RP-46 – 7,62-mm sample gun company commander 1946 of the year (GAU index - 56-R-326) - Soviet machine gun, created 1946 A year designers. AND. Shilin, P. P. Polyakov and A. A. Dubinin based on an earlier gun Degtyarev (DPM).
RP-46 machine gun – video
Introduced in the late twenties, machine gun DP VA construction. Degtyareva will significantly increase the firepower of the infantry. In the future, tank and aircraft guns were set up on the basis of these weapons. FROM 1944 , the Red Army operated modernized machine gun DPM, different from the basic design of a number of useful innovations. gun design was recognized as a successful, which led to the emergence of another modifications.
Machine gun RP-46 with a belt feed
After the Great Patriotic War began translating army on the use of small arms under the new cartridges. So, already in 1944 by VA. Degtyarev presented RPD light machine gun, which later was adopted as a means to enhance the firepower of the infantry divisions. It is calculated for the intermediate cartridge 7,62h43 mm, RPD machine gun you are upgrading military requirements. Nevertheless, military leaders were in no hurry to abandon the existing automatic weapons under a more powerful rifle cartridge 7,62h54 mm R.
At the end of the war the Red Army had only machine guns DP family. Such weapons are superior firepower new raps, as a result it was decided to leave it in the army, but translated to another level. Machine guns, using rifle cartridge, had become a weapon supporting infantry companies. Nevertheless, DP and DP guns in its present form can not be used as such, which prevented some of their features. First of all, claim military touched ammunition supply system. On the disc magazine 47 cartridges did not differ high reliability, and also fails to achieve the desired density of fire.
Machine gun RP-46 with disk stores from DP / DPM on 47 rounds
To develop a new machine gun from scratch would take time. Not being able to wait, military ordered rework project existing PDM gun to meet new requirements. So there was a gun RP-46. contrary to the obvious, letter "P" designation meant not "manual", and "company commander". The figures reflect the year of development. An updated version of an existing machine gun was developed by engineers AI. Shilin, PP. Polyakov, and AA. Dubinin. Because of the relative ease of developing a machine gun was designed and tested until the end 1946 of the year.
Fulfilling customer requirements, authors RP-46 project most actively used components and assemblies of the base machine gun DPM. As a result, "The company commander gun arr. 1946 g "can be considered a deep modernization of the basic design of weapons VA. Degtyareva. Such an approach has led to, that two guns design features differ only in some details, as well as the different systems of feeding cartridges.
The general architecture of the machine gun with the alteration undergone minor changes. The design of the receiver and the barrel casing remains the same. For partial disassembly of weapons should extract aggregates trigger mechanism, placed in a receiver box through an opening in the bottom thereof, and then removing the bolt group. The machine gun has a new weighted barrel length 605 mm. Due to the greater thickness of the barrel wall planned increase quality combat weapons. They have been kept mounting for quick barrel replacement. As earlier, a large part of the stem is inside a cylindrical casing with holes. Under the barrel there was a gas tube with the piston and the regulator. On the muzzle of the barrel were provided for fastening of the conical flame arrester.
Hand-gun RP-46 precursor retained automatics, but was a gas regulator to optimize the mechanisms. Inside the tube there was a gas piston under the barrel, associated with the slide frame. shutter units placed inside the receiver and in contact with the reciprocating mainspring. The latter was located in the back of the receiver. For objective reasons,, associated with the development of the machine gun design, compressed spring left in a special glass outside of the receiver. A glass was attached to the back side of the receiver and is located above the neck butt.
RP-46 machine gun has inherited from its predecessors the shutter locking the two lugs. When moving forward shutter was reforwarded cartridge in the chamber and press it. Further, under the action of mainspring reciprocating firing pin forward moving, placed inside the gate. Due to its special form of drummer parted the two lugs, pivotally mounted on the sides of the shutter. Divergent stops in contact with the grooves on the inner surface of the receiver and thereby blocking gate bias. After firing the drummer had to go back, allowing the stops to move to each other under the action of the slots of the receiver. For charging on the gate there was a handle, derived through the bottom window of the receiver.
The trigger mechanism was unchanged borrowed from the gun DPM. On a separate frame, fastened inside the receiver, housed the trigger, trigger with the sear, as well as details of an opt-in fuse. fuse check box, both the DT and DP, It was put on the right face of the receiver and located above the trigger. USM allowed only fire bursts, due to which the fuse box has two positions. When turning back the box allowed the fire, in the forward position - blocking mechanisms.
Machine gun Degtyarev used supply stores. Disk stores on 47 cartridges were mounted on mounting at the top of the receiver. Translation of machine-gun tape on nutrition has been associated with some difficulties. If you are using the most obvious ideas sponsors RP-46 would have to redo the receiver box, as well as part of its internal units. This technique made it possible to use tape, but could lead to excessive complication of the production of new weapons. Lost continuity structure and decreased degree of commonality. In this way, It required the use of other methods of weapon upgrades.
design team, is modernizing gun DPM, I decided not to change the structure of the base machine gun, but to complement it with a new unit. On top of the receiver has been proposed to install a special unit for receiving a tape supply cartridges and. To simplify the design of weapons reception module tape was mounted on the same locks, As a standard disk store.
Module receiving tape is designed as a U-shaped base complex shape and a hinged lid. The latter could ascend to filling tape. In the side surface of the module provides two windows. right, equipped with spring-loaded cover, intended for receiving a tape, left - to eject a blank tape. Located within the module tape pulling mechanism and a pusher for extraction from the cartridge and feeding the tape into a machine gun. The problem of bringing parts in motion was solved by a simple, but elegant way. On the right side of the tape receiving module had protruding down bracket. After installation of this module bracket was contacted with the bolt handle.
Before using the arrow weapon had to open the module cover and tuck tape. Further, by using the bolt handle weapons prepares to fire. When firing automatic gun triggers a module receiving tape. shifts back, bolt handle resulted in the movement of the bracket and with the help of a pusher moved. Last I pushed the cartridge from the tape and take him to the rear of the module. There fell into cartridge supply opening, through which enters the receiving window of the receiver. Returning to the front position, bolt through the handle back into contact with the bracket belt module and returns it to its original position units. When moving the shutter and pusher carried forward pulling tape. The principle of the automation of machine-gun remains the same. Desolate part of the band displayed in the window to the left side of the module.
RP-46 machine gun had to use a metal tape nerassypnye, carried in special boxes. To unify the tapes were borrowed from machine gun SG-43. Standard ammunition of weapons were considered at ribbons 200 and 250 rounds. Machine guns, there were no special mountings for the box of ammunition, that to some extent hampered its operation in combat conditions.
Module receiving tape constructions Shilina, Polyakov and Dubinin allowed to solve the problem of using tape cartridges without any significant processing machine gun design. Also it should be noted, that gun RP-46 could be used not only tape, but disk stores from DP / DPM. To do this, should dismantle the belt unit and install in his place Shop. Such a "conversion" of weapons was carried out for calculating the forces as soon as possible.
Sights RP-46 machine gun was borrowed from the PDM base. They consisted of flies with namushnike, situated in front of the barrel jacket, and open sight. The latter is located behind the reception window of the receiver. The sight was covered by a small flap, which also served as a store or latch unit for receiving a tape. The sight was designed for firing at ranges of up to 1500 m. were the main benchmarks for this on it by 1 to 15 (hundreds of meters) and risks smaller, notes 50 m.
During the renovation the ergonomics of the base machine gun has undergone minor changes. At the rear of the receiver is still fastened the wooden butt of triangular shape and pistol grip. Example, borrowed from the gun DPM, I had the characteristic shape of the neck, due to the presence of the projecting tube reciprocating mainspring. Inside the stock compartment provided for cleaning utensils.
On the barrel casing, behind the front sight, there were mounts for folding bipod. The latter were intended to stabilize the weapon during firing. If necessary bipod raised up and fixed in this position by means of a special latch. Arrows complain of the inconvenience of transportation DP / PDM base gun, because of what the new RP-46 received a special pen. T-shaped support with a wooden handle placed at the rear of the barrel jacket, immediately before the tape module. This detail has greatly simplified the carrying of guns.
When the barrel length 605 mm total length RP-46 machine gun was 1272 mm. The small difference in the length of the base PDM and the new RP-46 create a difference trunks and construct the flame arrester. Due to the module receiving the tape to weapons potyazhelel 13 kg. Machine gun with tape on 200 and a box of ammunition for it weighed more 21 kg. In this way, modernized machine gun was heavier than its prototype, however, this increase is a direct payment for the increase in ready-to-use ammunition and increase the firepower.
Using ready-made automation has led to the preservation of some characteristics. Muzzle velocity at RP-46 machine gun reached 825 m / s, muzzle energy - not less 3,2 kJ. Sighting range was 1500 m, although the bullet remained lethal effect and at large distances. At distances up 500 m could conduct effective fire at air targets.
RP-46 machine gun had a technical rate at 600 rounds per minute. Through the use of a relatively long tape could significantly improve the practical rate. For DP and DP machine guns, this parameter does not exceed 75-80 rounds per minute, while the tape machine gun could do to 230-250 rounds per minute. In this way, new RP-46 on rate of fire in combat conditions could be compared with some heavy machine guns.
Thick-walled heavy barrel can fire not only short and long bursts up 5-15 shots. Allows continuous shooting series of a few dozen shots, until the entire tape one ejection queue. Without appreciable loss in performance gun RP-46 could do to 500 shots without a lengthy cooling.
Tests of RP-46 machine gun design of the new AI. Shiley, PP. Polyakov, and AA. Dubinin took place in recent months 1946 of the year. Continuity of design, combined with some new nodes have allowed arms to show high performance and get a recommendation to the adoption. At the end of the 46th officially became a new machine gun weapon of the Soviet Army. The deployment of mass production of such weapons were gone within months. This has contributed to the lack of need for the production of a large number of new parts. Enterprises of the defense industry had to master the production of new heavy trunks and modules belt. All other parts are either already been in serial production, or manufactured with a few changes, did not require major changes in the lines.
Machine guns RP-46 were to be used in the Army at the level of company. Together with a machine gun in the part supplied set of different accessories. Each weapons unit was attached one removable barrel, eight boxes of tapes, Cover and set of accessories for cleaning.
Despite the maximum possible preservation of the structural elements, sponsors RP-46 was able to significantly improve the quality of military weapons. As mentioned, Practical rate was increased approximately three-fold. Besides, has been optimized weight distribution of ammunition. RP-46 machine gun with two ribbons on 250 cartridges, each in separate boxes was about 10 PDM kg lighter base with the same ammunition in the disk stores. This feature is the most positive impact on the firepower and mobility of small units of machine-gun crew.
Partial disassembly of RP-46 machine gun
Nevertheless, new gun had and disadvantages. Some of them, such as the big payoff, They were present in PDM base and were associated with the capacity of the used cartridge. At the same time there are new problems. The lack of supports for the box with the tape cartridge and the great length of the tape itself seriously hampered the movement of a machine gunner on the battlefield. In some cases, he had to take a position, and only then fill the tape, but before moving to discharge the gun and remove the tape. As a result, the machine gunner could not without the help of others to shoot on the move, this required another fighter, which was supposed to carry a box of ammunition.
You can also note the high dispersion of bullets at longer distances, associated with the absence of the machine with rigid mounts. Because of this gun RP-46, with similar firepower easel with existing systems, show less precision and accuracy. However, the difference in the role on the battlefield is not allowed to consider the lack of this feature of the machine gun.
Analyzing the experience of the Great Patriotic war and other armed conflicts, Soviet military gradually came to the conclusion that inappropriate development and operation of various machine guns under rifle cartridge. Production and use of heavy machine guns and hand of two different types, using the same ammunition, not make sense. As a result, 1961 year has been adopted general-purpose machine gun MT design. Kalashnikov. This weapon has become a substitute for obsolete Goryunov heavy machine gun SG-43 / SGM and hand the company commander RP-46.
RP-46 machine gun can be found in Africa, in Liberia.
FROM 1961 of the year, as new guns, outdated RP-46 sent to the warehouse or on the disposal of. The main operator of this weapon was the Soviet Army. Besides, in the early fifties began to supply guns friendly GDR. AT 1956 year license production of such weapons deployed in Germany. Also, "the company commander guns mod. 1946 of 'Asian allies supplied the USSR. In China, these guns were used and sold under the name "Type 58". The army of the DPRK gun received the designation "Type 64". According to some reports, part of the machine guns RP-46, Withdrawal, It was transferred to various Asian and African countries. Besides, a number of such weapons still stored in warehouses in Russia and other former Soviet republics.
The company commander machine gun RP-46 is of great interest both from a technical, and from a historical perspective. Its design is interesting, that due to minimal modifications to the authors of the project was able to increase the number of times the most important characteristics. The main innovation in this case was the receiving unit ribbon, fitted to a modified machine gun almost DPM. Interest from the standpoint of the history associated with the origin of these weapons and their exploitation. Just a few years after the end of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union Army received a new automatic weapon, Complementing the existing system and the positive impact on the firepower of the infantry. Besides, RP-46 was the last representative of a class domestic machine guns under rifle cartridge. After him, the development of machine-guns went in two other ways. In the future, taken into service under the general-purpose machine gun rifle cartridge, and standard ammunition for hand-guns intermediate steel bullets.
The performance characteristics of the RP-46 machine gun
– Adopted: 1946
– Constructor: A. AND. Shilin; P. P. Poles; A. A. Dubinin
Weight RP-46 machine gun
– 13 kg (body machinegun)
– 3,63 kg (box with a ribbon on nesnaryazhonnoy 200 rounds)
– 8,33 kg (box with a ribbon on the curb 200 rounds)
– 9,63 kg (box with a ribbon on the curb 250 rounds)
Dimensions RP-46 machine gun
– Length, mm: 1272
– barrel length, mm: 605
Cartridge RP-46 machine gun
– 7,62× 54 mm R (with ordinary, tracer and armor-piercing incendiary bullets)
RP-46 caliber machine gun
– 7,62 mm
Rate RP-46 machine gun
– 600 rounds / min
Bullet Speed RP-46 machine gun
– 825 m / s
Sighting range RP-46 machine gun
– 1500 m
– 1000 m (effective)
Work principles: removal of powder gases, locking the sliding lugs
type boepitaniya: bar 200 or 250 rounds (after removal of the tape supply unit may use disk stores from DP / DPM on 47 rounds)
Photo RP-46 machine gun