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M1 Garand rifle cartridge caliber 7.62 mm

		M1 Garand rifle cartridge caliber 7.62 mm

Self-loading rifle M1 Garand was created in the late twenties of the last century, It was finalized in 1930 year, American arms designer John Garand (John Garand), from what will end up with the name Garand.

Vintovka M1 arm – video

After, John Garand received 1930 year patent for his design of the final model, Two years later his rifle was presented for consideration as a setting for service as a primary weapon of the US Army. Garand rifle designs had the caliber 7 mm, or the American classification .270. This was the reason, that the rifle has not passed even the first stage of the competition, as the US military officials were clearly against the cartridge, and demanded weapons larger caliber, Use the cartridge .30-06 (7,62X63 mm). As a result, the design was adapted rifles chambered .30-06, and 1936 year, after several upgrades Garand rifle adopted by the US Army under the name «US rifle .30 caliber M1». On the 37th of the last century, the M1 Garand began to arrive in large quantities in the US Army, which caused a lot of complaints.

		M1 Garand rifle cartridge caliber 7.62 mm

Vintovka M1 arm – view of the right and left

The first rifle, by analogy with the first "practice makes perfect", We worked very badly. soldiers complained, after six shots rifle began to issue different kinds of wedges, most often voiced is the number "six" with respect to the last shot before the delay. The incident with the rifle, on which great hopes, of course, and came to the United States Congress. after investigations, conducted by military officials of the North American states of urgent recommendations of the Congress, the decision was made, you need to finalize the mechanism for venting, which is considered vicious, because gunsmiths experts saw it it causes delays in work by firing automatics.

AT 1939 rifle was upgraded, and participated in the modernization of the best shots of US weapons industry, which eliminated many disadvantages, in the new automatic rifle, and in handling it. After a series of upgrades rifle again passed the whole cycle of military polygon test, after which the weapon came into a large-scale production and 1941 year has produced tens of thousands of pieces. Before that M1 rifles produced relatively small quantities, due to defects in the mechanisms. Old rifles M1, constructed before modernization, reworked under the new standards.

		M1 Garand rifle cartridge caliber 7.62 mm

M1S Garand rifle with sniper scope M81

The main reason for such an approach and a sharp increase in the number of issued rifles M1 is clearly visible in the date - 1941 year. It was then that the world was clear, that the Wehrmacht troops were not limited to the enslavement of small European states, but on the contrary, received from them material and human resources (as free labor), army of Nazi Germany and its allies will initiate aggression around the globe, which can not but affect the interests of the United States of America. Therefore, the country, or rather its army, urgently needed a powerful self-loading rifle, because at that time in service of the participating countries of the Second World War were mostly non-automatic rifle with manual reset, with "bolt" gate. Most of the soldiers of the Red Army were armed with rifles and carbines Mosin, Mauser rifle 98 and carbine Mauser 98k were the main weapon of the Wehrmacht, British Lee-Enfield rifle was the basis of small arms of the British Army. In other words, the majority of small arms, It plays a decisive role in WWII, it was autoloading, it was a rifle with the sliding bolt, which had to juggle manually for each subsequent shot.

In those terrible years of the war represented a serious threat to the foundations of statehood and independence of the USA, which so appreciate the people of this country. Therefore, the United States participated in the massacre unleashed by Germany was inevitable, and for this, by itself, It needed an effective weapon, which should have been higher combat characteristics, compared to the opponents weapons, as well as allies (who knows what, allies often become adversaries, that happened many times before the Second World, and in American higher fools guide was much less, read what the Soviet propaganda of the postwar period).

		M1 Garand rifle cartridge caliber 7.62 mm

M1D Garand - sniper rifle with a telescopic sight and flash hider M82

AT 1939 year, When the Second World War, Most small arms US Army were bolted M1903 Springfield rifles of various modifications, that, by and large, They were identical to the above-mentioned bolt rifles of other countries, taking an active part in the war. Combat characteristics of American rifles Springfield even several inferior to such weapons, how Mauser 98 and Mosin rifle, especially in reliability. All these weapons were in those days, so to say "the last century", both figuratively, and in a very real. Therefore, the production of self-loading rifles M1 Garand was the US one of the main priorities, because in a great war, undoubtedly, such Rifle gave significant advantages over bolted autoloading rifles, consisting of other countries arming. Therefore, M1 Garand rifle was to replace the US Army's outdated autoloading rifle Springfield M1903.

		M1 Garand rifle cartridge caliber 7.62 mm

Moving parts automatic M1 Garand. Visible gas piston with return spring inside, gas piston rod and connected with him bolt carrier. Under the bolt carrier is visible removable store

Therefore, the manufacturing rate of M1 since the start of series production at the end of 1936 the year grew exponentially to the first years of the war, also in times of war, these rifles produced in very large batches. M1 Garand rifle given to US troops a significant advantage over any other army that historical period, if we talk about the mass of infantry small arms, because neither army had semi-automatic rifles as their primary weapons. Before the end of World War II, to 1945 of the year, in the US M1 rifles of various modifications for more than 4 million units were produced. The main example of this rifle, used during the war, M1 Garand was the base and received in the US Army near the end of the war sniper rifle modification of the M1D and M1C with flame arresters and leather "cheek" on the butt, differing from each other by different optical sights and unreleased when small series. There have also been attempts to introduce into the army of some other modifications M1 rifles (eg, variants with a folding stock and a new flash suppressor), but it was not feasible from an economic point of view, because the base M1 is quite normal coped with their tasks, so innovations during the war have remained outside the series production. The reason for this was the fact of belligerency of the state, when not to innovation, if the weapon is operating normally, you just have to increase production.

		M1 Garand rifle cartridge caliber 7.62 mm

Work units and M1 «Garand» rifle mechanisms rifle was originally designed on the principle of automation by removal of powder gases from the muzzle in a special muzzle, which complicated the entire system, and worked for such a scheme is very unstable. Later, beginning with 1939 of the year, gas escape hole began to do in the wall of the barrel, next to the muzzle, so that when fired maximize the impact of powder gases energy pool, from 1941 It is only allowed with the scheme of automation of work. Venting chamber connected to the barrel through the mounting sleeve and a bayonet flies. A cylindrical vapor chamber located under the barrel, it is the gas piston with a fairly long stroke, connected through a gas piston rod to the slide frame. when fired,, under the influence of propellant gases, aside from the barrel through the gas escape hole, the gas pushes the piston rod back through bolt carrier. The gate frame starts to move back, turning the bolt around its axis. Rotation pin gate provided, protruding from the shutter, that the motion of the bolt passes through a special "skew" the groove, located on the inner side of the bolt. In this way, gate frame first rotates the shutter by reacting its bore and valve pin, and when the shutter, after turning, releases its two lugs of the lugs of the receiver, drags him back, opening the bore.

		M1 Garand rifle cartridge caliber 7.62 mm

American soldiers with the M1 Garand takes German soldier prisoner

When moving the bolt back occurs ejection of spent cartridges from the chamber through the ejector, which retrieves from the chamber sleeve and the sleeve in the reverse direction when hitting the reflector is ejected from rifles. Also with shutter movement happening back vzvedenye chicken. The return spring bolt arranged inside the gas piston on the guide rod, and after the shutter is compressed rollback, than ensure the return of the bolt (and the rod) in a starting position after it stops at the rearmost point of the receiver. Under the action of the return spring bolt carrier moves forward receiver, It captures from the store a new cartridge, and shall be sent to the trunk of his chamber, leaning on the breech. At the same time the shutter is rotated around its axis in the opposite side, by the same gate pin interaction with the oblique groove of the bolt, and two shutter protrusion while rotation extending beyond two lugs (special grooving on the receiver near the chamber), from what occurs reliable locking channel gate barrel. This locking system by turning the shutter, interacting with the slide frame, and setting its projections for the lugs receiver, John Garand borrowed Mikhail Kalashnikov, when creating your machine. All machines AK family have the same principle of rotating bolt locking, and that the M1 Garand rifle.

		M1 Garand rifle cartridge caliber 7.62 mm

Top view of the receiver box with an open gate and installed a pack of cartridges. For loading store only have to press a stack of top-down, sinking it in the store.

M1 rifle is fairly simple trigger trigger mechanism, the hammer is inside the receiver. The fuse is located in front of the trigger guard, operate them quite comfortably and even to the touch, without unnecessary movements, you can check, worth a rifle on guard and ready to fire. If the rifle on guard, the fuse lever recessed into the trigger guard. To test the combat readiness of weapon you just need to have a finger, lying on the trigger, of the trigger guard. Likewise, it is possible to put a finger on the rifle fuse or vice versa Unlocking. The layout is quite convenient. To put the weapon on the fuse, should pull the lever, located in front of the trigger guard, and to remove - to push the lever forward until it stops. The trigger mechanism allows you to cock the trigger without moving the bolt, which is very useful in case of a misfire, or when there is a cartridge in the chamber, and the trigger is not cocked. For, to cock without moving the bolt, We need to pull back the trigger guard down and forward until it clicks, then put the clip to its original position.

		M1 Garand rifle cartridge caliber 7.62 mm

Cartridge tutu 8 rounds .30-06

Shop at M1 neotemny, charged rifle using packs, accommodates 8 rounds. To charge the shutter is retracted and a pack of cartridges is placed on top of the store, after which the shutter shall be sent round in the chamber. Unlike the usual packs of clips (such as the Mosin rifle or carbine SCS) in, that they do not need to be drained immediately after loading. Pack of finger pressure is lowered to the store, shutter closes, and the rifle is ready for battle. When all 8 cartridges in a pack runs out, gate rises on the gate frame delay, which includes feeder cartridges store, seating in the rearmost position. A stack of blank ejected from the receiver, then it needs to be charged in the shop a new pack and remove the bolt with delay, why the first bullet of the new packs will appear in chamber. The main drawback of such a system is the lack of charging charge your rifle ammunition store one, if you run out of the pack, and cartridges were only "in rassypuhu". It is also very difficult to then charged rifle, if such, 5-6 spent cartridges, and I would like to complement the store to failure, without removing the half-empty pack out of the store.

		M1 Garand rifle cartridge caliber 7.62 mm

Sights basic model M1 Garand - a fly and the diopter rear sight, adjustment vertically and horizontally. sighting line (distance from pillar to fly) correct length for such sights, not short and not long, ie the aim is conveniently, and shooting accuracy will depend on the skills of the arrow.

US military leaders have established and formalized rather strange data, on the M1 rifle. The strangeness was to determine the maximum range of the rifle, which indicates the number 1097 m. But at the same time, it was assumed, what really shoot effectively from this rifle can be in the range of up to 600 m.

M1 Garand well suited for throwing grenades muzzle, which are placed on the barrel from the muzzle and are triggered by firing a blank cartridge.

		M1 Garand rifle cartridge caliber 7.62 mm

At the end of World War II M1 rifles ceased publication, but in the fifties the production of the M1 Garand was again started and continued until 157 of the year, when the US Army has adopted the rifle M14, working on another chuck - 7,62h51. However, M1 rifle is completely left the troops already in the 60s. However, until now it is used as a ceremonial weapon, about the same, as a domestic carbine Simonov (SKS).

During the production of these weapons, and after its completion, M1 rifles were sold to different countries, some of which were supplied by the army. The rifle was made also chambered 7,62h51 mm for the US Navy.

		M1 Garand rifle cartridge caliber 7.62 mm


M1 - the standard infantry rifle arr. 1936 of the year (before adopting the designation had T1E2)

M1C - sniper rifle, arr. 1944 year with a telescopic sight M81, before adopting the designation had M1E7. AT 1951 It was officially adopted by the US Marine Corps

M1D - sniper rifle with a telescopic sight and flash hider M82, before adopting the designation had M1E8. In June 1944 It was adopted by the US Army.

Beretta BM 59 - self-loading rifle, established in Italy on the basis of M1 Garand design.

M1 Conversion Rifle - modification chambered 7,62 × 51 mm NATO, which was developed by the Philippine company «Floro International Corp.», equipped otomnym 20-round magazine from the American M14 rifle.

These rifles are made to this day for the domestic civilian market and for export.

		M1 Garand rifle cartridge caliber 7.62 mm

The performance characteristics of the M1 Garand

– country: USA
– Adopted: 1936
– Constructor: Keyboards, John
– Total production: about 5,4 millions

M1 Garand Rifle Weight

– 4,32 kg

The dimensions of the M1 Garand rifle

– Length, mm: 1105
– barrel length, mm: 610

Patron vintovki M1 arm

– .30-06 Springfield (7,62× 63 mm); .276 Pedersen (Eng.)
– 7,62× 51 mm NATO use of the post-war US Navy

Caliber Rifle M1 Garand

– 7,62 mm

rifle bullet speed M1 Garand

– 865 m / s

Sighting range rifle M1 Garand

– 550 m

The maximum range of the M1 Garand

– 1800 m

type boepitaniya: 8-cartridge pack (.30-06 Springfield), 10-cartridge pack (.276 Pedersen)
Work principles: removal of powder gases, Butterfly valve
Aim: dioptričeskij steel, fly ball

Photo M1 arm

		M1 Garand rifle cartridge caliber 7.62 mm

US Marine firing from automatic rifle M1 Garand in Bougainville (Solomon islands).

		M1 Garand rifle cartridge caliber 7.62 mm

US Marine takes aim from M1 "Garand" rifles during the fighting on Iwo Jima.

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