I. Fiz.svoystva fumes
Smoke-generating substances and mixtures used for the production of smoke screens, are used to:
– hide military installations and activities of units of the visual observation, shield them from the impact of fire and bombing enemy;
– counteraction to technical reconnaissance means (photographically, TV, laser, night vision and optical-visual) ;
– reducing the effectiveness of high-precision weapons with laser to TV systems, including ground and helicopter anti-tank systems, homing artillery shells and mines, aircraft with guided bombs and missiles “air-ground”;
– weakening of the harmful effect of the laser radiation and light radiation of nuclear explosions.
Main optical masking phenomena in the smoke, conditional on his ability obscuring, reduced to the scattering of light, light absorption and reflection of light from “boundaries” smoke cloud with a clean atmosphere.
light scattering, ie. beam deviation, passing through the smoke and fog, from its original direction and spreading them in different directions, It is due to various phenomena, originating from the light beam at the boundary of the smoke particles and air: the phenomenon of reflection, refraction, diffraction, etc..
Refraction and reflection of light at the smoke particles occurs, if smoke particles sizes greater than the wavelength of the transmitted light.
If the wavelength of light is approximately equal to the size of smoke particles, then there is a light diffraction, consisting in, Light rays that encircle the smoke particles and then diverge in different directions.
diffraction world – the main event, leading to scattering of light fumes and toucans.
If the size of smoke particles smaller than the wavelength of light, the radiant energy is absorbed by the atoms and molecules of smoke particles.
absorption of light, ie. converting it into thermal or chemical energy, It comes in a variety of different clouds of smoke. Here, except for the particle size, a very significant role played by the chemical composition of smoke particles.
White smoke cloud suggests, that the main process, leading to a weakening of sight in a white cloud, this – light scattering. In black fumes dominates light absorption.
Part of the scattered light in the layers, lying about the cloud with a clean atmosphere, coming out of the clouds in a clean atmosphere and makes a smokescreen in the luminous space, greatly reduces the difference in brightness between the subject and the background.
If as a result of all these processes, the difference becomes so small, that the eye is no longer her udavlivat, the object becomes invisible.
2. The composition and properties
As the smoke-forming (aehrozoleobrazujushchih) formulations applied pyrotechnic compositions (metallohloridnye and anthracene), phosphorus and liquid mixture.
Anthracene anthracene mixture composed of (S14N10) ammonium chloride and potassium chlorate.
In the combustion part anthracene anthracene mixture burns due to oxygen potassium chlorate, this generates considerable heat. The rest of the anthracene sublimated (sublimates), and after the condensation in the cold air turns into smoke. Ammonium chloride at high temperatures, formed during combustion of anthracene, decomposes into ammonia and hydrogen chloride (thermal dissociation). The cold air, both these substances are joined again to form ammonium chloride "aerosol forming stable. In this way, ammonium chloride, along with anthracene, It is also a smoke generator. Besides, ammonium chloride prevents ignition of the mixture.
The temperature of this type of combustion dymosmesi – 350-400°.
Anthracene mixtures with different component ratios depending on the application, are loaded with hand-held smoke grenades RDG-2h with a mixture of anthracene black smoke, RDG-2b – white smoke (mixture of black smoke consists only of anthracene and potassium chlorate); smoke bombs EBM-II, HR-B (saber dыmovaya blochnaya), BDŞ-5, BDŞ-15 (large smoke bombs).
Metallohdoridnye mixture composed of alumina powder, iron Oxide (ferric oxide), hexachloroethane S2Cl6. When burning metallohloridnoy mixture by sunk, developing temperature of about 1000 °, geksahdoretanom reactions occur between the oxide and iron oxide, between hexachloroethane and aluminum;
FеО•Fе2О3(Fe304) + S2Sl6 = FeSl3 + CO2 + WITH + SOSl2 + FROM + Q
2Al + S2Sl6 = 2AlSl3 + 2FROM + Q
The resulting ferric chloride and aluminum sublimated at a temperature Combustion dymosmesi (300-1000°). Sublimed vapors of chlorides are condensed in the cold air after exiting the checkers (grenades), forming a spray. Since ferric chloride and aluminum chloride is very hygroscopic, in the air, they react with atmospheric moisture to form hydrates, that, pulling moisture, form fog droplets. in addition to the smoke point of the role of aluminum is still in the, it greatly increases the combustion temperature dymosmesi, tk. wherein possibly the reaction between iron oxide and aluminum oxide powder so, as it occurs during burning thermite mixture. The peculiarity of combustion mixtures is metallohloridnyh, that while a substantial amount of phosgene, which can cause people defeat, located in the smoke without masks.
Metallohloridnymi mixes are loaded with hand-held smoke grenades RDG-II, RDG-2h, smoke bombs DMAC-5, UDŞ (unifitsirovannaya dыmovaya saber).
White phosphorus is one of the best dymoobraaovateley by its opacity, by quantity of smoke produced per unit weight of the smoke generator. Phosphorus ignites spontaneously in air and burns to form a dense smoke, consisting of phosphoric anhydride, avidly air attracting moisture to form droplets of phosphoric acid:
4R + 502 = 2R2O5
R2O5 + ZN2O = 2H3PO4
White phosphorus is extremely toxic and dangerous in the fire relation, so it is used for filling the smoke of artillery shells, mines and bombs, used for the production of blinding smoke screens in the location of enemy troops.
The liquid smoke mixtures include a mixture of smoke №1, which consists of coke and distillate diesel oil. It can be used at temperatures down to minus 40 ° C. Besides, dymoobraeovatelya as diesel oil or diesel fuel may be used. Smoke mixture №1, go diesel oil used in diesel-M machines TDA., TDA-2M,TMS-65 and in the generator AGW.
The thermal flue equipment tanks, infantry fighting vehicles and other machines using diesel.
3. Classification of the flue means
Smoke are classified as follows::
1. Hand smoke grenades: RDG-2b, RDH-2h, RDG-2h. RDG-P
2. Smoke bombs:
a) small: DM-II, DMC-5, HR-MM;
b) unifitsirovannaya dыmovaya saber (UDŞ);
at) blochnaya dыmovaya saber (HR-B);
g) big: BDŞ-5, BDŞ-15
3. Incendiary smoke cartridge (CS)
4. Artillery smoke shells and mines
5. Aircraft smoke bombs
6. Unified system smoke grenade launch (system 902)
7. Thermal smoke equipment on armored vehicles
8. An aerosol generator portable (AGP)
9. smoke machines (TDA-M, TDA-2M, TMS-65)
Hand smoke grenades are designed for the production of short-term smoke screens melee single soldiers and small units; in contact with an opponent can be used for its glare; Besides, grenades, black smoke can be used to simulate fires in military facilities and military equipment.
Hand smoke grenades are four samples:
RDG-P. RDG-2h. RDH-2h. RDG-26.
Small smoke bombs
(DM-11, DMC-5, HR-MM) intended for the production of short-term masking smoke screens in the near fight in order to hide the fighting units of observation, shield them from the land of the enemy aimed fire; can be used for pa extension line led in transition, maneuver, evacuation of the injured and damaged art battlefield.
In Soviet Army consist small smoke bombs EBM-II (with a mixture of anthracene), DMC-5 (with a mixture of metallohloridnoy).
Small smoke grenades are cylindrical housings made of sheet, filled with smoke. a mixture of one kind or another. Drafts DM-11 have removable covers and the orifice for smoke.
Drafts DMAC-5 are simplified structure: no cover, to bring the pieces into action necessary to pierce a hole in the bottom of checkers, insert a fuse in one of the pierced holes and lead checker in action, carrying a float on the head sang.
Unifitsirovannaya dыmovaya saber (UDŞ) intended for the production of smoke screens masking the purpose of a cover of small military facilities and units of aimed fire, hiding them from the air and ground reconnaissance of the enemy; can be used with the type of helicopter minoraskladchikov BMP-1, on the borders of the flue and remote-controlled fields.
UDSH made, in the body, the dimensions of which correspond to the body anti-tank mine TM-62
In the central part checkers arranged igniter composition and an igniting device, providing ignition bombs by hand and the blow, under the action of the pressing mechanism, or when an electrical pulse from an external current source. During combustion checkers personnel should not be closer 25 m.
Large smoke bombs (BDŞ-5, BDŞ-15) intended for the production of large masking smokescreen for the purpose of covering various objects, especially crossings "on the impact of fire and bombing, hiding them from the air and ground reconnaissance of the enemy; It can be used afloat, on the borders of the flue and remote-controlled fields.
Most smoke bomb is a cylinder of sheet steel, on the lateral surface of which has a circular opening for smoke, closed valve. Inside the cylinder is placed a perforated cylinder, filled with smoke and a mixture of. The axis of the housing and the cylinder are not the same.
Due to the eccentric arrangement of the internal (perforated) a cylinder block can float on the water outlet aperture for smoke up. Bringing the pieces into action can be performed or using a squib go via the percussion ignitor.