city.: 30
– housing forehead (middle), mm / city.: 15
– housing forehead (through), mm / city.: 30
– body board, mm / city.: 20+10
– housing feed, mm / city.: 18—20
– Bottom, mm: 15—18
– corps roof, mm: 10
– tower forehead, mm / city.: 20
– gun mantlet, mm / city.: 20
– board towers, mm / city.: 20
– tower feed, mm / city.: 20
– tower roof, mm: 10—15
Arming of the T-28
– Caliber guns and stamp: 76,2-CT-28 mm arr. 1927/32 years / 76,2-mm L-10 (from 1939 of the year)
– gun type: tank
– barrel length, calibres: 16,5 (CT-28) / 26 (L-10)
– gun ammunition: 69
– sights: Top telescopic arr. 1930 of the year, periscope PT-1 mod. 1932 of the year
– Shotgun: 4-5 × 7,62-mm DT
Engine tank T-28
– engine's type: V-shaped 12-cylinder liquid-cooled Carburetor M-17T
– Engine power, l. from.: 450
The rate of tank T-28
– Road speed, kmh: 42
– Speed over rough terrain, kmh: 20—25
– Cruising on the highway, km: 180—190
– Cruising cross country, km: 120—140
– power density, l. p. / m: 17,7
– suspension type: fully interlocked, vertical springs
– Unit ground pressure, kg / cm²: 0,62
– Gradeability, city.: 37°
– to overcome the wall, m: 1,0
– trench, m: 3,5
– fording, m: 1,0
Abandoned Soviet medium tank T-28, Hit a 76-mm anti-aircraft gun semiautomatic 3-K sample 1931 year on a cart ZU-29. Abandoned machinery from the 6th mehnizirovannogo Western Front housing. The picture shows the defeated column, dvigashayasya along the route Bialystok - Grodno.