7,62-mm RPD machine gun (DUR, GRAU index - 56-R-327) - Soviet machine gun, developed in the 1944 , under the 7.62mm cartridge mod. 1943 g.
RPD machine gun – video
AT 1943 , the arsenal of the Red Army added the first domestic intermediate cartridge 7,62h39 mm. Shortly after this started the development of new types of weapons, for use such ammunition. The result of several programs to create a new small arms has been the emergence of a number of samples of different classes: samozaryadnogo carbine SCS, RPD light machine gun and other weapons. In this way, "RPD machine gun" became the first domestic model of its class, Use the new intermediate cartridge.
Even at the stage of designing a new cartridge design NM. Elizarova and BV. Semin been found, that the weapons under a munition will have a distinct advantage over existing systems, although in some cases it was expected, and the lag on the characteristics. The cartridge was easier, which affected the volumes worn ammunition, but I have a smaller range of fire. 7,62h39 mm cartridge tests showed it quite effective when shooting at distances up 800 m. analysis fights, in its turn, showed, that this firing range is quite sufficient for the new weapons, which is to be used in future conflicts.
At the beginning 1944 Year began competition to create a machine gun under the intermediate cartridge. The military wanted to get a relatively light weapon as possible firepower. Besides, a new sample was not supposed to have flaws, inherent in the existing machine guns DP / DPM. By developing several leading designer weapons were involved in competitive projects. Your options LMG presented SG. Simonov, FW. Tokarev, A.I. Sudan and other honored masters of their craft. Besides, The competition was attended by VA. Degtyarev, several guns which from the late twenties were composed by the Red Army.
Using its experience of creating light machine guns, Degtyarev offered several options for new weapons. With a similar gas automatics, proposed designs differed gate structure and ammunition supply system. Degtyarev originally proposed using the disc magazine like applied to the DP machine gun, as well as considering the possibility of creating a detachable box. Nevertheless, analysis of the various proposals revealed, that the best option is to use a tape supply.
According to test results, during the mid 1944 of the year, Competition leader was Degtyaryov machine gun under the symbol RP-44. This weapon even produced a small party and sent to the troops to carry out tests on the front. Troop tests were completed to develop proposals for fine-tuning and new requirements for weapons. The developer is required to correct the identified deficiencies and complete the development of the machine gun.
According to test results in the forces in several changes were made to construct RP-44 machinegun. In this form again to send weapons to the test and received a recommendation to the adoption. The mass production of new model entered under the name of "RPD machine gun mod. 1944 g "or RAP. Also, sometimes there is the designation of the RAP-44. With the adoption on arms and top production RPD machine gun he was one of the first mass-produced types of weapon, for use 7,62h39 mm cartridge.
RPD machine gun was built on the basis of gas automation with long stroke piston. Total automation scheme has been partly borrowed from the later modifications of DP machine gun. In particular, to improve some characteristics of the automatic gas regulator was introduced, allows to change the amount of propellant gases, coming to the piston. The regulator is designed to be three TN. grooves for discharging gases, pronumerovannыe from "1" to "3". Under normal circumstances, should set the knob to position "2", which ensures the normal operation of automation. №3 groove had a larger cross section and intended for firing weapons at pollution. ditch №1, in its turn, It had a minimum diameter and reduces the rate of fire.
Despite the similar solutions and some borrowing, RPD machine gun is very different from the DP and DP. So, receiver of the new weapon was developed from the ground up. It consisted of a core lower part and an upper hinged lid. Besides, the rear part of the receiver has been performed in a TN. trigger frame, in which the fastener firing mechanism, Handle fire control and butt. Inside the receiver located slide group. The front wall of the box for installation envisaged mounting stem and the piston of the gas tube.
A curious feature of RPD machine gun became the trunk without the possibility of replacement. Operating experience has shown the available light machine guns, that firing short bursts allows the gunner to shoot all the ammunition carried by the barrel without overheating. In this way, removable barrel gave no visible advantages, but I complicate them heavy weapons. The need to carry a spare barrel just did not add convenience in the battle.
The locking system of the barrel by means of divergent lugs was similar to the same node DP machine gun, However, there were some differences. Associated with a gas piston the gate frame is in contact with a massive metal gate. The latter had a central channel of square section for a drummer and two deep groove on the side surfaces. The latter has lugs, mounted on axes. Reciprocating action spring located in the rear of the receiver and within the metal of the butt.
When moving the bolt forward by the spring bolt should shall be sent round in the chamber. After stopping the shutter in the extreme forward position the firing pin continues to move the frame. shifting forward, He parted the lugs and those included in the slots of the receiver, blocking the movement of the shutter. Further movement of the impactor resulted in a shot. The pressure of powder gases, emerging from the barrel through the gas escape hole, shifts the piston and the bolt carrier. Because of this, the hammer moves back and allow the stops to move from his seat. Using curly notches on the receiver stops back to the neutral position and allow the gate to escape back.
Moving the shutter captured the spent case, I pulled it out of the chamber and brought to the ejection window. the ejection came in through the windows in the receiver and bolt carrier, down. When moving forward bolt carrier by means of a system of two levers resulted in feeder traffic, which is shifted by one unit with the tape cartridge, thereby bringing to supply new ammunition line.
Receiver machine gun RPD had a slit in the bottom of the right hand, adapted to output the bolt handle. The handle was rigidly connected to the bolt carrier and moves while firing.
The trigger mechanism RPD machine gun had a simple design and can fire only queues. When you press the trigger shifted trigger and sear, whereupon it occurred unlocking the bolt, followed by a shot. The fire was conducted with an open shutter. The design provided for non-automatic safety trigger. On the right surface of the receiver, above the trigger, located fuse box. In the forward position the fuse block flag trigger lever, in the back - admitted shooting.
For comfortable use Degtyareva gun was equipped with a wooden butt, pistol grip and fore-end. Butt was mounted on the metal base at the back of the trigger frame. As foreseen in the frame for fixing the pistol grip fire control. Forend consisted of two pieces of wood and metal pads. It was fixed in front of the receiver. The unusual shape of the fore-end with two recesses above and below was associated with recommended ways of shooting. When shooting with a shoulder gunner was to support the arms of the forearm below. Shooting "from the hips" is carried out by means of a belt. In this case, the belt load redistributed shoulder, allowing one hand to hold the handle of the fire control, and the second - to compensate for the impact, holding a machine gun on top of the forearm.
RPD machine gun had to use a tape cartridge, for convenience placed in a metal box. In earlier versions of the draft proposed to use tape on 100 and 200 rounds, Can be combined with round and square boxes, respectively. Later it was decided to abandon the 200-cartridge tape and heavy enough square box. Serial RPD machine guns manned cylindrical collapsible boxes for tapes. The ammunition supply was carried out using metal strip on nerassypnoy 100 rounds, assembled of two parts.
Machine gun with the lid open receiver
The top of the box was provided hinged lid mounts for installation on the machine gun. When preparing the weapon for firing the box should be installed on a mount receiver. The upper cover of the box thus placed on the left of the machine gun. Then opens the lid of the receiver, Dressed with tape and cover back in place. After that it was possible to cock the gun by means of the side handle. Ammunition belt came into the receiver through a special window in its left surface. The spent tape portion is output through a similar window on the other hand gun. In order to avoid pollution mechanisms both windows were fitted with spring-loaded lids.
Metal boxes for tapes had a carrying handle, however, it recommended to transport them in special pouches tissue. If necessary, the box was removed from the pouch and is installed on a machine gun. Using special pouches to some extent simplified weapons operation, especially in combat conditions.
Partial disassembly gun raps
Sights RPD machine guns were similar to those used on the weapons of the time. In front of the receiver cover, directly over the tape receiving portion, It was open sight, designed for shooting at a distance of up to 1000 m. On the barrel there was a fly-protected.
To increase the accuracy of shooting a machine gun came with a bipod. Mounting of these parts were located just behind the front sight assembly. Bipod design allowed them to fold and lock in this position. When folded, they were fixed under the barrel. When removing the latch bipod bred to the sides and held in that position by a spring.
"RPD machine gun mod. 1944 city "had an overall length 1037 mm at a barrel length 520 mm. Weight weapon without ammunition was 7,4 kg. Machine gun and ammunition in 300 rounds (three tapes in boxes) weighed 11,4 kg. for comparison, Manual DP / DP machine gun with one disk to store 47 cartridges weighed 11,3 kg. Such a weight saving is achieved primarily through the use of lighter ammunition and other ammunition supply systems design. So, box with a ribbon on 100 7,62h39 mm ammunition weighed on 400 g less, than store 47 cartridges 7,62h54 mm R.
Normal rate of fire (to "2" controller) was 650 rounds per minute. If you are installing the controller on the unit rate is markedly reduced. Practical rate reached 100-150 rounds per minute. By eliminating the supply stores and applying the tape failed to provide a sufficiently high rate of fire in combat conditions, as the machine gunner could do to 100 shots in succession without having to change tapes.
Reducing the weight of weapons with ammunition compared with the existing guns allowed to increase the mobility of the arrow on the battlefield. Besides, proved useful proposal to use mounts for boxes with tape cartridges. AT 1946 year has been adopted autorun RP-46 with a belt feed, had no such details. Because of this, the machine-gunners often had to discharge the gun before changing position. The box for the tape, installed at the receiver, I will get rid of these problems.
Sights RPD machine guns were designed to fire at a range of 1000 m. Shoot recommended air targets within a range of 500 m. Lethal effect of bullets and remained at large distances, but in this case there were serious problems with the detection targets and aiming. At a distance of 1000 m gun have a sufficiently high firing efficiency. Normal battlefield requirements when firing bursts from a distance 100 m were as follows: no less 75% bullets were supposed to go to bed in a circle with a diameter 20 cm, and the mid-point of contact should not deviate from the aim point over 5 cm.
In practice, this meant, that defeats the purpose of the "rib shape" at a distance 100 m in average required no more than two rounds. To defeat a similar purpose to the maximum sighting distance took about 27 shots. In this way, RPD machine gun could effectively destroy various targets at ranges of up to 800 m or more, as required by the original terms of reference.
By the end of the forties of the Soviet defense industry has mastered the full-scale production of new guns, which allowed for the troops required amount of weapons. RPD machine guns were taken into service as a means of strengthening the infantry squad and platoon. FROM 1946 year this weapon was used in parallel with the machine guns RP-46, It is intended for use on the company commander level. In this way, with two new models of small arms not only managed to update the material part of the infantry, but also significantly increase its firepower.
Semi-automatic version of the machine gun RPD v2.0 American company DS Arms
Over time, there was an upgraded version of the gun called RPDM. The upgraded machine gun almost did not differ from baseline. It forms a gas piston and its support was changed when you upgrade weapons. Besides, bolt handle was not related to the slide frame, because of what has remained stationary while firing. Given the lack of significant changes in characteristics of automation RPDM remained at baseline RAP.
"RPD machine gun mod. 1944 It was "actively used until the early sixties. With the advent of new and more perfect machine gun RPK MT design. Kalashnikov became a weapon sent to the warehouse. New machine gun had some advantages, primarily related to the unification and other aspects of the production.
Providing new weapons his army, Soviet defense industry began production RPD machine guns for export. Besides, machine guns were delivered to foreign countries, removed from service or storage. RPD machine guns and RPDM delivered more than three dozen countries in Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. In the mid-fifties in order friendly assistance of the Soviet Union gave China a license to manufacture guns Degtyarev and all necessary documentation. Chinese-made machine guns were designated as "Type 56" and "Type 56-I». Over time, China also began to sell arms to their production to third countries.
At the moment, there are more than 40 countries around the world, have used or are using guns and their modifications RAP foreign production. The wide spread of such weapons impact on its use in various armed conflicts.
A number of experienced RP-44 and serial RPD had time to do some fighting in the Great Patriotic War. Nevertheless, the first conflict with the massive use of these guns was the war in Korea. In the future, "RPD machine gun mod. 1944 It was "actively used in almost all the wars in Asia and Africa. The shipments of Chinese machine guns "type 56" has led to an increase in the countries, using Soviet-designed weapons, and contributed to its use in more conflict.
In many countries RPD machine guns long ago decommissioned. Nevertheless, part of the army still maintains a weapon. other States, including Russian, long replaced RAPs more modern systems, but keep them in stock. In this way, it could be considered, RPD machine guns that are still modern weapons, meet the requirements of the military in some countries.
Over time, machine guns Degtyarev have spread not only in the armies, but also in the civil sphere. In some countries, which allows such legislation, RPD machine guns in the modified and original versions are sold to fans of shooters,. For example, the US market has several options RPD machine guns with trigger reworked, permitting only single shooting, and a set of new components. In accordance with the latest trends weapon gets a new "kit" in the form of parts with numerous Picatinny rail, contemporary sights, telescopic rifle butts, etc.. Due to the lack of serial production of machine guns alteration exposed arms, released a few decades ago.
Perhaps, lifetime RPD machine guns in different countries is a major positive feedback. This weapon was the first native Serial machine gun under the intermediate cartridge, but could clearly refute the well-known proverb about pancakes and show their potential. Over time, the RPD machine gun was replaced by the newer weapons, although in some armies still in use. probably, maintenance of these weapons will continue for the next few decades, providing the required firepower of infantry units.
The performance characteristics of gun raps
– Adopted: 1948
– Constructor: Vasily Degtyaryov
– designed: 1944 year
Weight RPD machine gun
– 7,4 kg (with box and ribbon nesnaryazhonnoy)
– 9 kg (with box and ribbon curb)
– 0,8 kg (box with ribbon without cartridges)
Dimensions RPD machine gun
– Length, mm: 1037
– barrel length, mm: 520
Cartridge gun raps
– 7,62× 39 mm
Caliber machine gun raps
– 7,62 mm
Rate RPD machine gun
– 650-750 rounds / min
RPD machine gun bullet speed
– 735 m / s
Sighting range RPD machine gun
– 1000 m
– 800 m (effective)
Work principles: removal of powder gases, locking the sliding lugs
type boepitaniya: bar 100 round of ammunition in a metal box
Photo gun raps