Konstantin Ivanovich Ostrožskij
8 September 1514 , during the Russian-Lithuanian War 1512 – 1522 years between the troops of the Moscow State under the supervision of the governors of Ivan chelyadnins and the combined forces of the army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Polish troops under the overall guidance of the great Lithuanian hetman Constantine Ostrog was a major battle.
In the army of Muscovy that time sharply increased the role of the local gentry cavalry, is the service of the Grand Duke of Moscow. We continued to play a significant role "policemen shelf", consisting of urban militias. The core of these regiments was "Moscow's Men", consisting of residents of Moscow. The organization of the Russian army remained the same: it was divided into shelves - large, right and left hand, patrol and ambush. At the head of the regiments were regimental magistrates, several people in the regiment. At the head of all the troops Grand Duke put great governor. Great commander in the Battle of Orsha and was. A. Çelyadnin, He also led a large regiment. Big regiment consisted of three provincial regiments - regiments of chelyadnins with children boyars Murom, Gregory chelyadnins shelf-Davydov from the princely court and the regiment Ivan Dmitrievich Pronsky of Tula knights. Advanced regiment consisted of two provincial regiments - Ivan Temka- Rostov from Kostroma knights and Nikita Vasilievich Obolensky of Bezhetskaya Friday landowners. Polk right hand consisted of three provincial regiments - regiments Mikhail Bulgakov-Golitsa landowners Shelonskoy fifths and regiments Princes Andrew and Dmitry Ivanovich Bulgakov landowners Vodskaya fifths. The regiment left hand of the two provincial regiments - Andrei Obolensky landowners Obonezhskaya fifths and regiment Dmitry Vasilyevich Kitaeva and Mirza Sivinduka with Meshcherskaya Tatars.
Lithuanian army also constituted feudal Militia, non-uniform in their composition and military force. AT 1507 year Vilna parliament resolved, that the nobility and gentry have all the estates to rewrite all of its people, must serve, and to provide lists of the royal chancellery. Such censuses were conducted regularly and watches. Lithuanian army was going to "povet banners" - the territorial military units.
On a different principle was based Polish troops. Although a big part continued to play a noble militia, Poles are much more widely used mercenary infantry, recruiting mercenaries in Livonia, Germany, Hungary. For mercenary troops were armed with firearms typical of. In this case, landsknechts payment significantly increased. It was the same in the Russian army. The general management of the army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Orsha battle carried to the hetman. AND. Ostrožskij, the main part of the cavalry commanded by Yuri Radziwill, nicknamed "Hercules", detachments - Prince Yu. FROM. And Olelkovich and. B. Sapieha, Polish troops led by Janusz and Wojciech Swierczewski Sampolinsky. Unlike Moscow Lithuanian army troops, led Ostrog, He relied on the interaction of all the armed forces on the battlefield. It was assumed the combined effect of heavy and light cavalry, infantry and field artillery. historians say, that participated in the battle 2000 heavy Polish cavalry, 3000 Polish infantry and heavy 12000 Lithuanian cavalry. According to estimates of the Polish historian W. Zhigulskogo, all under the command of Ostrog it was about 35000 human, including 15000 Lithuanian Commonwealth Rushen, 17000 Polish mercenary cavalry, exposed the Polish magnates.
Battle of Orsha
After a series of minor clashes with the Lithuanian army chelyadnins ordered his troops to withdraw to the left bank of the Dnieper, and not interfere with the Lithuanian army to cross. apparently, he wanted to lure Lithuanians across the Dnieper, press to the river and there is a mass of crush, to repeat the situation 1500 year Vedroshi, which led to the destruction of the Lithuanian Army.
Night 8 September 1514 the Lithuanian cavalry crossed the Dnieper and the closed tip of bridges for the infantry and field artillery. Muscovites do not interfere with the ferry. From the rear of the great Lithuanian hetman Constantine Ostrog was a river, right flank rested on marshy river nettle. His army, he had built in the two lines. The first line was a cavalry. Polish cuirassiers accounted for only one fourth of it and in the heart, showing a right half of his. The second half of the center and both side was Lithuanian cavalry. In the second line stood infantry and field artillery. Russian troops built in three lines for frontal impact. Two large detachment of horse stood on the wings somewhat department, to capture the enemy, break it to the rear and surround.
First to the battle of Moscow right-flank detachment under the command of Mikhail Golitsa-Bulgakov-Patrikeeva. He attacked the left flank Lithuanian cavalry. Golitsa expected, that in the event of an attack to succeed crossings, Lithuanian will be clamped in the corner between the Dnieper and nettle. But the Lithuanian cavalry troops had Golitsa stubborn resistance, and mercenary infantry popped from the second line forward and opened fire on the Russian cavalry from the flank.
Later Russian chroniclers claimed, that envy chelyadnins not helped Holice. Russian infantry was hit, Ostrog and he pursued her with the Lithuanians and even kerf in the main Russian forces.
Left-flank detachment of Russian cavalry went on the attack and faced with the Lithuanian right wing of the first line. Lithuanian accurate volley of artillery crushed the pursuit and led Moscow cavalry in disorder. The entire left flank of the Russian army cavalry unit was pinned to the marshes in the river and there Krapivny destroyed. Golitsa continued to resist his party, and chelyadnins delayed.
Ostrog suffered a fire deep into the Lithuanian artillery Moscow building, fired Moscow reserves. The battle was decided by Polish cuirassiers, who repeated his attack, but now struck at the main Russian forces.
About severity of lesions may be indicative of the fact, what from 11 great governor were taken prisoner 6, among them Ivan Temka-Rostov and Andrei Obolensky, and only three survived - Gregory chelyadnins-Davydov, Nikita Obolensky, Andrey Bulgakov-Holytsia. Russian troops after the battle retreated to Smolensk. Lithuanian army began to return occupied Russian cities - Drutsk, Dubrovnaya, Kriçeva, Mstislavl. At the same time the hetman Ostrog, received from the Bishop of Smolensk news of the intention of citizens to surrender Smolensk, He approached the city with the 6000th housing. However, the Moscow governor, left for the defense of Smolensk, arrested were planning to surrender "perevertite" and hung them on the city walls at the time of the approach of Ostrog.
The result of the Battle of Orsha was a practical cessation of warfare parties in the next three years.
When the obvious military successes of the army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the main goal of the campaign - the return of Smolensk - has not been achieved, and this city, along with several other territories under the contract 1522 year remained in the Moscow State.