One of the oldest PMCs will light up even in Vietnam, trained army of Saudi Arabia and having a serious bow with the US secret services (The CIA in particular). AT 2002 absorbed by Northrop Grumman Corporation (USA).
The history of the oldest of the modern private military companies Vinnell Corporation began in a purely civil contract construction sector. And thanks to the hard work and business sense founding in the early years the company has developed so rapidly, that would fit perfectly in the role of an example of the feasibility “Great American Dream”.
AT 1931 , Alan Vinnell, the driver of the Los Angeles suburb of Alhambra, He lost his job: The Great Depression, along with hundreds of other companies ravaged Southern California and employer. While head of the family knocked at doors in search of work, Inflation devoured the remnants Vinnellov savings. In desperation, they decided to go for broke: for one hundred and fifty dollars at auction, where it was realized assets of bankrupt firms, battered truck was bought. And the remains of the money was spent on the design of Vinnell Constructors of Alhambra, whereby Vinnellam did not have to pay taxes on the transaction.
The first few years of business Vinnell exhausted by, that the father and his sons gathered in the Hollywood hills, large granite fragments, They were taken by truck to the city and sold few surviving construction companies. Revenue was barely enough gasoline and meager food, but only three years later Vinnell turnovers were calculated in millions of dollars.
AT 1933 , Franklin Delano Roosevelt, occupying the White House, launched anti-crisis mechanisms “new Deal”. One of the first package of reforms was signed, against unemployment. The President established a special commission, which was instructed to create in a short time 4, 5 million jobs in the public works sector. To this end, the head “American labor army” Harry L. Hopkins received from Treasury $10, 8 billion, due to which the construction work to be deployed across the country. Unemployed people were involved in the laying of highways, digging canals, social infrastructure construction.
At Southern California from “Program raking leaves”, as the project was called Roosevelt and Hopkins opponents, fell more $1 billion. This money is intended to create a network of highways and subsidies to companies to resist the crisis, who agreed to employ the unemployed. Vinnelly hit the list of contractors for the construction of federal highways, and then the Grand Coulee dam. At the expense of the Treasury grants the company hired more 200 working.
AT 1936 year Vinnell Constructors of Alhambra received the first private in a row, wherein at once $23 million. Head of Major League Baseball (MBL) Walter O'Malley instructed her to Los Angeles Dodgers in the construction of the stadium 65 000 viewers, which was to become the largest sports facility west coast. hard to imagine, what guided the famous baseball player-entrepreneur, Charging such a complex work of a young company, swollen on federal subsidies. maybe, the decisive factor was that, that Vinnelly invited for the post of vice-president of his company's deputy chairman MBL Jack Yount. The move inspired confidence O'Malley, he from his New York office will be able to by proxy in Vinnell manual control over their investments in Southern California. His bitterly disappointed: contractor “I have not pulled” project, money scattered, and eventually build L.A. Dodgers was delayed until 1961 of the year.
Last “peaceful” Vinnellom project was implemented in the mid-1940s. His company Minerals Materials acquired Dantonsky Canyon – the largest limestone mine west coast. Nearby cement plant construction began, of which reached a railway line to Los Angeles. Attachments MM reached Dunton $50 million, and some of them were “discarded” from the budgets of contract construction. Vinnell went broke again, seeing ahead of fairy-term: monopolizing the local cement market, take by the throat all the construction firms of Southern California. However, 1949 Danton was with unfinished infrastructure was sold to Pfizer Resource Unit. Vinnell Constructors scored tenders, and work on the current contracting hastily distributed among subcontractors. A small company suddenly disappeared, and the only office in the Alhambra continued to live some kind of ghostly life.
The situation with the mysterious disappearance in the late 1940s, a promising California companies 40 years later, has made it clear in his memoirs, a veteran of the American special services Uilbur Crane Ivlend. During the Second World War he served in the case of Army counterintelligence Pacific front, along with the eldest son of the founder of Vinnell Constructors Albert. After the defeat of Germany, Italy and Japan, their paths diverged briefly: Vinnell returned to the family business, Ivlend and joined the Office of Strategic Services – reconnaissance and sabotage the structure of the US State Department, which 1947 It was transformed into the Central Intelligence Agency.
Ivlend entered into “Chinese” group, which at that time fought on loyal US protection regime challenge the leader Chan Kayshi.Protiv he acted Communist opposition, combat troops which the Soviet Union generously supplied the weapons through a common border. Support the KMT States was not easy: after the war, the presence of employees of US law enforcement agencies in China was declared illegal, and the appearance off the coast of American military vehicles with weapons to protect friendly mode instantly triggered to enter the country of Soviet troops.
At this point, former fellow soldiers, counterintelligence met and agreed on mutually beneficial cooperation of the company with the US State Department. Vinnellu, who complained to his father, caught in a financial scam, and requested that federal subsidies, It was asked to provide a family company as a cover for the CIA in China. Vinnell was to create maritime fleet and obtain favorable contracts for the supply of arms to the Kuomintang. If successful, it also guaranteed the concession and subsidies from the Chinese government. CIA agents were enlisted in the staff of the company, thus able to operate in China as independent businessmen. Uilbur Ivlend on long corporate tradition has been appointed Vice President Vinnell and as such in charge of all military deals.
The company 1950 – 1960-ies are so integrated with special services, that almost lost its nature of business. The owners removed from the leadership and, counting profit, not always know, with some top-secret projects they “dripped surplus value”.
This period of history Vinnell known only general facts: during the Korean War through the accounts of the company were paid for the services of mercenaries to support the Southern Army. Vinnell received contracts for the construction of airfields and military bases in Japan, Thailand, Pakistan, Vietnam and Taiwan. In 1950 she also received the concession for oil drilling in Iran and Libya, and at the expense of oil revenues directed political processes in these countries.
In fact, the company has evolved into a pocket structure Uilbura Ivlenda, which provided the legend of his agents and neutral cover for operations in countries “third world”. this efficient “security and capital alliance” provided Ivlendu fantastic career took off: at 1953 he became the personal troubleshooter'oM (“man, crucial issues”) at CRU directors Alan Dalles.
The collapse of the colonial system in Africa and Asia, which took place in the 1960s,, first formed a strong demand for the services of private military companies, who helped local leaders, which we were interested Europeans, create effective modern army. AT 1967 was the first such private military company was established in the UK: Air Force special forces SAS Colonel Sir David Stirling founded WatchGuard International. The company hired a retired British military, that contract coached Kenya Army, Zambia, Tanzania and Malawi, We plan and conduct special operations against the mercenary armies of the opposition.
Vinnell during this period led the most active in Vietnam: at the end of the 1960s, we worked here more 5000 its employees. In 1970, the company found itself suddenly in the midst of a public scandal. In an interview with the newspaper Village Voice senior rank of the Ministry of Defense slip, that civil servants company “It was our small mercenary army, we used it, where it was impossible to use the real soldiers”. The country rumors, Vinnell that Vietnam not only builds military bases and airfields, but also forms of mercenary squad, that “cleaned” territory and kill civilians, Viet Cong sympathizers. Problem “military outsourcing” even became the subject of a special session of Congress.
It is not excluded, that leaked information about Vinnell was aimed directly against Ivlenda: its position in the intelligence services deteriorated, and a few years later during a business trip to Singapore, he was arrested by local police on charges of espionage. The CIA has ignored this fact, and following 20 years of his life he spent in prison Asian. Deprived of his patronage, Vinnell was on the verge of bankruptcy – It began the withdrawal of US troops from Vietnam, where they were concentrated the main assets of the company. FROM 1970 by 1975 Vinnell year restructuring process took, after which it was sold for $500 000 Lebanese businessman Hassan Shaker.
A few months later “write off” the company unexpectedly signed with the royal family of Saudi Arabia 77 $ million contract to train the National Guard of Saudi Arabia (SANG). There maturely discontent monarchical dictatorship, which by that time had spread to the army. The Saudi monarchy, which in the XIX century – the beginning of XX century conquered most of the Arabian Peninsula, thanks to an alliance with Bedouin tribes, We have now decided to create one myself loyal and far more effective, than the army, armed force. Ghassan Shaker bought a brand, familiar in the Middle East, and among Vietnam veterans, that he was going to bring in as trainers and military trainers. In Fairfax (Virginia) a new office was opened, led by disabled Vietcong retired Colonel James D. Holland, that is hired in the first months about 1000 military trainers to Saudi Arabia.
journalists, osazhdavshie office in Ferfakse, Holland threw issues like: “What do you think, Is Pentagon approval means the contract Vinnell legalization of mercenary activities in the US?” What a retired colonel in charge: “We are not going there as mercenaries, as well as the staff. Our people will not click on triggers, they will learn to shoot other”. However, in the second half of 1970 the political situation in Saudi Arabia so tense, Vinnell that instructors do not just have to cross the line, otdelyavshuyu “the teacher” from soldier. AT 1979 by opposition forces captured the Grand Mosque in Mecca and vowed to hold it until, until the royal family did not renounce power. Bedouin soldiers of the SANG did not manage to smoke the rebels. Then in Mecca “for operational management” left several hundred instructors Vinnell, are rapidly, in one day, released mosque.
After the liberation of the Great Mosque of its military training programs have become in demand in other countries of the Middle East region. Besides, Vinnell again began to work in the civil sector: her coach trained specialists for construction, transport and agricultural companies, as well as for the civil service. When in 1986 in connection with the scandal
Iran-Contra affair began investigation of illegal security structures of the United States, found, Vinnell that actively participates in it. Several of its employees, involved in illegal arms and drug trades, They were prosecuted.
The first Iraq war has produced a boom in the market for private military companies: Only in the United States during this period was created about 50 companies, that supply of coalition forces, hired civilian personnel for the army and to ensure the protection of oil facilities and transport infrastructure in the war-torn region. New companies are usually based retired ranks of the Pentagon, with the aim in most cases are not secured “civilian cover” covert operations, but only part of the privatization of defense, expenditure. A typical new private military company is the Military Professional Resources Incorporated, all 14 whose members of the board were the generals and admirals of the US Defense Department. After the war in Iraq, MPRI was recommended by the US Department of State to the authorities of Croatia as a contractor for the development of defense doctrine and the creation of national armed forces.
Vinnell in the 1990s, it has become one of the largest defense contractors, the Pentagon. According to the aggregate value of military contracts, signed between 1991 by 2003 year, it ranks second ($42, 4 billion), second only to General Electric. This is mainly contracts for the supply of US military bases overseas and military logistics. The latter is widely known project Vinnell Corporation – Streak Pentagon on creating and training the new Iraqi army worth $48 million.
Out of the screen
Vinnell commercial success in the 1990s, associated with the, the company got into the sphere of interests of the family Bush. AT 1992 Vinnell year was bought by defense company BDM International, which, in its turn, owned investment fund Carlyle Group. Both structures headed by the former chairman of the Security Council, Frank Carlucci, and George HW Bush after the presidential term entered the office of Carlyle broker. About Carlyle famous American journalist Michael Lewis wrote, what “a group of people, standing very close to the levers of power, which in general have nothing to sell, except this proximity”. Besides, Carlyle was regarded as the main channel for financial cooperation with the US State Department influential families of the Arab East. after the terrorist attacks 11 September, when US intelligence agencies rushed to seek financing channels “Al-Qaeda”, found, that the Osama bin Laden in the 1990s was one of the Carlyle investors.
AT 1995 within this year “exclusive club of US-Arab friendship” disagreement, which targeted the Saudi division Vinnell. thriller “Al-Qaeda” by car, laden 200 kilograms of explosives, blew quarter Riyadh, where military instructors have lived. The terrorist attack was to symbolize the revival of the radical Islamic opposition to the Saudi monarchy, which was almost completely eliminated in Vinnell instructors 1979 year. The second explosion thundered in the quarter Vinnell in May last year.
curious, that the response to the attack Carlyle Guide 1995 year were hastily trying to get rid of Vinnell. Eighteen months later, the company was sold to a developer of high-tech security systems TRW, and 2002 It was absorbed by the giant defense industry, Northrop Grumman. Currently Vinnell is a leader of the so-called mission Northrop Grumman Systems (is an international complex, subsidiaries of companies, employment security). In fact Vinnell transition under wide wing Northrop Grumman can be seen as the culmination of the long history of our company as a cover for CIA operations, or pocket of the Department of State officials.
a source: http://www.logistics.ru/9/13/i20_1391.htm