military experts
Set as default language
 Edit Translation

T-18 (MS-1)

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

T-18 (MS-1 - small accompaniment) - Soviet light infantry tank 1920. Created in 1925-1927 years. He became the first Soviet tank development. Commercially produced from 1928 by 1931 year, only a few embodiments have been released 959 tanks of this type, not counting the prototype. In the late 1920's - early 1930s T-18 was the basis of the tank park RKKA, but it was rather quickly superseded by more advanced T-26.

T-18 (MS-1) – video

It was used in combat in the conflict on the CER, but in 1938-1939 the outdated and have reached an extreme degree of wear of the T-18 were mostly withdrawn from service, or used as a fixed gun emplacements. A small number of these tanks still remained in the army in combat readiness to the start of the Great Patriotic War and were used in the initial stage of its.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

History of creation

First produced in the Soviet Union began to tank M ("Red Sormovo", "Reno-Russian"), the basis was taken the French "Renault FT-17", several copies of which were captured by the Red Army in 1919 year. For the start of series production in France has purchased a license and equipment.

Trophy FT-17 tank, "Reno" was given to the plant "Red Sormovo", which it was asked to adjust its serial production with the release of the first batch of 15 units by the end 1920 of the year. But this car is more like a pile of metal, He remembers hereditary working and builder Ivan Volkov tank I., her absent motor, transmission and many other elements. plant designers had to solve the most important problem: restore the drawings in all units fighting vehicle. A group of engineers, led H. AND. Khruleva and P. AND. Saltanova, vigorously set to work, for help to come to Petrograd sormovtsam designers from the Izhora plant, and participated work "AMO" plant.

Despite the many difficulties, Factory has managed to collect the first own tank by August 1920 of the year, and soon to make rest 14 ordered vehicles. However, due to economic and political difficulties of that period further production of the tank was not conducted. Later created the T-16 and T-17. Digital index of tanks taken from the Renault FT-17.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

Practically the question back to the production of tanks 1926 year, when a three-year tank development program was adopted. It included as a minimum-organization plan of a tank battalion and training company, equipped with infantry tanks, and one battalion and company, equipped tankettes. According to the calculations it required production 112 machines of each type. In September it was held the Red Army Command meeting, GUVP management and the arsenal of gun-trust (OAT), devoted to issues of tank and tank selection for the upcoming mass production. FT-17 was overly heavy sochton, sedentary and poorly armed. And the cost of a "Tank M" ("Reno-Russian") was 36 thousand. rubles, that does not meet the requirements of the three-year program, envisaging the total costs 5 million rubles for its implementation at a cost of one infantry tank level 18 thousand. rubles.

Work to create a better tank in the Soviet Union had already conducted. AT 1924 year tankostroitelstvu Commission were designed TTT to the tank infantry escort, approved at the end of the same year. In accordance with these anticipated creation tank weighing in 3 tons, with arms of 37 mm machine gun or cannon, 16-mm armor and maximum speed 12 kmh. At the same time with 1924 year for the takeover of foreign experience for two years was going to study the captured foreign tanks, of which the most favorable impressed by the Italian "Fiat 3000", is an enhanced FT-one 17. One damaged copy of this tank, obviously, captured during the Polish-Soviet War, He was transferred to the Bureau at the beginning of 1925 of the year. In accordance with the requirements of the Commission Bureau Tank tank project has been developed, the designation T-16. spring 1925 of the year, after consideration of the draft at the headquarters of the Red Army, TTT has been adjusted: permissible mass of the tank was increased to 5 tonnes, to ensure the placement of a more powerful motor and the simultaneous installation of guns and machine guns.

To speed up the work, Factory "Bolshevik" was selected for the production of a prototype tank, available at the time the best production capacity. By March 1927 It has been completed the prototype T-16. In general resemblance to FT-17 new tank due to better layout had significantly lower body length and therefore - smaller weight and better mobility; considerably smaller, in comparison with the "Reno-Russian", was and its value. However, tests revealed the T-16 had many flaws, mainly in the power unit and the chassis. The second prototype, in which the construction of these comments have been taken into account, It was completed by May of that year and received the designation T-18. 11-17 June tank was subjected to the state testing, which as a whole was successful, and on the basis of which it was 6 July put into service under the designation "small tank support arr. 1927 Mr. " (MS-1) or T-18.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

Mass production

1 February 1928 the plant "Bolshevik" the first order for production was given 108 serial T-18 during 1928-1929. first 30 of them, built at Osoaviahima means, It had already put before the fall 1928 year, and the plant has successfully coped with this task. From April 1929 year to the production of tanks was connected Motovilikhinsky Machine Works, who was understudy for the production of T-18, but the development of production on it was slower, especially, that engine supply, powertrain, caterpillars and armor, he depended on the "Bolshevik" factory. for the production of tank plan 1929 year was not implemented, but since the new tank nevertheless gradually mastered in manufacturing, in the years 1929-1930 roadmap has been increased to 300 units. According to others, program "tank-tractor system auto-bronevooruzhenyya Red Army", developed under the guidance of the Chief of Staff of the Red Army, plans to release the T-18 in the years 1929-1930 amounted to 325 units.

Meanwhile obsolete 6.5-mm coaxial machine gun Fedorov system was replaced in the tank a new single 7.62 mm DT-29, from 1930 year became the standard Soviet tank machine gun. Such upgraded tank received the designation MS-1 (T-18) Countdown. 1929 g. and differed from earlier modifications also increase the ammunition to the gun with the 96 to 104 shots and minor modifications in the design of the housing front.

TO 1929 , the T-18 is not the answer to the increasing demands of the Red Army tanks and had to be replaced by a new T-19, However, the development and deployment of production demanded last time. Therefore, held on July 17-18 meeting of the PBC, on which a new system of armored vehicles was adopted, T 18 makes obsolete, at the same time it was decided to replace the appearance of it to keep the T-18 in service, together with measures to increase its speed to 25 kmh. As a result, T-18 has undergone substantial upgrading. Arming T-18 by setting the planned to enhance long-barreled - "high power", in the terminology of the time - 37-mm cannon, and to balance the tower, potyazhelevshy would then in the frontal part, It was equipped with advanced feed niche, which it was scheduled to also be used for the radio station. But in reality, no new gun, Tank audio radio on T-18 and were not included. Changes were made and power plant, Engine power was increased from 35 to 40 l. from., and transmission were introduced four-stage gearbox and a new multi-disc clutch. A number of other, minor, changes have been introduced in other nodes of the machine. Such upgraded tank was adopted under the designation MS-1 (T-18) Countdown. 1930 g.

T-18 production continued until the end of 1931 of the year, when he was succeeded in the production of new tank infantry escort - T-26. Some machines, issued in 1931 year, It was adopted by the military acceptance only in the beginning 1932 of the year, so some sources say, that the production of T-18 was completed only this year. In total for the release of four years, in four production series, it was made 959 serial T-18 all modifications; figure is also found in some sources in 962 tanka, but it includes and prototypes (T-16, reference T-18 and T-19).

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

Further development

Tanks to replace T-18

At a meeting of the Revolutionary Military Council on 17-18 July 1929 of the year, together with the recognition of the T-18 outdated, It had demanded the creation of a new tank support infantry to replace it. Project development, the designation T-19, It was assigned to the main design bureau of the arsenal of gun-trust. The new tank received a suspension modeled on the French NC-27, that as the T-18 is a further development of the FT-17. T-19 was much longer than the T-18, it possible to improve throughput and reduce fluctuations in the course of tank. Arming T-19 was tailored to consist of T-18 37-mm BS-3 guns and machine guns in a single tower, Besides, the crew administered with course arrows DT-29 machinegun. To improve its armor protection casing sheet intended to house large angles of inclination.

Since the creation of T-19, which is expected to be completed by more 15 January 1930 of the year, delayed, in addition to continuing the production of T-18, it was decided to modernize its capital. The project received the designation "T-18 improved" or T-20, and its development was conducted in the winter-spring of the same year. In it were liquidated some drawbacks, resulting from the creation of the T-18 T-16. Major changes in the tank body touched, which received more rational design, to simplify and facilitate its, as well as increase the volume of the fenders and placed in their fuel tanks. Of Coil T-20 was removed and a single support roller rest repositioned, as a reference, and support, and also raised the sloth. The first body armor T-20 was manufactured in May 1930 of the year. It was also proposed to install a tank capacity of the new engine 60 l. from., but he was ready only in October of the same year and developed the capacity to test only 57 l. from. In October it was also made experimental welded armor housing for T-20, but despite their good prospects and fire test results, use in mass production welding while problematic.

Work on T-20 is also dragged. According to plans the first 15 tanks had to be ready to 7 November 1930 of the year, in the years 1931-1932 was commissioned production more 350 units, but the first prototype was not fully completed and 1931 year. Comparative testing of prototypes T-20 (almost completed by the time of their) and T-26, conducted in January 1931 of the year, We have shown the advantage of the latter, which led to the cessation of further work on the T-20. on T-19 continued to work and his first prototype was basically completed in June - August 1931 of the year. It did not concern towers, instead of which tower serial T-18 was set. Characteristics of T-19 was worse than planned and inferior to T-26, who in addition was much cheaper. As a result, the work on the T-19 were phased out in favor of T-26, in the same year had replaced the T-18 on assembly lines.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

Attempts to modernize T-18

One of the areas of modernization of T-18 in the early years has been the increased permeability, particularly with regard to overcoming the ditches. AT 1929 , one tank was equipped with an experimental basis a second front "tail", filmed with another T-18. Due to the characteristic appearance of a converted tank was nicknamed "Rhino" and "push-pull". Although the width of crossing the moat at the same time increased, overview for the driver sharply deteriorated, resulting in a series of such modification is not gone. Also offers a Setup project in the T-18 turning arrows with wheels, is lowered into the pit, then the tank could be an obstacle to overcome them. Besides, wheels could be used for podmyatiya barbed wire. For information about, whether the project is embodied in metal, There are no, although later these devices were developed in the USSR already for more modern tanks.

AT 1933 by the design bureau of the plant "Bolshevik" tank upgrade project has been developed, were designated as 1a-MS with a modified chassis, which included a new drive wheel diameter 660 mm, and elements of the chassis of the T-26 (half trolley with an elastic element in the form of leaf springs and support rollers). anticipated, that by using this resource will be able to improve the chassis and speed, and also reduce the longitudinal oscillations of the tank in motion. However, the prototype test, began 19 May 1933 of the year, show, his mobility even worse and further work on MS-1a were discontinued.

When in 1937 , the task of upgrading the remaining armed with outdated armor samples was placed before the Armored Directorate, one of the first candidates for it was the T-18. modernization project, received designation T-18M, It was designed in 1938 by the design bureau of the plant number 37 led H. A. Astrova. The main change was the replacement of worn-out power plant engine GAZ M-1 power 50 l. from., is also set in a small tank T-38 and installation taken from him gearbox, drive wheels and the rotation mechanism of the type of steering clutches. In this regard, has been slightly changed and the shape of the hull, which also lost the "tail". Also underwent revision undercarriage, and the tower was made easier due to the elimination of the aft niches and changing the shape of the commander's cupola. A tank installed on a 37-mm gun B-3 or 45 mm 20-K, It had already been in serial production for a few years. the only prototype was built T-18M, passed the test in March 1938 of the year. According to their results, it was noted, that despite the apparent increase in the characteristics of the tank, Modernization has created some new problems. In general, the same conclusion was made, that the combat value of the T-18M does not justify the cost of upgrading an existing tank park, in this connection, further work in this direction have been discontinued.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor


T-18 had a classic layout with the location of the engine compartment in the rear of the tank, and the combined management department and combat - in front. The crew consisted of two people - the driver and commander, also performs the function of the arrow.

Armor hull and turret

T-18 was of equal strength bulletproof armor protection. Armored turret housing and collected from rolled sheet steel armor thickness 8 mm for horizontal surfaces, and 16 mm vertical. Assembling armored constructions carried out on the frame, mainly by means of rivets, whereas feed sheets were made removable and fastened on bolts. In the first tank 8 mm were made of two-layer bronelisty, and 16 mm - from the three-layer armor, Manufacturing Method A. Rozhkov, but on the following vehicles to reduce the cost of production went to the usual homogeneous armor.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

hull shape - with speed frontal part niches and developed nadgusenichnyh, installing armor plates - generally vertical or minor angles of inclination. Inside the body divided by a partition between the engine and the crew compartment. Landing and landing served as commander of the round hatch in the roof of the tower, and a driver had tricuspid hatch in the front part of the body. The flap in the upper front opened up, and the other two in the frontal average swing out. Access to the engine and transmission units was carried out by folding the rear plate and the roof of the engine compartment, another two-folding hatch in the motor bulkhead had to access the power plant inside the tank. early release tanks also had a hatch in the bottom of the engine compartment under the engine crankcase, but the sample tanks 1930 , he was abolished. At the bottom of the fighting compartment was located hatch to eject spent cartridges and remove the trapped water in the body. The air fed to the engine through the air intake in the roof of an armored engine compartment, and hot air output was through a hole in the stern.

Tower T-18 mod. 1927 g. I was in shape, close to a regular hexagon, with a slight vertical tilt armor. On the roof of the tower there was a commander's cupola, Close hinged cap mushroom, Serve and commander of the hatch cover. Armament housed in the two front faces of the tower, gun - left, and machine gun - to the right, However, if necessary to T-18 mod. 1927 g. it can be transported in an additional recess in the left rear face, tanks arr. 1930 g. abolished. For ventilation of the tower were the vents in the base of the commander's cupola, which could be closed ring armor flap, as well as a ventilation window in the right side of; means no forced ventilation. The tower was placed on the turret list for ball bearings and rotated by hand, using spinal stop. The support belt serving as a seat commander. T-18 formation. 1930 g. tower was developed fodder niche, the project is intended for the radio station. However, due to lack of fodder niche radio tower is usually used for the placement of ammunition.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

Drawing light tank T-18 (MS-1) on a scale 1 to 35


The main armament of the T-18 was a 37-mm tank gun Hotchkiss system on the tanks of the early issues and models of Hotchkiss and substation - the main part of machines. Hotchkiss gun was created on the basis of naval gun, differing from it a shutter structure. The gun had a barrel length 20 calibres / 740 mm, klinovыy prison, compressor-hydraulic brake and spring recuperator. FROM 1928 the year it was designed to replace the P. Syachintovym Gun PS-1, represents an improved version of the gun Hotchkiss. Its structural differences from the prototype had a longer barrel with muzzle brake, the use of more powerful shot, changes in the trigger mechanism and a number of other details. However, the development of new shots found inappropriate, in the original form of the PS-1 is not produced, instead it went "hybrid" instrument in the production, is a superposition of Hotchkiss cannon barrel on the mechanisms of PS-1 gun. This instrument is known as "Hotchkiss-PS", "Hotchkiss Type 3" or a factory index 2K.

The gun was located in the left frontal part of the tower on horizontal journals, aiming guns carried in a vertical plane by means of its swing stop shoulder, horizontally - by rotating tower. Guidance issued on most tanks was carried out using a simple diopter sight, but on the part of the 1930-1931 years of manufacture of tanks installed telescopic sights Motovilikhinsky production of machine-building plant, provides increased × 2,45 and field of view of 14 ° 20 '.

Both guns used the same assortment of ammunition, Ammunition consisted of 96 T-18 formation. 1927 city, or 104 T-18 formation. 1929 and 1930 gg., unitary shots (armor-piercing) and shrapnel shells and buckshot. Shots were placed in canvas bags in the fighting compartment in the tank body.

In addition to guns, T-18-armed 6.5 mm coaxial machine gun Fedorova, are placed in the ball mount in the front right side of the tower, his ammunition was 1800 cartridges in the box stores 25 rounds. T-18 formation. 1929 g. it was replaced by the time taken in the tank as a single 7.62 mm machine gun DT-29, who had ammunition in 2016 rounds in 32 disk stores 63 chuck.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

Recycled T-18 from exposure Military Museum in Moscow

observation and communication tools

In a non-combat situation a driver led the observation of the terrain through his open hatch for planting-landing. For observation on the battlefield he had located right at the top of the hatch periscope viewing device, as well as three viewing gap in the zygomatic sheet body and the left side of the hatch cover. Protective glasses slit had, but may be closed from the inside with armored shutters. tank commander conducted surveillance of the terrain of the commander's cupola, wherein the perimeter of the viewing had five slits similar construction, or else through the sights of weapons.

The only means of external communications served as a warning flag, planned installation of a radio station on the T-18 mod. 1930 city, but in reality this was not done. Some of the tanks embodiment performed in the commander, Unlike linear machines only for the installation of the mast hanging flags, give them better visibility. Any special means of internal communication on the T-18 did not have.

Engine and transmission

T-18 equipped with in-line four-cylinder four-stroke air-cooled engine carburetor, A design. Mikulin. Power plant tanks was earlier editions 35 l. from. at 1800 rev / min, T-18 formation. 1930 g. it increased to 40 l. from. The engine was placed in the engine-transmission compartment transversely, which significantly reduces the length of the last. Two fuel tanks with a total capacity 110 liters were placed in niches nadgusenichnyh. A significant role in creating, accompanied by series, Changes or modifications powerplant tank T-18 belonged to the constructor KB Motors plant "Bilshovyk" Lily Baroness Mary Yalmarovne Palmen.

Except for the final drive transmission T-18 was combined in a single unit with the motor, it is composed on the tanks of the early issues were:

– single-disk clutch master dry friction;
– mechanical three-stage gearbox;
– rotation of bevel differential type mechanism;
– two belt brake, serves both to rotate, and for inhibition of the tank;
– two-row side transmission, built into the hub of the drive wheels.

T-18 formation. 1930 g. differed from earlier releases of the main tanks installation multiplate clutch with friction surfaces in the working oil (Steel on Steel) and four-stage gearbox, and the changed engine electrical.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

Chassis reconstituted T-18 Military Museum in Moscow


Chassis T-18 of the first series in relation to each board consisted of sloth, four-wheeler, seven dual rubber-tyred road wheels of small diameter and three rubber-coated double support rollers. In late release tanks have entered the fourth supporting roller. Six rear road wheels were interlocked in the two rockers, suspended on covered with protective covers vertical coil springs. Front support roller was mounted on a separate arm, connected to the front bogie and suspension spring inclined en podressorivalsya. Their depreciation in the form of leaf springs have, depending on the time of release of the tank two or three front support rollers. Track T-18 - steel, engagement ridge, krupnozvenchatye. According to instructions, each caterpillar consisted of 51 truck width 300 mm, but in reality their number varied from 49 to 53. On tanks early releases tracks have a complex structure made of several parts, connecting klopkoy, but with 1930 year steel tanks equipped with a new caterpillar from-cast trucks, has better adhesion to the ground than the previous one.


Electrical equipment was a single wire with the voltage on-board network 12 AT. As sources of electric energy used by a DC generator and a 12-volt starter battery capacity 100 Ah. Zazhiganiya system of magneto. Start engine produces an electric starter or starter handle.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

T-18 - Far East Monument-, died in the conflict on the CER, Oser Hassan and Halhin-Goleta, as well as 1945 year in Manchuria, the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin. Khabarovsk, Square headquarters of the Eastern Military District

on the basis of T-18 machine

Becoming the first production of a tank base in the USSR, T-18 was used in many early projects of special machines. But, both because of the small size of the base of the tank, and due to the fact, that by 1929 , he is considered obsolete, the vast majority of these developments have not gone beyond the design stage and even those few, that all were embodied in metal, on arms were not adopted.


The greatest development of all the special machines on the basis of T-18 got teletanks. AT 1927 by the Central Laboratory of wireline experienced radio equipment for the tank has been designed. Installed on the T-18 chetyrohkomandnaya control system "bridge-1" provides the rotation of the tank, turning on and off the main clutch (that is, the movement / stop tank). Later developed an improved version of the apparatus at the same time allows you to manage the movement of the three tanks. prototype testing teletanks, began 23 Martha 1930 of the year, Similar experiments with a year earlier using the database "Reno-Russian" showed the correctness of the fundamental ideas.

AT 1933 he was made a tank, equipped with advanced equipment and management shestnadtsatikomandnoy received in 1934 year designation TT-18. The new equipment enables the tank to further change the speed and direction of movement, turn off and start the engine, and use is on board special equipment - a charge of explosives and chemical instruments. Maximum control range was 1500 m, real - 500-1000 meters. According to various sources it was manufactured from five to at least seven CT-18, administered by the radio broadcast with the tank based on the T-26. Five TT-18 in January - February and October 1933 years have passed tests, which showed, because of the small weight and dimensions, teletank was hardly able to move in a straight line, since it is constantly being taken away in the direction in rough terrain. In connection with the termination of production of T-18 further work in this field have focused on the use of T-26 as a base.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

T-18 Armored museum Kubinka

Self-propelled artillery

Develop a set of self-propelled artillery (HEALTHY) on the chassis of the T-18 was launched in December 1927 year Research Bureau AANII under the "Basic technical requirements for weapon system". List anticipated to develop options include ACS with 76.2-mm regimental gun to directly support infantry, 45-mm gun on the role of the tank destroyer and two ZSU, with 7.62-mm machine gun installation and paired with a 37-mm automatic cannon. However, in reality there was only fully worked out a draft 76-mm self-propelled guns SU-18. The gun was mounted in a fully enclosed armored cockpit, is placed over the fighting compartment and hangs over the front part of the tank, relying on the middle frame front sheet. Already at the design stage it became apparent, that a satisfactory accommodation 76-mm cannon with the calculation based on T-18 without alteration of its capital it is impossible to, so, although 11 June 1930 , it was decided to build a prototype to ACS 10 October of the same year, later it was canceled and further developments in this area have been translated into the base of a larger T-19.

In the years 1931-1932 studied the possibility of using T-18 for the carriage 122-mm or 152-mm howitzer. However, tank testing, loaded ballast, weight equal to 152 mm howitzer, It revealed, that he did not budge on soft ground, so the work in this direction have also been discontinued.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

Museum T-18, carrying coloring and tactical sign sample 1929 of the year


Besides, It was developed Ammunition Carrier - "tank supply" in the terminology - is intended for supply to the combat conditions of ACS based on T-18 and T-19. The conveyor had towers and niches housing nadgusenichnyh, fuel tanks of which were transferred into the fighting compartment. Instead of this, nadgusenichnyh on the shelves was placed on the container of 5-7 mm armor, Inside kotorыh could be carried to 50 76,2-mm rounds per 10 boxes, 192 45-mm round in 16 trays or an equivalent amount by weight of boxes 7.62mm cartridges. The project was approved, but even built a prototype and has not been.

AT 1930 , the main engineering project GAU Bureau armored tractor has been designed on the basis of T-18, and in April 1931 , his prototype was built. Bronetraktor different from the tank top open housing, over which could stretch an awning for protection from the weather, as well as several altered chassis. In addition to the driver, tractor could be transported in the case three more people. In June 1931 tractor year has passed field tests, reveal its unsuitable for towing loads, as well as design complexity and unreliability in operation, and therefore further work on it was stopped.

chemical (ognemotnye) tanks

AT 1932 year chemical tank HT-18 was established on the basis of T-18. From linear tank sample 1930 , he was distinguished only open setting in the "tail" of the chemical instrument TDP-3, which could be used for spraying of toxic substances, degassing area or installing a smoke screen. The tank passed the test in the summer 1932 year NIHP HKUKS Red Army, but on arms was not adopted, Although the experience with him went before 1934 of the year. I am working on the project and the flame tank OT-1 with the installation of a flame thrower on the "tail", for defense against enemy infantry. Later he was also drafted flame tank with installation ognemotnogo equipment in the tower on the site of the gun, with limited angles traverse, avoid twisting the hose feeding ognesmesi from the crew compartment. Further work in this direction have been discontinued, because by the time the chemical (ognemotnye) tanks developed already at a more advanced T-26 chassis.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

engineering vehicles

Following the adoption in 1929 year program "The system tank-tractor auto bronevooruzheniya Red Army", provides for the establishment of mechanized crossing equipment, the first self-propelled bridge project has been developed on the basis of T-18. Project, referred to as "Assault Tank sapper", provided for installation on the tower tank devoid of a two-drawer wooden bridge, providing a transport across rivers or wide trenches to 4 meters Car, tankettes and small tanks. Besides, Machine equipped with a drill to drill boreholes and mechanical wood saws. Like other machines on the basis of T-18, Assault Tank sapper has not gone beyond the stage of the project.

color, tactical and markings

According to published in the spring 1927 by order, standardize the color of armor, T-18 was originally entirely painted in light green "herbal" color. tactical sign, denotes membership in the tank regiment, deposited on nadgusenichnyh recesses and the front edge of the commander's cupola, and on command vehicle - and even on the stern of the tower. An early sign of the tactical version consisted of sequentially, each refined triangle, circle, square and Roman numerals, designating, respectively, battalion, a company of the battalion, platoon in the company and the number of a specific machine in the platoon. The first three of these figures express the color - red for the first, white to black for the second and third. Spare tanks in the battalion were carrying only the contour of the corresponding triangle battalion colors.

New and more elaborate color notation system was introduced in 1929 year. General color was changed to dark green, as less prominent on foliage background and needles of trees. Changed and tactical sign, its membership is now included: Arabic numeral height 30 cm, denotes the number of the car in the platoon, command vehicles designated by the lack of numbers; located to the right of it color ring, denotes the number of the battalion, and inscribed in the ring vertical shot, in which the numerator was designated company number, and the denominator - the platoon. The color notation system black, as a low-profile on a dark green background, He was replaced by a yellow. Further, before the start of the Great Patriotic War, color and symbols repeatedly changed system, but T-18, practically decommissioned, it's the little touches.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

Organizational structure

In the Red Army T-18 received on the weapons tank battalion, is included in the mechanized parts. The structure of the tank battalion consisted of platoons management and recovery (Staff and repair), artbatareya with two 76-mm field guns and two or three tank companies, in each of which there were three platoons of three tanks and one tank Staff. FROM 1929 , the T-18 arrived in the mechanized regiment, dvuhrotnym one tank battalion in each, numbering, in this way, Total 20 tanks in the regiment. FROM 1930 , the formation of the mechanized brigades, which consists of a tank regiment with two squads T-18 composition trohrotnogo. Total, in this way, in Mechanized Brigade, there were 60 T-18.

Operation and use of combat

The first T-18 began to enter the army in 1928 year, and by the next year took place on the main tank of the Red Army arsenal. Of the total number of issued tanks of this type 103 machines were immediately handed over to the Osoaviahima and other military-technical schools, 4 They were handed over to the OGPU, 2 - The fourth and management 1 - Military himupravleniyu Red Army, others entered service a variety of armored units. T-18 is actively used for training as the armored units, and other arms, working out the tactics of anti-tank defense. At this early stage of T-18 played a major role in completing the interaction tanks with infantry.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

Conflict on the CER

For the first time the T-18 was used in combat during the conflict on the CER in November 1929 of the year. In the autumn of the Trans-Baikal group of the Special Far Eastern Army (ODVA) It has been given from company 10 tanks, one of which was badly damaged during transportation and disassembled for spare parts for the repair of the remaining nine, and who took part in the offensive Mishanfusskoy 17-19 November.

The tanks began to advance to their positions late in the evening 16 November, while they have not been fully fueled and had almost no ammunition to the guns, and three cars were equipped with machine guns. During the night march, without even maps, tanks lost each other and to the intended point of profit, only four of them. They were tucked here and got 40 shells to the gun, then the morning 17 November proved to be quite successful in the storming of the Chinese position. Two of the tanks went backward to the location of other Soviet units, where without shells, still we managed to support the infantry attack of the 106th Infantry Regiment, use them for cover from enemy fire. By the middle of the day, these two tanks is still joined to the rest of the company and, already in the six machines, attempted to storm the Chinese fortifications, but it was stopped by anti-tank ditch. Combat losses for the company did not suffer a day, but two tanks out of service for technical reasons, although one of them was repaired the same day. In the evening came two more stragglers tank, Wandering across the steppe after detachment loss, until they ran out of fuel, the third is out of order transmission.

The next day, a company of seven new tanks supported the infantry in the assault fortified Chinese positions, but any result they achieved only after, as a tank ditch was partially destroyed. Loss tanks again suffered no, Only one car was damaged by grenades. Another tank was damaged by grenades on the next day of fighting, other machine is out of order because of a caterpillar reset, but none of the crew members during the fighting died. In general, the activities of the tanks in the conflict was assessed as satisfactory command - despite the extremely poor crew training and poor organization of their actions, T-18 performed well supported by infantry. Fights show extremely low efficiency fragmentation projectile 37mm cannon, Red Army also expressed wishes for improving patency, rates and reservation tank.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

Later years and the Great Patriotic War

To top 1938 year, is still in the ranks of the T-18 reached an extreme degree of wear. In the ranks at that time was 862 tanka, including 160 transmitted in the years 1934-1937 at the disposal of the fortified areas (further fortified, SKILLS) Leningrad Military District for the construction of bunkers. Other machines have already been sent for scrap. But even formally remain in service tanks for the most part were in poor condition, and many were also more and disarmed (a portion of T-18 were dismantled cannon, transmitted to arms of the T-26). The situation was aggravated by the lack of spare parts, which often receives only by dismantling some tanks to repair other. In this regard, the order of People's Commissar of arms 2 March T-18 were retired and 700 of them were handed over to the fortified military districts, as well as the People's Commissariat of the Navy.

Sent fortified area on the tanks were to be re-doubles machine guns DT, DA-2 or a 45-mm gun mod. 1932 g. From faulty tanks were dismantled engines and transmission, armored housing and were buried on the tower to the ground or just installed as a BOT (armored emplacements) at bridges, intersections of roads and other convenient locations for the defense. Retaining the ability to move under its own power tanks were handed over to the garrison fortified for use as a mobile gun emplacements. By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the troops still had about 450 hulls and 160 tanks. Turned into bunkers T-18 were mainly concentrated on the western borders of the USSR, some of their number were also found in the fortification system in the Lake Khasan, where in 1938 year were fighting against Japan.

Information about the combat use of the T-18 in World War II are mostly fragmentary. In most of his tanks, concentrated on the western borders of the USSR, They were killed or captured in the first days or weeks of the war, although a few specimens have been used a little longer. The T-18 and BHT on their basis in the fight with the enemy reinforcement areas - particularly, aware of the battles with their participation in Osovetskaya, Vladimir-Volyn and Minsk UR. Several T-18 was transferred to the 9th Mechanized Corps, ponosshego heavy losses during a tank battle in the area of ​​Lutsk - Exactly; 29 June housing received 14 such tanks, of which 2 July there were only two cars, One of them was faulty. Last Reported combat use of T-18 refers to the battle for Moscow, where in winter 1941-1942 year were used 9 T-18 from the 150th tank brigade, The number of documents in service until February, when the brigade still had three such tank. Placed at Lake Khasan in the form of fortifications T-18 were in service prior to 1950, when they were excluded from the system of fortifications and abandoned.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

Dead stop in the form of T-bunker 18 with a 45 mm cannon. The exposition of the Central Museum of the Great Patriotic War

Evaluation of the project


Although the structure of T-18 was created on the basis of FT-17, it has been applied by a number of original solutions. At the T-cross position of the engine 18 in the first tank development stories were used and connected in the same block as the gearbox and clutch. This solution has significantly reduced the length of the engine compartment. Consequently, от FT-17, wherein the engine is located longitudinally, and the engine-transmission compartment occupied half the length of the body, T-18 compared favorably smaller length of the hull volume and booked. But short of the tank body and a small footprint caterpillars had its negative sides, eg, increased wobble tank in motion and reduced ability to overcome ditches. In the late 1920's - early 1930's of the last received considerable attention, and this characteristic is the T-18 was considered unsatisfactory, despite the use of the "tail".

weaponry, of security and mobility

Armament of T-18 was superior to most of his contemporaries in the class of light tanks due to be installed in the car and gun, and machinegun, whereas foreign models equipped with only one of the these firing means. However, the separate installation of a machine gun and the gun on the T-18 reduced the effectiveness of their use, and stood at most elementary tanks rear sight not contribute high pointing accuracy. In the experience of the use of T-18 in the conflict on the CER effective shooting distance estimated no further 750-800 meters. Besides, just by pointing the gun using shoulder rest nullified the effectiveness of fire on the move. Mounted on a T-18 37 mm gun has a comparatively high rate and allow for close range fight lightly armored appliances, but experience has shown the conflict on the CER, even against field fortifications light shrapnel shells, containing all 40 grams of explosive, It proved to be completely ineffective.

Reservation T-18 meets the requirements of his time, reliably protecting it from the rifle-caliber weapons, and at a certain distance - and fire large-caliber machine guns, Although the opening peepholes created a risk of the crew fragments or splashes of lead. Specialized anti-tank guns were in the armed forces after the removal of the T-18 production and widespread until the mid-1930s. The speed and the stock tank travel, especially after modernization 1930 year, considered satisfactory for infantry support tasks, and the specific pressure on the T-18 primer, despite the relatively short supporting surface caterpillars, It was extremely low by the standards of tanks, which increases its permeability.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor


Analogs of T-18 in a class of light tanks in direct support of the infantry at the time of its creation were the French FT-17, its foreign versions - M1917 American and Italian "Fiat 3000", as well as small-scale French NC 27, It is a further development of the same FT-17. Comparison of the T-18 developed almost a decade earlier FT-17 is not quite justified, but in general, the T-18 was significantly superior to his French grandparent. The most pronounced had the advantage over the T-18 FT-17 in terms of mobility, despite only slightly higher specific power of the Soviet machine. Introduced at the end of the First World War, the American version of the FT-17 - M1917 - slightly won the prototype only in speed and significantly inferior to the T-18.

Italian "Fiat 3000" created in 1920-1921 was seriously restructured version of FT-17. The Italian car design have been eliminated many of the shortcomings of the French prototype, due to the urgency of the establishment and the lack of experience in designing tanks. Also, the "Fiat 3000" was considerably more powerful engine, which ensured him the best power density relative to later T-18, but retained the outdated "semi-rigid» FT-17 suspension. Although the maximum speed of the tank increased to 21 kmh, his mobility as a whole is still assessed as unsatisfactory. In practice, a maximum speed in off-road conditions, is determined primarily by suspension, It could even be smaller, than T-18. armament, similar FT-17, Italian inferior tank T-18.

French NC 27, Designed in the mid-1920s, approximately corresponds to T-18 and is also a result of deep modernization FT-17. In general similarity of structure with the base tank and identical arms, NC 27 I became greater, It was enhanced to 30 mm vertical armor and more modern suspension. To compensate for the increased weight on the tank was installed a more powerful compared to the FT-17 engine. All this allowed for NC 27 mobility at the T-18 with a weaker armament, but best booking.

However, the development of military and engineering thought in the world tank manufacturing is not standing still in the USSR. If at the time of its launch in the production of T-18 was at the level of foreign models, then by 1930 , there were patterns in the class of infantry tanks, as significantly superior to Soviet tank, like him - FT-17. The first of these was the British "Vickers six-ton" (Mk.E), set a new standard in the class. Being larger and heavier tanks FT-17 family, Mk.E had a more advanced design of those years, developed speed up 37 kmh, carrying a machine gun armament of two towers, or with one double 37mm cannon and machinegun, and also has great development potential.

another sample, French D1, It was a further development of NC 27 and kept it similar to mobility at significantly increased weight, but got protivosnaryadnym 35mm booking and 47-mm cannon in a double tower. Close watch on new developments in tank Soviet military leaders had an opportunity to compare the first serial domestic tanks with advanced foreign technology samples. Small tank support T-18, as well as "agile" T-24 were deemed to have no prospects and Soviet tank embarked on licensed production of foreign models, or imitate them in case of failure to purchase license.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

preserved specimens

Immediately after use in a T-18 forces have not been put in museums, with the result that all of the known surviving specimens have been recovered from abandoned cars, installed as a fixed gun emplacements fortified areas in the Far East. Due to errors made during the restoration, or sometimes conscious simplifications, all recovered samples have significant differences from the original. In particular, Although all the samples belong to the modification 1930 of the year, apart from them is an imitation of the coaxial machine gun Fedorov (and a tank in Vladivostok - even the layout of a machine gun "Maxim"), chassis to a greater or lesser extent inaccurate on all machines. Only the Russian Far East is known for at least seven surviving T-18, all of which are in museums or installed as a monument to Russia. Another instance of the tank is in the open air museum "Battle Glory of the Urals" in the town of Verkhnyaya Pyshma, Sverdlovsk region.

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

T-18 Moscow Museum Armed Forces. Chassis machine when recovery is simplified to improve traction properties in the event of participation in parades

The performance characteristics of the tank T-18 (MS-1)

Crew, pers.: 2
The layout: classical
years of production: 1928—1931
years of operation: 1928—1942
The number of issued, PC.: 959

Weight of tank T-18 (MS-1)

– 5,30 tonnes

Dimensions of the T-18 (MS-1)

– body Length, mm: 3500, 4380 with the "tail"
– housing width, mm: 1760
– Height, mm: 2120
– Clearance, mm: 315

Armor tank T-18 (MS-1)

– Type broni: rolled steel
– housing forehead, mm / city.: 16
– body board, mm / city.: 16
– housing feed, mm / city.: 16
– Bottom, mm: 8
– corps roof, mm: 8
– tower forehead, mm / city.: 16
– board towers, mm / city.: 16
– tower feed, mm / city.: 16
– tower roof, mm: 8
– active protection: 18

Arming of the T-18 (MS-1)

– Caliber guns and stamp: 37-mm Hotchkiss
– gun type: nareznaya
– barrel length, calibres: 20
– gun ammunition: 104
– sights: dioptricheskiy
– Shotgun: 2 × 6,5-mm Fedorova

Engine tank T-18 (MS-1)

– engine's type: inline 4-cylinder air-cooling Carburetor
– Engine power, l. from.: 35

The rate of tank T-18 (MS-1)

– Road speed, kmh: 16
– Speed ​​over rough terrain, kmh: 6,5

– Cruising on the highway, km: 100
– power density, l. p. / m: 6,6
– suspension type: semi-detached pairs, vertical springs
– Unit ground pressure, kg / cm²: 0,37
– Gradeability, city.: 36°
– to overcome the wall, m: 0,5
– trench, m: 1,85
– fording, m: 0,8

Photo T-18 (MS-1)

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

T-18 (MS-1) in the village of Slavyanka, Primorye Territory, at the building of the local history museum pulled out of Khasan marshes, about 40 years ago and renovated

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

In Khabarovsk,, at the headquarters of the Eastern Military District on the pedestal stands another T-18 (MS-1) possibly on the move

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor

 T-18 (MS-1) PBF, Video, A photo, Speed, armor


A source