Orienteering in the mountains and forested mountainous terrain
Compass lies in the mountains, if not constantly, very often due to local magnetic anomalies. Must be able to clearly read very mountainous terrain on the map and correlate map with aerial photos and images from space - a vast topic, presented in standard textbooks on military topography.
A lot of trails and paths do not mapped. Mountainous terrain is constantly changing natural disasters and economic activity. Therefore, the operational area of the relief events must continually be refined panoramic photographs, from space (GOOGLE program), with helicopters, reconnaissance, for reconnaissance reports, interrogations of prisoners and local residents.
In medium-high mountains it is enough to have a normal map scale 1:50 000. The distance in the mountains need to be sure to check it on the map. However, large sections of height and frequency contour, used to display maps on the steepness ramps, sometimes give the discrepancy actual distances with an accuracy of up to 15%. This should be remembered.
Landmarks in the mountains are characteristic landforms: tops of mountains, high cliffs, cliffs, walkable gorge, forest contours, glaciers, separate groups of trees, edge of the forest, meadows, the confluence of the streams and rivers, various linear guidance: roads, trails, individual buildings and the ruins of ancient buildings. Orientation in the mountains usually occurs with reference to the above described details mountainous terrain, as well as to the saddle, separate large stones, major local subjects with obligatory memorization area, of which was. It should be remembered, that the mountain peaks, spades, rock, rocky ridges, when viewed from different angles, change its shape beyond recognition. Overview of the area is very large, limited depth of the rock labyrinths, and therefore targets often lost sight.
When driving in the valleys as point and area guidance are the confluence with the primary valley gully, cliffs, steep cliffs slopes, narrow constriction of the valley, large stones and clumps of rock debris.
In winter, as landmarks are selected steep cliff, breakages, cliffs, where the snow does not stay. They are reliable landmarks in the winter, and summer. Usually they look as dark spots on a white background.
Therefore, in addition to the basic features to guide apply vertical and horizontal profiles of the terrain, or a specific route, namely - the steepness and duration of ascent and descent, turns roads and trails, their angular value, position relative to the ramps, breakages, steep slopes.
For a complete orientation in the mountains and forested mountainous terrain, you must have a trained operative observation, a good visual memory and the ability to feel the space.
The distance traveled must be thoroughly remember!
It is necessary to know the specific features of the definition of the horizon. So, moss and lichens on trees, stones and rocks rising from the north side. In many mountainous areas of the southern slopes of the low-altitude hills will put, than the northern. The boundary of snow cover on the northern slopes will be lower, than in the south.
On the northern slopes grow spruce, fir, Birch, beech, th. Especially clearly this is manifested in the North Caucasus, wherein beech groves forms a whole on the northern slopes. On the southern slopes in great abundance is an oak, there is growing and pine.
Vineyards are mainly located on the southern slopes.
On the southern slopes of the forest and meadows usually rise above, than in the north. Birch bark is lighter and more flexible on the south side. On the south side it protrudes abundantly resin conifers.
The snow near the rocks, big stones, stump, boulders faster thawing south. The southern slopes generally drier northern, less covered with turf and more diffuse small gullies.
On the southern slopes spring formed peculiar snowy "bristles", divided thawed, south-facing. The angle of lifting the snow and ice spikes that "bristle" corresponds to the height of the sun at its highest point.
Pine trees after rain blackened from north. In coniferous trees on the north side of the secondary bark brown and cracked and higher up the trunk.
Near the large rocks in the summer the soil is moistened and dried in the north to the south - it is possible to identify by touch.
The peculiarities of the various structures can also define the side of the horizon. So, the doors of mosques facing north. The Orthodox church is the altar from the east, bell tower - from the west. A trailing edge of the lower crossbar of the cross points to the South, raised - to the north. Lutheran church altars are from the east, bell tower - from the west. Altars of Catholic churches located in the west.
On clear nights in the mountains and in the woods, you can be guided by celestial. Night as landmarks are selected all the high cliffs, the mountains, trees and other local items, clearly visible against the sky, and downs, ups and other irregularities in the terrain.