According to Chechen rebels, RPG-7 and its makeshift modifications have become the main means of destruction personnel of Russian troops. Remarkable part of the assault groups of separatists and their weapons, where on 5 A man comes two RPG-7 and optionally one RPG-22 and RPG-18 per person.
Attack of our strong points have always started a massive blow with the use of a large amount of RPGs and RPO "Bumblebee". About the effectiveness of this tactic and said analysis of our casualties in Afghanistan. When the total number of dead 13700 people directly casualties from small arms fire was approximately 35%, and by gunshot shrapnel injuries - 40% (mainly the result of grenade og nya).
About the low efficiency of the fire of small arms in this fight shows and my personal experience. As deputy commander of the reconnaissance airborne company in Afghanistan, I participated in the WANA de one of insurgents nomination routes. 16 Martha 1987 g. a group of militants were destroyed from 9 person. for them the fire was, it would seem, in ideal conditions - from top to bottom at an angle of 25-30 degrees with the distance of 50-60 m-tion.
Moonlight night, availability of night vision devices and achieved thanks to surprise the enemy is extremely weak opposition. Despite this, each of the scouts spent at least 2-3 ammo stores, that is about 900 rounds per group, which accounted for 100 ammunition units killed Mujahid. Fight were well-trained soldiers, fought at least one year, group included 4 a well-trained officer.
I understand only the, who himself has ever been in the thick of the battle. You can perform brilliantly all up-razhneniya target practice on the plywood targets, much more difficult to conduct aimed fire on the actual armed enemy, overcoming a psychological stress.
It seems strange, but the consumption of small arms ammunition - 100 units per killed opponent – for any war becomes hardly probable not ideal. for example, in the First World War on the Eastern Front hedgehog-monthly demand of the Russian army in the cartridges was 250 million. pcs. In this way, per person killed or died of wounds enemy (about 800 thousand. human) It was released more 12 thousand. bullets. In view of the artillery fire, provide half of all the enemy's losses, consumption of small arms ammunition per ubi-that soldier was almost 25 thousand. rounds.
In this situation, every successful shot is called a sniper, regardless of, from what distance it is produced. The author of this, who spent nearly three years in various wars, with this sniper fire (distance more 600 m) I not personally had a chance encounter. All defeat small arms fire as we have, and we "was applied dagger fire, ie from 100-150 m. And if we consider for weapons, the most effective fire pistol was conducted only at close range and then within 3-5 meters, a machine gun - to 200 m, SVD and to pulemeta- 300 m. About it, by the way, and says the US experience in Vietnam.
In no case do not think, I deny the value of a sniper in combat. in front of, good shot, took out the enemy, I have always been considered a sign of high professionalism. In September 1985 g. near Dohanay Hory, west of Pul-i-Khumri, only two Mujahideen, successfully by firing position, afternoon held two battalions of the 149th Regiment, while our soldiers at the hands of not dragged up the mountain BMP-2 and its fire automatic guns are not smeared shooters on the rocks.
Error of our military theorists is, sniper, as a military specialty, considered in conjunction entire fire training mechanized infantry units. Typically, the platoon commander puts into the hands of rookie first got his hands on a weapon, writes the number in his military ID, and from that day Bedo-lag, received sniper rifle, It called sniper.
In most armies of the world prepare snipers in special training centers from three to six months. Selection is made on a competitive basis, 20-30 candidates remains one, but the best.
essentially, our units snipers do not get. The experience of recent local wars with the Soviet, and then the Russian Army shows, that all attempts to revive the sniper movement without enough serious professional attitude to the selection and training destined to the pro-shaft.
Major structural changes in demand and all the sights, existing in our small arms. If the day they allow for the successful guidance of weapons at a target, in the twilight and at night fire effectiveness is reduced to zero. Numerous fires and the use of flares, min, shells, bringing missiles, failure sights of night doing, preclude their effective application. Yield is seen in applying a mechanical bypass sight with tritium inserts, that allows you to shoot with great precision, when out of the darkness plain sight it is not already visible.
Today, our politicians are unlikely to achieve Chechenisation, tatarizatsii dagestanizatsii or a local war and rake up the fire strangers' hands, as it was in Afghanistan after 1985. The whole burden of the war, we have to put on their shoulders, and to reduce the inevitable losses, due to bad OCU-magnetizations, understaffing and lack of personnel weapons, increase the number of portable heavy weaponry in the divisions. Professionals prefer armament with a stylish-trajectory fire and has a greater range direct fire. At equal weight krupnokali Bern gun "Utes" (12,7 mm) It has indisputable advantages over the AGS-17. It will allow you to get on the two-kilometer-range enemy everywhere, wherever he was hiding, whether brickwork, armor BTR, thick bushes or a helicopter.
Much can be said about the advantages or disadvantages of mortar fire. The main problem is the level of training and the possibility of adjusting the gunner fire. Then calculate the weight of the mortar, baseplate, 2-3 tens min, and you get an additional 120-150 kg load platoon. think carefully, Do you cope with such a burden. Can, easier to carry a good artkorrektirovschika and establish a stable relationship with a supporting artillery you. Mortar is good as a partisan weapon for stealth firing on government forces, sitting at checkpoints, outposts or in places open cluster at a distance of 2 to 4 km.
Our troops often had to conduct combat operations over short distances with the enemy, located in the shelter. On other conditions guerrillas, usually, in battle do not come and try to avoid it at all costs. At the same time negated our advantage in military equipment and its arms. It was 1 May 1986 g. in Panjshir, 31 December 1994 g. in Grozny, in March 1996 g. in Yarysh-Mardy.
Equalize the chances of the parties in this battle can be achieved by rapid dismounting infantry organization and fire countermeasures of those weapons, that will provide suppression of enemy in hiding. The ideal would be to consider the use of artillery for direct fire. In April 1987 g. commanding 201st MSD Col. Shekhovtsov when storming fortified in southern Baghlan reinforced battalion storming two batteries 152 mm sa-mohodnyh guns "Acacia", leading them to direct fire. Breaks high-explosive shells to break through the walls of these holes, which took place in tanks and BMP easily, crushed any enemy fire resistance and ensure the successful execution of the task. But the battle distance between lines of defense mojaheds was 700-900 m and allowed not to consume the self-propelled grenade fire-telnomu. Unfortunately, today against our nickname is not so stupid, to allow the trash in a similar way.
Where is the exit ? Based on its experience, I would advise all commanders and chiefs, We are preparing for war with the guerrillas, At first, to minimize large-scale operations using large-if-operation personnel. The most promising acts small, 3-4 people, Scouting-ing groups, equipped with a compact and reliable means of survey and communication, having in its amounted Island artillery spotter or air controllers, acting in cooperation with the units of artillery or aviation. Their task - to find the enemy and, avoiding contact with the fire it, ensure the most effective engagement of artillery and aviation.
Secondly, it is necessary to change the staffing structure of motorized infantry platoon, entering her office in grenade, RPG-7 armed. bringing, thus the number of grenade launchers platoon to six, we increase the firepower of the unit almost to the level of the battery is 82-mm anti-tank guns. Why did the RPG-7, instead of RPO "Bumblebee" or the GP-25?
The thing is, what, having comparable characteristics, RPO has a significant drawback - single use, The fire and contact is very difficult to hit the target with the first shot. Usually, destruction of targets at point-blank range is made with two shots - and then sighting, adjusted, to defeat.
In such circumstances, the destruction of the target RPO requires 22 kg portable weapons, and the defeat of the RPG – 5 kg (weight of the two SG-7B). Add to this a distinct advantage optical sight PGO-7 over the iron sight to the RPO and the significant price difference of shots fired: PG-7V - 25 dollars, RPO - about 100 dollars. We obtain significant financial savings, which is also important for Russia today.
Efficiency defeat lightly armored targets fire RPG-7, our military theorists regard as 0,3. It means, that we must make in the fight for the destruction of armored personnel carriers BMP-grenade 3 shot. shelter, used separatists, usually, comparable in security with armored vehicles, equipped with bulletproof armor, and the expenditure of ammunition in their defeat can be compared. Availability 6 rocket-propelled grenades in on-the division with ammunition in 6 Shots RPG can reliably suppress 12 goals, that corresponds to the task mo-tostrelkovogo platoon in offensive combat.
Chechen separatists empirically reached understanding, that in urban combat (their favorite type of fight) to achieve any significant success can only be a concentration of anti-tank weapons to suppress any purpose. Furthermore, they went on, hand in improving the grenade-tion of shots for different goals. Poured into the anti-tank grenades petrol, primatyvayut to the head of a pair of grenades chetyrehsotgrammovyh TNT blocks. It is difficult to judge the effectiveness of such innovations. Hit the target on this landmine, than 50 m, problematically, but the psychological effect of its use on the positions of government troops, undoubtedly, tall. We have many years there is talk of the need to adopt futasiuyu fragmentation or incendiary grenade for the RPG. But here we began to nod, with the Geneva Conventions, impose restrictions in 400 g high-explosive munitions, used in the firing of wearable weapons and restricting the use of incendiary weapons. true, These restrictions do not apply to ammunition, intended for the combined effects of. for example, sort of, as the cumulative antitank grenade with the inner serration on the metal shell of the warhead or signal-lighting garnet napalm or thermite content.
Speaking of combat use grenade launchers and rifle grenades, it should be noted their main drawback - the complexity of conduct aimed fire, and low power contained explosives. All, who faces Xia to combat use of weapons, know, that effectively hit the enemy VOG-25 fire, GP-23 rifle grenades, or can be, only hitting her opponent's forehead, and with the proviso that, he was without a helmet. When the mass of 320-350 g of the grenades, if you believe the characteristics, given by 200 to 800 fragments from the blast radius of not less than 10 m. Unfortunately, Shard weighing 0.5-1.5 g is unlikely to cause serious damage to the enemy infantry. Usually, This weapon is used to conduct addressless harassing fire.
Each battle is like another, and survive, beating it, It can only be based on combat experience. Despite all its horror and absurdity, War in Chechnya, in Afghanistan, Transnistria gave Russian people, knowledgeable and able to fight a war. This experience is invaluable. It can not be purchased at our military schools and academies, so, If you are unable to get additional heavy small arms, tips for night shooting, good artkorrektirovschika, and professional competence of your boss calls Crumple-tion to the success of the forthcoming operation - try to get in my unit at least one of the veterans of recent wars. And let his experience will help you survive and win