If we evaluate the current stage of development of international relations as an unstable and identified as the root causes of armed violence differences geopolitical interests, you must update the issues of national security, including military, Alexander writes on Tihansky portal “Sonar-2050”. Along with an increase in the efficiency of the armed forces deserve special attention regarding the new form of armed groups - private military company (PMC).
types of PMC
After analyzing the activities and effectiveness of foreign PMCs, we can identify a number of significant advantages, peculiar only to them: high professionalism, immune to the national and religious dogmas, the secret implementation of measures, lack of social and psychological discomfort in the work. Drawing on international experience of application of this force, in the interests of national security RFpredpolagaetsya significant demand for PMCs in such regions, as the North Caucasus, Transcaucasia, middle Asia, Near East.
Gradually, many states began to move on to the practice of outsourcing, that is, of the military and intelligence operations forces PMC employees. These moves of the army and police functions. In today's international peacekeeping operations, they are equal legal entity along with genera and species of the armed forces.
We can distinguish three categories of private military contractors: “providers” (their actions are purely defensive, they provide training and private security services in the conflict zone), “consulting” firm (provide advice of experienced retired senior officers, have administrative abilities), the company's logistical support (ensure supply, logistical functions, and logistics from civilian construction workers and engineers with experience in combat zone).
PMCs in the West
Employees military companies are not similar to those “wild goose”, “soldier of fortune” and dashing mercenaries, It flourished in the 1980-1990-ies in Latin America and Africa. Their companies are subject to the investment of the richest corporations and well integrated into the political and military establishment, and leadership positions in them are former high-ranking civil servants, retired generals and officers.
for example, at 1992 by itself, US Defense Secretary Dick Cheney ordered the company Brown and Root (today - Kellogg, Brown and Root) examine the situation with the use of private military contractors in conflict zones. And in 1995 Cheney headed by parent company Halliburton, and which led to a return to the civil service in 2000 year as the US vice-president.
Of the more than 450 Private Military Companies, working in the sector, a few well-known, basically the, who was involved in some scandals. So, ЧВК Academy (USA, former Blackwater) became widely known after the incident in the Iraqi city of Fallujah in April 2003 of the year, when its employees come into opposition with the local population. As a result of clashes four employees of the company were captured by extremists and brutally killed. In response, troops united coalition stormed the town, which led to numerous victims among the civilian population. Only in 2017 This year the company has received from the US government more 1 billion for the fulfillment of special tasks in Iraq. Note, It has a representative office in Tashkent.
The aforementioned Kellog, Brown and Root (USA), which is a subdivision of the former US Vice-President Dick Cheney, Halliburton, actively participated in the Yugoslav conflict as a logistics company and how the basic structure of training for local police. Also deals with the protection of oil fields and industrial sites in Iraq (contracts to 20 billion).
MPRI International (Military Professional Resources) Inc. (USA) It provides a wide range of integrated services for the US military and foreign governments over 40 countries. The company provides training and support program for employees of special units, program to stabilize conflict situations in different regions, service education and training on the management of the personnel of the state military structures, analytical support to special operations, etc.. d. Conducts safety programs in Afghanistan, Kuwait, Bosnia, Equatorial Guinea.
Besides the basic functions, MPRI International provides assistance to state bodies in developing strategies for the effective analysis of information, support for research and evaluation of public opinion. As well as programs to combat corruption, which includes the creation and operation of a special institute of Inspectors General in each ministry and agency to identify corruption in stable, and in unstable conditions. Besides, there is a significant presence of senior retirees. At the moment the company is managed by General K. Vuono, former Chief of Staff of the US Army expeditionary forces during operations in Panama and “Desert Storm” and General E. Soyster, former head of the DIA - Military Intelligence Department of Defense.
Group-EHC (France) established in 1999 by former officers of the French army. The first French military campaign, introduced in the United States. The company operates in regions with a high degree of risk, especially in the former French colonies and African countries. He has experience in Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Indonesia and even Poland.
And such PMCs in the US and Western Europe, tens and hundreds. But China was delayed a few with access to the international market for private military and security services. And the demand for them is enormous, especially in view of the growing representation of Chinese companies abroad. They inspire an initiative of the Silk Road and the protection of business problem abroad.
One of the most well-known of informal Chinese PMCs - Shandong Huawei Security Group - to 2010 It takes years to work abroad ex-military, employees of special units and police in China. The main markets for Shandong Huawei - is Iraq and Afghanistan, where Chinese companies specialize in oil production (eg, China National Petroleum Corporation), work with utilities and construction.
When the Chinese businessmen had to hire foreign private military (security) companies to ensure their safety, it had some disadvantages. With his Chinese guards, the company gets more guarantees in emergency situations. The more that a role in the protection of compatriots, in addition to financial benefits (Services Western PMCs in many times more expensive), play a particular culture, language and mentality: to escape a difficult situation, that sometimes was seen for the foreign guards, for the Chinese people will mean the loss of face and betrayal.
And in 2017 , Chinese PMC works not only in the most dangerous parts of the world, protecting its citizens in Pakistan, Iraq and Afghanistan, but also provided security services in African countries: Kenya, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Nigeria. is a consolidation of sectors of private military and security activities to enhance the security sector in China. From september 2014 in Hong Kong acts Chinese alliance of industrial safety (Chinese Security Industrial Alliance), which includes about 50 security companies from China. Learn from the American experience and helps the Chinese head of the very Academi Erik Prince, which officially organizes teaching for Chinese PMCs in order to increase the effectiveness of their work in Africa.
Active output of Chinese companies on the global market - this is just the process gathers pace, which currently can not completely close the security problem even Chinese citizens and businesses in unstable regions of the planet.
Progress in recent years in the field of private military protection does not allow to talk about any real competition western PMCs. But now the Chinese are not only adopt Western experience (in that they are masters), but also brings ever your. And as soon as an active strategic development in the presence of a political order can lead to the creation of one of the most combat-ready networks of private military campaigns, which can be used already for the protection of a wide range of national interests in any convenient sense China.
PMCs in Russia
While the developed Western countries actively using PMCs to solve geopolitical problems, and China is actively developing their, in Russian PMCs topic is just beginning to be discussed, but faces resistance. And not only at the state level, where he immediately began a debate on the issue of control over PMCs whether the FSB, whether the Ministry of Defense. Many experts either do not understand the value of PMC, or incorrectly interpreted the scope of their application. Generally, simple question, what PMCs, where and how they can be used, It appeared for many is not easy.
However, the global market of security services - this is the market, which has not yet completely formed and in which Russia has all opportunities to take its rightful place. Unique opportunity, one of the few, when the time is not wasted, and the market is not yet closed, so access to it is a strategic objective of the state.
In Russia, has about 20 private companies, providing military and security services, however, they are mainly engaged in the protection of the oil-producing facilities and neftegazoprovodyaschih.
There is no clear definition of their legal status and state support. It meets the understanding of the political elite of the state, and even Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said on the need to develop the law, protecting the rights of men of private military companies. noting, that the use of PMCs in the world is expanding, Lavrov spoke about the need to transfer the Russian activities “privateers” in the legal field.
The main market of the military-security industry is represented in Russia by former professional soldiers, reserve officers of the GRU and the FSB with the command and combat experience. All of the practical activity of the companies is based on compliance with the legislation of the Russian Federation and the laws of the countries, in which these companies operate. The Company does not naomnichestvom and consulting organizations of extremist and terrorist nature, coups, etc.. d. Tasks in the territory of the Russian Federation carried out by conventional private security companies, intelligence activities carried out by their special units, and to perform tasks outside of the country there are staff units of the reserve officers of various genera and species of troops.
At the same time, widely known not too long history of existence of PMCs “Slavic housing”. About 300 Russian citizens 2013 year signed a contract with the company, by the way, registered in Hong Kong, and went to Syria to protect oil fields. However, on the spot, they had to perform normal combat missions, and during one of the battles with terrorists, six Russian citizens were injured. Leaders of the PMC (later reformed into the PMC Wagner) AT. Guseva and E. Sidorova on his return to Russia condemned by Article “naёmnichestvo” for three years. This high-profile case has raised a new wave of discussion of legalization of PMCs in Russia.
We can not say, that the problem of the Russian government and lawmakers were not engaged. And the preparation of documents peaked in 2015 year. We were serious discussions in many state institutions, the mass of documents has been prepared, justifications, developed by experts. But the result is no. But if we talk about the informal side, all ideas and recommendations, which were announced in 2015 year, as Russia's entry abroad in the relevant relationship is very well implemented in practice.
We have to state, that today in the world market of private military services Russia practically is not present. Yes, there is a certain niche - to ensure the safety of navigation. But it is only one or two companies, albeit with a high reputation. There is the presence of our compatriots, but under foreign flags, PMCs have, registered in other countries - Malta, Cyprus.
Yes, The State Duma adopted a law very quickly on short-term military contracts, Whereby “expressed a desire to enter military service under the contract” It will be entitled to participate “in solving problems during the emergency or in activities to maintain or restore peace and security or to combat international terrorist activities outside of Russia, as well as in campaigns ships”. T. it is. the law makes it possible to contract personnel “to go on a business trip”, not bound by the logic of military service personnel, and provides the legal basis for “classical” work, including for the protection of ships against piracy.
Adopted in early October 2017 the year President Vladimir Putin decree “On Amendments to the Regulations on the order of military service” allowed foreign troops to take part in Russian military operations abroad, It prompting experts to speak even about the actual legalization of PMCs.
Based on the current situation, It must be concluded, that PMC - is a modern growing business, that thrives in the leading countries of the world; they should and can only be used outside the country of origin. Based on the military, political and economic goals of their state, PMC should and can only act in two directions: international market of security services and military contracts.
Russian PMCs can and should take a leading position in the billion-protection market, which will provide cash flow to the economy, workplaces, welfare specialists. But for effective activity of the Russian PMCs need to legalize their activities. And the law of PMCs should clearly regulate the rights and obligations of PMCs, how to create them and the elimination of, responsibility and accountability. It is necessary to create a competitive environment among Russian PMCs and to provide them this particular promotion, but promising sector of the world market.
a source: chvk.info