Maxim gun - machine gun, developed by British gunsmith American-born Hiram Stevens Maxim in 1883 year. Maxim gun was one of the pioneers of automatic weapons; it was widely used during the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902., First World War and Second World Wars, as well as many small wars and armed conflicts of the XX century.
Maxim machine gun – video
Outdated, but a very reliable machine gun Maxim is found in the "hot spots" around the world, even in our days.
AT 1873 the American inventor Hiram Stevens Maxim created the first prototype of automatic weapons - machine gun Maxim. He decided to use the energy weapon recoil, which until then had not used. But testing and practical application of this weapon were halted on 10 years, since Maximus was not only a gunsmith and weapons in addition to the interest in other inventions. His range of interests includes various appliances, electricity and so on, a gun was just one of his many inventions. In the early 1880s, Maxim, finally, He took up his gun, but the appearance of his weapons are already very different from the sample 1873 of the year. maybe, These ten years have gone on thinking, calculations and design improvement in drawings. After that Hiram Maxim gave a proposal to the US government on the adoption of his gun on arms. But the invention in the United States no one is interested in, and then Maxim emigrated to Great Britain, where its development initially also not attracted much attention from the military. However, they are seriously interested in attending the tests of new weapons British banker Nathaniel Rothschild, has agreed to fund the development and production of machine guns.
"Armory Company Maxim" started to produce and advertise guns, showing their work in many states. Jairo Maxim managed to achieve excellent survivability and reliability of their weapons, and in the end 1899 , his machine gun, Manufactured under British cartridge caliber .303 (7,7 mm) has made 15 thousand. rounds without any major difficulty.
Maxim gun system (or simply "Maxim") - automatic weapons, based on automation with recoil operation, having a short stroke. As firing the powder gases sent back trunk, driving the mechanism for reloading, is extracted from the cloth tape cartridge, shall be sent to him in the breech and at the same time cocking the shutter. After the shot operation is repeated again. Gun has an average rate of fire - 600 rounds per minute (Depending on the version varies from 450 to 1000), and Combat rate of 250-300 rounds per minute.
For firing the machine gun of the sample 1910 rifle cartridges, the used 7,62 × 54 mm sample with R bullets 1908 of the year (light bullet) and sample 1930 of the year (heavy bullet). Shutter system is designed only to automatic fire and has a fuse against accidental firing. Powered machine gun bullets made of slide-type receiver, with cloth or metal tape capacity 250 rounds, that came later. The sighting device includes a rack sight and fly with a rectangular vertex. On some machine guns and optical sight can be installed. Gun originally installed on the bulky carriages, modeled carriages mitrailleuse; then there were portable machines, usually on tripods; in the Russian army 1910 year used wheeled machine, developed by Colonel A. A. Sokolov. This machine attached machine gun sufficient stability when shooting and let, unlike tripods, easy to move the machine gun when changing positions.
– return spring
– Box return spring
Making a maxim gun demanded 2448 operations and took 700 working hours.
Hiram Maxim with his machine gun
Maxim gun in Russia
After a successful demonstration of a machine gun in Switzerland, Italy and Austria Hiram Maxim arrived in Russia from a representative sample of the machine gun .45 caliber (11,43 mm). AT 1887 We were tested machine gun "Maxim" by 10.67 mm Berdan rifle cartridge with black powder. 8 Martha 1888 the year of his shot Emperor Alexander III. after the test,, representatives of the Russian military department ordered Maxim 12 guns sample 1885 year under the 10.67-mm cartridge rifles Berdan.
Supply machine guns "Maxim" in the beginning of the Russian company "Vickers Sons and Maxim". Machine guns were delivered to St. Petersburg in May 1889 of the year. New weapons and an interest in the Russian navy, he ordered two more machine gun for testing. Further, Berdan rifle was withdrawn from service, and "Maxim" machine guns were converted by 7.62-mm cartridge Russian Mosin rifle. As of 1891-1892. were purchased for testing five machine guns chambered 7,62h54 mm. During the 1897-1904 biennium. It was purchased more 291 shotgun.
AT 1901 year, 7.62-mm machine gun Maxim on wheeled carriage English sample was adopted by the Army, in the Russian army received the first course of this year 40 Maxim machine guns. Shotgun (whose mass on heavy carriage with large wheels and large armored shields was 244 kg) was taken to the submission to the artillery. Guns would be used for the defense of fortresses, to reflect the massive attacks of the enemy infantry fire with pre-equipped and protected position. In March 1904 , signed a contract about the production of machine guns "Maxim" in the Tula Arms Plant. The cost of production of the Tula gun (942 ruble + 80 £ commission company "Vickers", only about 1700 rubles) It was cheaper, than the cost of acquisition of the British (2288 rubles 20 kopeek for pulemёt). In May 1904 year at the Tula arms factory began mass production of machine guns.
Machine gun "Maxim" sample 1895 g. on serf carriage with shield.
Machine gun "Maxim" has been designed to support infantry fire, as well as to suppress the enemy fire and clear the way for the infantry during offensive, or to cover by retreating. In defense machine gun "Maxim" was intended to deal with the enemy firing points, obstrelivaniya for open approaches. At the end of XIX - early XX century European pacifists often make demands to introduce a complete ban on the use of a machine gun in military conflicts, as the inhumane weapons. Provoked by these requirements were the, Britain first among colonial empires has identified the benefits of a machine gun and began to actively use it in collisions with poorly armed indigenous rebels.
In Sudan 2 September 1898 at the Battle of Omdurman 10000th Anglo-Egyptian army fought with a 100-strong army of Sudan, consisting, basically, of irregular cavalry. A massive machine gun fire attack Sudanese cavalry were repulsed. British units with little loss incurred.
Combat use in the Russian-Japanese War
Maxim gun used during the Russian-Japanese War. In one of the battles of Mukden Russian battery, equipped with sixteen machine guns "Maxim" (then in the Russian army artillery guns were subordinated agency), withstood several attacks by Japanese, Soon the Japanese side has lost half of the attackers. Without the aid was as effective machine guns to repel the attacks would not be possible. After making a few tens of thousands of shots in a relatively small period of time, Russian guns nevertheless not out of order and were in good condition, thus proving their exceptional combat characteristics. Now, hundreds of machine guns began to buy, despite the considerable price, over 3000 rubles per gun. At the same time they have the troops were removed from the heavy carriages, and in order to improve maneuverability put on homemade, more easy and convenient in transportation machines.
Ensign Military driving schools have a machine gun in the back of the training armored vehicles “Berlin”. Petrograd. 1915 year.
The use of the Great Patriotic War
Maxim gun actively used the Red Army in World War II. It was used as infantry, and mountain rifle troops, as well as the fleet. During the war, the combat capabilities of "Maxim" tried to improve not only the designers and manufacturers, but also directly in the armed forces. Soldiers are often cleaned with a machine gun broneschit, thus trying to increase agility and achieve a smaller visibility. In addition to disguise camouflage color, on the cover and put the shield gun cases. In the winter, "Maxim" set time on skis, sled or boat-scraper, with whom and fired. During the Great Patriotic guns are mounted on light SUVs "Willis" and GAZ-64.
There was also a quad anti-aircraft version of "Maxim". This LSD was widely used as a stationary, self-propelled, korabelnoy, installed in the vehicle bodywork, armored trains, railway platforms, on the roofs of buildings. Machine gun "Maxim" systems have become the most common weapon of the military defense. Quad anti-aircraft machine-gun installation sample 1931 year different from the usual "Maxima" presence forced water circulation unit and a large capacity machine gun tape - on 1000 instead of conventional ammunition 250. Using anti-aircraft ring sights, installation was able to carry on an effective fire on the enemy's low-flying aircraft (at altitudes up to a maximum 1400 m at a speed of 500 kmh). These settings are also often used for infantry support.
By the end of 1930 "Maxim" design was obsolete. The body machinegun (without machine, water in the casing and cartridges) It had a weight of about 20 kg. Weight of the machine Sokolov - 40 kg, a plus 5 kg of water. Since the use of the machine gun without water and it was impossible to, the working masses of the whole system (unloaded) was about 65 kg. Move a weight on the battlefield under the fire was not easy. High profile made it difficult to disguise; damage to the thin-walled housing in battle bullet or shrapnel practical conclusions gun fail. It was difficult to apply the "Maxim" in the mountains, where soldiers had to use a makeshift tripod instead of standard machines. Significant difficulties in the summer caused the water supply gun. Besides, Maxim system was very difficult to maintain. A lot of trouble brought a cloth tape - it was difficult to equip, she wore, was torn, absorbed water. for comparison, general-purpose machine gun Wehrmacht MG-34 had a weight 10,5 kg empty, fed metal band and did not require water for cooling (thus yielding more "Maxim" firepower, It is on this indicator closer to the RPD machine gun, albeit with one important nuance, - MG34 had a quick change barrel, allows for the availability of spare shafts lead from it more intense bursts of gunfire). Shooting from the MG-34 could be carried out without the machine, which contributed to the concealment position of gunner.
On the other hand, and observed positive properties "Maxima": thanks to the automation unstressed he was very steady when shooting with a regular machine, He gave even better accuracy, The more recent developments, and allows for very precise control of the fire. Provided that the competent service machine gun could be twice as long as the established resource, and so that was larger, than the new, lighter guns.
Machine-gun team. Caucasian front 1914-1915 year.
Even before the war, it has been developed and put into production much more advanced and modern design of heavy machine guns - DS Constructions in. Degtyaryova. However, due to problems with the reliability and significantly more demanding to service its production was soon curtailed, and most of the available items in the armed forces - is lost in the initial phase of hostilities (in many ways similar fate befell another sample arms of the Red Army - automatic rifle Tokarev, that could not be brought to a proper level of reliability before the war, and later the production was forced minimized in favor of outdated, but well established and familiar to soldiers' trohlineyki ").
Nevertheless, an urgent need to replace the "Maxim" more modern weapons did not disappear, therefore 1943 year has been adopted machine gun system Peter Goryunova SG-43 with an air cooling system of the barrel. SG-43 was superior to "Maxim" in many ways. Enter the army, he began in the second half 1943 of the year. meanwhile, "Maxim" continued to be produced until the end of the war in the Tula and Izhevsk factories, and prior to the completion of production it remained basic machine gun RKKA.
The latter fact is the use of gun by the Soviet army took place in 1969 , during the Sino-Soviet border conflict on the island.
but, This gun was actively used, and is used in many hot spots and still: in particular, it is used both opposing sides during the war in the Donbas, essentially as stationary emplacements.
Machine-gun type machine,,Austin” 1 series 15 avtopulemetnogo platoon Southwestern Front.
Maxim gun sample 1910 of the year
7,62-mm machine gun "Maxim" sample 1910 year - the Russian version of the British machine gun "Maxim", previous upgrades at the Tula arms factory under the guidance of Master and. A. Pastukhov, AND. A. Sudakova and P. P. Tretyakova. body weight was reduced gun and change some parts: decision on arms cartridge with a pointed bullet sample 1908 year made it necessary to change the machine gun "Maxim" sights, remake receiver, to fit under the new cartridge, and opening expand muzzle bushing, in order to avoid too much shaking while firing a machine gun. English wheel carriage was replaced by a lightweight wheeled machine A. A. Sokolova, armor shield English sample - on broneschit reduced dimensions. Besides, A. Sokolov designed cartridge box, buggy for transportation of cartridges, pressurized cylinders for ammo boxes.
Pulemёt Maxima Countdown. 1910 year weighed the machine 62,66 kg (and together with the liquid, poured into the housing for cooling the barrel - about 70 kg).
Maxim gun arr. 1910 years used during the First World War and the Civil War, they were used as heavy machine guns, mounted on armored vehicles, armored and "carts".
German horse fire support
Maxim gun sample 1910/30 of the year
During the combat use of a machine gun "Maxim", it became clear, that in most cases the fire is conducted at a distance from the 800 to 1000 m, and in such a range no appreciable differences in the path of the sample light bullets 1908 year and heavy bullets sample 1930 of the year.
AT 1930 , the machine gun was upgraded again, in the structure following changes were made:
– a folding back plate is mounted, in this connection the changed right and left valves and connecting the drain and the thrust lever
– Fuse moved the trigger, thus avoiding the need to act with both hands when opening fire
– tension set pointer return spring
– scope changed, Front introduced and the clamp with latch, rear sight on the side of amendments increased scale
– appeared buffer - holder for board, attached to the casing gun
– introduced a separate striker to the hammer
– for shooting at long distances and closed positions of the sample introduced severe bullet 1930 of the year, optical sight and protractor - Quadrant
– for greater strength barrel shroud is performed with longitudinal ribbing.
The upgraded machine gun was named "7.62 machine gun Maxim sample system 1910/30 of the year"
AT 1940 year, on the basis of the experience of the Soviet-Finnish War, machine gun was widely filler opening and drain valve for the pouring hole (Finnish Example M32), Now in the winter cover can be filled with ice and snow.
Motopulemet – Russian invention
This Finnish gun is a gun sample embodiment Russian 1910 of the year. «Maxim» M / 32-33 was designed by the Finnish gunsmith Aimo Lahti 1932 year, He could shoot with a rate of fire 800 rds. / min., while the Russian machine gun sample 1910 , the shot with the tempo 600 rds. / min.; in addition, "Maxim» M / 32-33 had a number of other innovations. He was actively used by the Finnish party in the Soviet-Finnish War. As used cartridge tolerances differed from Soviet.
The machine-gunners 84th Life Shirvan Infantry Regiment of His Majesty.
"Vickers" - the English version of the machine gun, he was almost the main heavy infantry automatic weapons in the British Army from the time of adopting in 1912 year until the early 1960s. In addition to the UK Vickers also made in the USA, Australia, Portugal. Before the United States entered the First World War the War Department estimated the arms of the Entente, and then at the end of 1916 year ordered arms company "Colt" 4000 pulyemyotov Vickers.
Apparatus gun Vickers slightly different from the device Russian gun "Maxim" sample 1910 the following year:
– The castle was rotated on 180 degrees so, said lower descent up converted; This made it possible to reduce the height and weight of the box.
– Cover the box is divided into two halves: the front half of the lid closes the receiver, and the rear half closes the conduit; both parts are fixed on the same axle.
– hinged back plate, Attached to the box by two bolts (upper and lower).
"Vickers" in aviation
AT 1914 Vickers year were installed on military aircraft, and 1916 he appeared "Vickers" Mk I (51), its distinguishing feature was air-cooled barrel and pull the synchronizer to fire through the propeller plane. The barrel jacket front and rear air vents have been made. "Body" of the mass of the machine gun - 13,5 kg, numeral 511 It indicates an increase in the rate of fire via buffer, which accelerated the initial rate of rolling mobile system. Vickers was used as a French, and Russian aviation. Machine guns, "Vickers" also began to arm the first tanks.
MG 08 (it. machine gun 08) - the German version of the maxim gun, it can be installed both on the sled, and the tripod machine. MG 08 actively used by the German army in World War I. Like the base sample, Automatic MG 08 It is working on the system use recoil operation. Wehrmacht World War II started being armed with machine guns, among other samples, 42 722 easel, heavy machine guns MG 08/15 and MG 08/18. By the beginning of World War II MG 08 It was already obsolete weapons, its application in the Wehrmacht only explains the lack of a new and modern machine guns.
The Swiss version of the maxim gun, based on the German MG 08. Swiss used a standard rifle cartridge 7,5 × 55 mm Schmidt-Rubin.
PV-1 (Air gun) - option, intended for installation on military aircraft. Differs from the basic model of fastening means to the support casing and the absence of water cooling.
A type 24
A type 24 - Chinese version, a copy of the German MG 08 (24-The year of reckoning Mingo matches 1935 year of the Gregorian calendar). Produced tszinlinskskim arsenal (Nanking) Tripod with break Dreifuss 16. Only about it has been released 36 thousand pieces. Subsequently, many of them were converted under the Soviet patron 7,62 × 54 mm R. There was also a modification of an air-cooled gun, "Type 36".
In addition to the options under caliber rifle, issued and heavy version: Vickers .50 (12,7× 81 mm), were used in the British Navy and Army and experimental MG 18 TuF (13,25× 92 mm SR). Vickers .50 It was used during the Second World War. Also quad variants were as anti-aircraft guns.
Trophy Russian machine gun Maxim machine gun at a gig, Berlin
The performance characteristics of the machine gun Maxim
– Adopted: 1889
– Constructor: Maksim, Hayrem Stevens
– designed: 1883 year
Weight gun Maxim
– 27,2 kg
The dimensions of the machine gun Maxim
– Length, mm: 1067
– barrel length, mm: 721
Maxim machine gun cartridge
– 7,62× 54 mm R (Maxim Countdown. 1910)
– 7,92× 57 mm Mauser (MG 08)
– .303 British (Vikkers)
– 7,5× 55 mm (MG 11)
– 8×50 мм R Mannlicher
Caliber machine gun Maxim
– 7,62 mm
Rate of fire machine gun Maxim
– 600 rounds / min
Maxim machine gun bullet speed
– 740 m / s
Work principles: recoil operation, Crank-shatunnoe zapyranye
type boepitaniya: Machine-gun tape 250 rounds
Photo Maxim gun
Maxim gun in action (1916—1917)
Large-caliber Maxim on a warship.
The German version of the maxim gun - MG 08
MG 00 (Machine gun model 1900) - First the Swiss version of Maxim
Machine gun "Vickers" - the English version of a machine gun "Maxim"
Quad anti-aircraft machine-gun installation sample 1931 of the year
Pulemёt Maxim Countdown. 1910 – 1930 Year introduced c wide water filled in the neck 1940 year on the basis of the experience of the Soviet-Finnish War, Now in the winter cover can be filled with ice and snow.
Calculation leads maxim gun fire on the enemy. The battle of Kursk.
Pulemёtы «Maxim» Stanka Kondakova
Commanders and soldiers of the Red Army with a machine gun Maxim, the end of 1920 - beginning of 1930